#### DMCA

## Off-line signature verification and identification using distance statistics (2003)

Venue: | International Journal of Pattern Recognition and Artificial Intelligence |

Citations: | 43 - 3 self |

### Citations

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Citation Context ...s to classify a new instance. This used the similarity metric described below.s1348 M. K. Kalera, S. Srihari & A. Xu where A binary vector Z with N dimensions is defined as: Z = (z1, z2 , . . . , zN) =-=(5)-=- zi ∈ {0, 1}, ∀ i ∈ {1, 2, . . . , N} . (6) Let Ω be the set of all N-dimensional binary vectors, then the unit binary vector I ∈ Ω, is a binary vector with every element equal to 1. The complement of... |

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(Show Context)
Citation Context ... Eq. (3). u 2 = 1 N v 2 = 1 N N� (u(i) − u) 2 , i=1 N� (v(i) − v) 2 . i=1 The orientation of the axis of least inertia was then given by the orientation of the least eigen vector of the matrix in Eq. =-=(4)-=-. � u2 uv I = uv v2 � . (4) Once this angle was obtained, all the points in the signature curve under consideration were rotated with this angle. Figure 3 shows the effect of rotation normalization on... |

30 | Off-line signature verification by the tracking of feature and stroke positions,”
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...Ω be the set of all N-dimensional binary vectors, then the unit binary vector I ∈ Ω, is a binary vector with every element equal to 1. The complement of a binary vector Z ∈ Ω is given by, Z = I − Z . =-=(7)-=- To measure the similarity between two binary images, we use the Correlation measure. 26 Let Sij(i, j ∈ {0, 1}) be the number of occurrences of matches with i in the first pattern and j in the second ... |

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(Show Context)
Citation Context ... pixel in the signature curve, v(i) = y-coordinate of the ith pixel in the signature curve. Next, we found the coordinates, u and v of the center of mass of the signature. u = 1 N� u(i) , N i=1 v = 1 =-=(2)-=- N� v(i) . N i=1 We then calculated the second order moments u 2 and v 2 of the signature by Eq. (3). u 2 = 1 N v 2 = 1 N N� (u(i) − u) 2 , i=1 N� (v(i) − v) 2 . i=1 The orientation of the axis of lea... |

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Off-Line Signature Verification with Generated Training Samples
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ..., each similarity measure S(X, Y ) above uses all or some of the four possible values, i.e. S00, S01, S10, S11. We define a similarity measure S(X, Y ) corresponding to the Correlation measure in Eq. =-=(8)-=-. where S(X, Y ) = s11s00 − s10s01 . (8) ((s10 + s11)(s01 + s00)(s11 + s01)(s00 + s10)) 1/2 S(X, Y ) = correlation similarity measure. s00 = the first binary vector has a 0 and the second vector too h... |

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(Show Context)
Citation Context ... similarity metric described below.s1348 M. K. Kalera, S. Srihari & A. Xu where A binary vector Z with N dimensions is defined as: Z = (z1, z2 , . . . , zN) (5) zi ∈ {0, 1}, ∀ i ∈ {1, 2, . . . , N} . =-=(6)-=- Let Ω be the set of all N-dimensional binary vectors, then the unit binary vector I ∈ Ω, is a binary vector with every element equal to 1. The complement of a binary vector Z ∈ Ω is given by, Z = I −... |

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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...was rotated until the axis of least inertia coincided with the horizontal axis. To achieve this the following procedure was followed. where We represented the given signature curve, C as shown in Eq. =-=(1)-=-. C = � X (i) = � u (i) v (i) � , i = 1, . . . , N � . (1) C = Signature curve, N = Number of pixels in the signature, X(i) = Vector consisting of x- and y-coordinates of the ith pixel in the signatur... |

9 |
Fukumura T., ‘Structural description and classification of signature images
- Ammar, Yoshida
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ... found the coordinates, u and v of the center of mass of the signature. u = 1 N� u(i) , N i=1 v = 1 (2) N� v(i) . N i=1 We then calculated the second order moments u 2 and v 2 of the signature by Eq. =-=(3)-=-. u 2 = 1 N v 2 = 1 N N� (u(i) − u) 2 , i=1 N� (v(i) − v) 2 . i=1 The orientation of the axis of least inertia was then given by the orientation of the least eigen vector of the matrix in Eq. (4). � u... |

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