#### DMCA

## Games with a Weak Adversary (2014)

### Cached

### Download Links

### Citations

2825 | Computational Complexity
- Papadimitriou
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...rd w, whether M accepts w. The membership problem is 2-EXPTIME-complete for exponential-space alternating Turing machines, and EXPSPACE-complete for exponential-space nondeterministic Turing machines =-=[19]-=-. An alternating Turing machine is a tuple M = 〈Q∨, Q∧, Σ, Γ,∆, q0, qacc, qrej〉 where the state space Q = Q∨ ∪Q∧ consists of the set Q∨ of or-states, and the set Q∧ of and-states. The input alphabet i... |

709 |
Supervisory control of a class of discrete event processes,
- Ramadge, Wonham
- 1987
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...xity results for partial-observation stochastic games. 1 Introduction Games on graphs. Games played on graphs are central in several important problems in computer science, such as reactive synthesis =-=[21, 22]-=-, verification of open systems [2], and many others. The game is played by several players on a finite-state graph, with a set of angelic (existential) players and a set of demonic (universal) players... |

620 | Alternating-time temporal logic.
- Alur, Henzinger, et al.
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...finished. This is enough to ensure a faithful simulation by player 1, and a faithful counting by player 2, because (1) partial observation allows to hide to a player the time when a check occurs, and =-=(2)-=- player 2 fixes his strategy after player 1 (and player 3 after player 2), thus they can decide to run a check exactly when player 1 (or player 2) is not faithful. This ensures that player 1 does not ... |

610 |
The Descriptive Set Theory of
- Becker, Kechris
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ..., ai, bi)(qi+1) > 0 for all i ≥ 0. Qualitative analysis Given an objective α that is Borel measurable (all Borel sets in the Cantor topology and all objectives considered in this paper are measurable =-=[15]-=-), a strategy σ1 for player 1 is almost-sure winning (resp., positive winning) for the objective α from q0 if for all observation-based strategies σ2 for player 2, we have Prσ1,σ2q0 (α) = 1 (resp., Pr... |

475 |
On the synthesis of a reactive module,
- Pnueli, Rosner
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...xity results for partial-observation stochastic games. 1 Introduction Games on graphs. Games played on graphs are central in several important problems in computer science, such as reactive synthesis =-=[21, 22]-=-, verification of open systems [2], and many others. The game is played by several players on a finite-state graph, with a set of angelic (existential) players and a set of demonic (universal) players... |

293 | Tree automata, mu-calculus and determinacy.
- Emerson, Jutla
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... run of A. The emptiness problem for alternating tree automata is to decide, given A and parameter k, whether Lk(A) = ∅. For details related to alternating tree automata and the emptiness problem see =-=[12, 20]-=-. Two-player partial-observation stochastic games Given alphabetAi of actions, and set Oi of observations (for player i ∈ {1, 2}), a two-player partial-observation stochastic game (for brevity, two-pl... |

237 | Languages, automata, and logic.
- THOMAS
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... languages to infinite strings, provides a robust specification language to express all commonly used specifications, and parity objectives are a canonical way to define such ω-regular specifications =-=[27]-=-. Thus games on graphs with parity objectives provide a general framework for analysis of reactive systems. ⋆ This research was partly supported by Austrian Science Fund (FWF) Grant No P23499- N23, FW... |

188 |
Borel determinacy.
- Martin
- 1975
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... (i.e., players have perfect or complete observation about the state of the game). In this setting, due to determinacy (or switching of the strategy quantifiers for existential and universal players) =-=[17]-=-, the questions expressed by an arbitrary alternation of quantifiers reduce to a single alternation, and thus are equivalent to solving two-player games (all the existential players against all the un... |

163 |
Theorie der Endlichen und Unendlichen Graphen (as cited in West,
- Konig
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...1 . . . si−1)) (where obs2(si) is naturally defined as the unique observation o2 ∈ O2 such that si ⊆ o2). From this path in the DAG, we construct an infinite path p0p1 . . . in G using König’s Lemma =-=[16]-=- as follows. First, it is easy to show by induction (on k) that for every finite prefix s0s1 . . . sk and for every pk ∈ sk there exists a path p0p1 . . . pk in G such that pi ∈ si for all 0 ≤ i ≤ k. ... |

113 |
The complexity of two-player games of incomplete information,
- Reif
- 1984
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...t the system state [12, 14]. Similarly, in a concurrent system the modules expose partial interfaces and have access to the public variables of the other processes, but not to their private variables =-=[25, 2]-=-. Such situations are better modeled in the more general framework of partial-observation games [24–26]. Partial-observation games. Since partial-observation games are not determined, unlike the perfe... |

111 |
Alternating automata on infinite trees.
- Muller, Schupp
- 1987
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... run of A. The emptiness problem for alternating tree automata is to decide, given A and parameter k, whether Lk(A) = ∅. For details related to alternating tree automata and the emptiness problem see =-=[12, 20]-=-. Two-player partial-observation stochastic games Given alphabetAi of actions, and set Oi of observations (for player i ∈ {1, 2}), a two-player partial-observation stochastic game (for brevity, two-pl... |

79 | Discrete-time control for rectangular hybrid automata. In
- Henzinger, Kopke
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ervation is often not realistic in practice. For example in the control of physical systems, digital sensors with finite precision provide partial information to the controller about the system state =-=[12, 14]-=-. Similarly, in a concurrent system the modules expose partial interfaces and have access to the public variables of the other processes, but not to their private variables [25, 2]. Such situations ar... |

56 | Simple stochastic parity games
- Chatterjee, Jurdziński, et al.
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...urnbased gadget consisting of two perfect-observation players, one angelic (existential) and one demonic (universal). The turn-based gadget is the same as used for perfectobservation stochastic games =-=[5, 11]-=-. In [10], only the special case of perfect observation for player 2 was considered, and hence the problem reduced to three-player games where only player 1 has partial observation and the other two p... |

52 |
Multiple-Person Alternation,
- Peterson, Reif
- 1979
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...or distributed synthesis [21, 13, 23]. The problem of deciding if the existential players can ensure a reachability (or a safety) objective is undecidable in general, even for two existential players =-=[20, 21]-=-. However, if the information of the existential players form a chain (i.e., existential player 1 more informed than existential player 2, existential player 2 more informed than existential player 3,... |

42 | On decision problems for probabilistic Büchi automata.
- Baier, Bertrand, et al.
- 2008
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...yer 2 Finite- or infinite-memory strategies Infinite-memory strategies Finite-memory strategies Perfect More informed Perfect More informed Perfect More informed Randomized EXP-c [9] EXP-c [4] Undec. =-=[3, 8]-=- Undec. [3, 8] EXP-c [10] 2EXP Pure EXP-c [7] 2EXP-c Undec. [3] Undec. [3] EXP-c [10] 2EXP-c Table 1. Complexity of qualitative analysis (almost-sure winning) for partial-observation stochastic games ... |

42 | Distributed controller synthesis for local specifications,” Automata, languages and programming
- Madhusudan, Thiagarajan
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ntial players form a chain (i.e., existential player 1 more informed than existential player 2, existential player 2 more informed than existential player 3, and so on), then the problem is decidable =-=[21, 16, 18]-=-. Games with a weak adversary. One aspect of multi-player games that has been largely ignored is the presence of weaker universal players that do not have perfect observation. However, it is natural i... |

38 | Universal games of incomplete information - REIF - 1979 |

34 | T.A.: A survey of stochastic ω-regular games.
- Chatterjee, Henzinger
- 2012
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...urnbased gadget consisting of two perfect-observation players, one angelic (existential) and one demonic (universal). The turn-based gadget is the same as used for perfectobservation stochastic games =-=[5, 11]-=-. In [10], only the special case of perfect observation for player 2 was considered, and hence the problem reduced to three-player games where only player 1 has partial observation and the other two p... |

34 |
Algorithms for omega-regular games of incomplete information
- Chatterjee, Doyen, et al.
- 2006
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...y Parity Player 1 Player 2 Finite- or infinite-memory strategies Infinite-memory strategies Finite-memory strategies Perfect More informed Perfect More informed Perfect More informed Randomized EXP-c =-=[9]-=- EXP-c [4] Undec. [3, 8] Undec. [3, 8] EXP-c [10] 2EXP Pure EXP-c [7] 2EXP-c Undec. [3] Undec. [3] EXP-c [10] 2EXP-c Table 1. Complexity of qualitative analysis (almost-sure winning) for partial-obser... |

29 | A lattice theory for solving games of imperfect information.
- Wulf, Doyen, et al.
- 2006
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ervation is often not realistic in practice. For example in the control of physical systems, digital sensors with finite precision provide partial information to the controller about the system state =-=[12, 14]-=-. Similarly, in a concurrent system the modules expose partial interfaces and have access to the public variables of the other processes, but not to their private variables [25, 2]. Such situations ar... |

29 | Distributed games.
- Mohalik, Walukiewicz
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ntial players form a chain (i.e., existential player 1 more informed than existential player 2, existential player 2 more informed than existential player 3, and so on), then the problem is decidable =-=[21, 16, 18]-=-. Games with a weak adversary. One aspect of multi-player games that has been largely ignored is the presence of weaker universal players that do not have perfect observation. However, it is natural i... |

27 | Qualitative determinacy and decidability of stochastic games with signals
- Bertrand, Genest, et al.
- 2009
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...layer 1 Player 2 Finite- or infinite-memory strategies Infinite-memory strategies Finite-memory strategies Perfect More informed Perfect More informed Perfect More informed Randomized EXP-c [9] EXP-c =-=[4]-=- Undec. [3, 8] Undec. [3, 8] EXP-c [10] 2EXP Pure EXP-c [7] 2EXP-c Undec. [3] Undec. [3] EXP-c [10] 2EXP-c Table 1. Complexity of qualitative analysis (almost-sure winning) for partial-observation sto... |

14 | Randomness for free
- Chatterjee, Doyen, et al.
- 2010
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...yer 2 Finite- or infinite-memory strategies Infinite-memory strategies Finite-memory strategies Perfect More informed Perfect More informed Perfect More informed Randomized EXP-c [9] EXP-c [4] Undec. =-=[3, 8]-=- Undec. [3, 8] EXP-c [10] 2EXP Pure EXP-c [7] 2EXP-c Undec. [3] Undec. [3] EXP-c [10] 2EXP-c Table 1. Complexity of qualitative analysis (almost-sure winning) for partial-observation stochastic games ... |

13 | The complexity of partial-observation parity games - Chatterjee, Doyen - 2010 |

12 | Partial-observation stochastic games: How to win when belief fails
- Chatterjee, Doyen
- 2012
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...nite-memory strategies Finite-memory strategies Perfect More informed Perfect More informed Perfect More informed Randomized EXP-c [9] EXP-c [4] Undec. [3, 8] Undec. [3, 8] EXP-c [10] 2EXP Pure EXP-c =-=[7]-=- 2EXP-c Undec. [3] Undec. [3] EXP-c [10] 2EXP-c Table 1. Complexity of qualitative analysis (almost-sure winning) for partial-observation stochastic games with partial observation for player 1 with re... |

11 | Coordination Logic
- FINKBEINER, SCHEWE
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...yer partial-observation games are studied in the following setting: a set of partial-observation existential players, against a perfect-observation universal player, such as for distributed synthesis =-=[21, 13, 23]-=-. The problem of deciding if the existential players can ensure a reachability (or a safety) objective is undecidable in general, even for two existential players [20, 21]. However, if the information... |

7 | A dynamic logic of multiprocessing with incomplete information - REIF, PETERSON - 1980 |

4 | The complexity of partial-observation stochastic parity games with finite-memory strategies
- Chatterjee, Doyen, et al.
- 2014
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...emory strategies Infinite-memory strategies Finite-memory strategies Perfect More informed Perfect More informed Perfect More informed Randomized EXP-c [9] EXP-c [4] Undec. [3, 8] Undec. [3, 8] EXP-c =-=[10]-=- 2EXP Pure EXP-c [7] 2EXP-c Undec. [3] Undec. [3] EXP-c [10] 2EXP-c Table 1. Complexity of qualitative analysis (almost-sure winning) for partial-observation stochastic games with partial observation ... |

3 |
A communication based model for games of imperfect information
- Ramanujam, Simon
- 2010
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...yer partial-observation games are studied in the following setting: a set of partial-observation existential players, against a perfect-observation universal player, such as for distributed synthesis =-=[21, 13, 23]-=-. The problem of deciding if the existential players can ensure a reachability (or a safety) objective is undecidable in general, even for two existential players [20, 21]. However, if the information... |