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## Challenges to Cross-Disciplinary Curricula: Data Literacy and Divergent Disciplinary Perspectives

### Citations

1165 |
How people learn
- Bransford, Brown, et al.
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...chers create in theirsTWD AERA paper draft Page 8 classrooms is different from other subject areas, because “different disciplines are organized differentlysand have different approaches to inquiry” (=-=Bransford, Brown, & Cocking, 2000-=-, p. 155; see alsosShulman, 1987). In the Thinking with Data project, the social studies module is the first module for exactly this reason:sto provide a real-world context. In our case, students make... |

1105 |
Knowledge and teaching: foundations of the new reforms
- Shulman
- 1987
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Citation Context ...assrooms is different from other subject areas, because “different disciplines are organized differentlysand have different approaches to inquiry” (Bransford, Brown, & Cocking, 2000, p. 155; see alsos=-=Shulman, 1987-=-). In the Thinking with Data project, the social studies module is the first module for exactly this reason:sto provide a real-world context. In our case, students make a first attempt at analyzing da... |

943 |
Envisioning Information
- Tufte
- 1990
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Citation Context ...low, for example, doubling ofssome key aspect of the representation if the phenomenon under investigation is also doubled, andsviolation of this is often cited as a misleading use of representations (=-=Tufte, 1990-=-). In the science and English language arts modules, fairness is also evoked in the context ofsunderstanding water issues fairly and developing fair solutions to them. In science the use of proportion... |

282 | Rethinking transfer: A simple proposal with multiple implications
- Bransford, Schwartz
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...d fair or not by theirsclassmates. TWD AERA paper draft Page 4 Theoretical approach Our theoretical approach is grounded in a novel application of the Preparation for Future Learnings(PFL) framework (=-=Bransford & Schwartz, 1999-=-). In this framework, students first prepare to learn ansimportant concept by investigating a set of problems that are designed to highlight its structure. Instead ofscreating complete solutions, stud... |

154 |
A revisionist theory of conceptual change
- Strike, Posner
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...problem andsrealize that their existing understandings are not adequate for creating a solution, before they are fullysready to learn scientific and/or mathematical concepts (Lehrer & Schauble, 2002; =-=Strike & Posner, 1992-=-).sWe apply the PFL approach both across and within modules. Our application across modules is basedson the social studies context of water availability and use as a preparation context that also prov... |

102 |
The equivalence of learning paths in early science instruction: Effects of direct instruction and discovery learning
- Klahr, Nigam
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... formal learning activity in which they aresintroduced to a standard solution, and which they then practice and apply in a variety of contexts. PFLsreverses the traditional lecture-and-apply process (=-=Klahr & Nigam, 2004-=-) and is consistent with thesconceptual change literature, which shows that students must first understand that there is a problem andsrealize that their existing understandings are not adequate for c... |

91 |
Mathematics and Democracy: The Case for Quantitative Literacy. Princeton, NJ: The National Council on Education and the Disciplines. http://www.maa.org/ql/mathanddemocracy.html (last accessed June 22
- Steen
- 2009
(Show Context)
Citation Context ..., critical reasoning, argumentation, and communication.sMuch has been written about the importance of understanding quantitative data in today’s societys(Briggs, 2002; Madison, 2002; Scheaffer, 2001; =-=Steen, 2001-=-). Unfortunately, the realization of thissimportance has not translated into classroom practice. While there has been significant research on thesteaching and learning of data analysis and probability... |

74 |
A developmental model of critical thinking
- Kuhn
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...r example, limit students to approaching mathematics as exercises in numbersmanipulation (see Cobb & Bauersfeld, 1995), without thinking about real problems or pushing forsevidence to back up claims (=-=Kuhn, 1999-=-). Unsurprisingly, students often fail to transfer and applysmathematical reasoning to understanding scientific content (Akatugba & Wallace, 1999; Aldridge, 1994)sor exploring societal problems. Moreo... |

50 |
Authentic inquiry with data: Critical barriers to classroom implementation
- Hancock, Kaput, et al.
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... relate tosfair allocation and fair comparison, as well as the fairness of data representations. Evaluating fairness is asproductive activity for middle school students when engaged in data analysis (=-=Hancock et al., 1992-=-;sLajoie et al., 1995; Vahey et. al, 2000), and fairness is almost always deeply related with proportionality.sThe question of fair allocation of resources, such as water, almost always drives toward ... |

47 |
The impact of subject matter on curricular activity: An analysis of five academic subjects
- Stodolsky, Grossman
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...c content (Akatugba & Wallace, 1999; Aldridge, 1994)sor exploring societal problems. Moreover, in social studies and English language arts, argumentation issoften rhetorical rather than quantitative (=-=Stodolsky & Grossman, 1995-=-). As a result, the divisions betweensthese cultures interfere with students building data literacy.sOur research takes seriously the fundamental requirement that data literacy bridge the disciplinary... |

35 |
Reasoning about data
- Konold, Higgins
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...rtunately, the realization of thissimportance has not translated into classroom practice. While there has been significant research on thesteaching and learning of data analysis and probability (e.g. =-=Konold & Higgins, 2003-=-; Lehrer & Schauble,s2002), and we have seen the inclusion of data analysis in mathematics education standards (NCTM,s2000), data analysis is still too often relegated to calculating measures of centr... |

28 |
Missing-value proportional reasoning problems: Factors affecting informal reasoning patterns
- Kaput, West
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ific, andssocietal situations, and is a key element in thinking with data (Rubin, 2005). When embodied in authenticssituations, proportionality entails multiple entry points for children’s reasoning (=-=Kaput & West, 1994-=-;sLehrer, Strom, & Confrey, 2002), and is fundamental to productive growth in mathematical reasonings(Lamon, 1994). We also note that an understanding of proportionality is vital to understanding wate... |

21 |
Education for democratic citizenship: Decision making in the social studies
- Engle, Ochoa
- 1988
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...informed decisions” about societal issues (Hahn, 1996, p. 30). In order to do so,ssocial studies teachers need to create a context for learning that includes real-world data, information, andsissues (=-=Engle & Ochoa, 1988-=-; Shaver, 1977). This need is reflected in the NCSS (1994) standards, whichsemphasize the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data “in relation to its physical and culturalsenvironments”s(see ... |

21 |
Ratio and proportion: Cognitive foundations in unitizing and norming
- Lamon
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ations, proportionality entails multiple entry points for children’s reasoning (Kaput & West, 1994;sLehrer, Strom, & Confrey, 2002), and is fundamental to productive growth in mathematical reasonings(=-=Lamon, 1994-=-). We also note that an understanding of proportionality is vital to understanding watersquality data. For instance, the amount of sodium in a sample of water from a well is less important thansits co... |

20 |
Network science a decade later: The Internet and classroom learning. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum
- Feldman, Konold, et al.
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...L-based approach is consistent with the mathematics and science education literature on datasliteracy. Data analysis instruction is most productive when it is embedded in contexts of genuine inquirys(=-=Feldman et al., 2000-=-; Lehrer & Schauble, 2002), promotes reflective discourse (Feldman et al., 2000;sMcClain et al., 2000), and fosters students’ understanding that data can be queried to help make informedsdecisions abo... |

17 |
Investigating real data in the classroom: Expanding children’s understanding of math and science
- Lehrer, Schauble
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...derstand that there is a problem andsrealize that their existing understandings are not adequate for creating a solution, before they are fullysready to learn scientific and/or mathematical concepts (=-=Lehrer & Schauble, 2002-=-; Strike & Posner, 1992).sWe apply the PFL approach both across and within modules. Our application across modules is basedson the social studies context of water availability and use as a preparation... |

16 |
Mathematics, statistics, and teaching
- Cobb, Moore
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...). This is most obvious in considering the role of the context of investigation:swhereas in most mathematics “the context is part of the irrelevant detail…in data analysis, contextsprovides meaning” (=-=Cobb & Moore, 1997-=-, p. 801). We cannot expect the context for using the skills ofsdata literacy to come solely from the mathematics classroom, where it is perceived as artificial. True datasliteracy requires contributi... |

15 |
Mathematical learning
- Lehrer, Lesh
- 2013
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...nudsen, 2008). While this view orsargumentation is consistent with social studies, mathematics argumentation requires an epistemic shiftsfrom belief about the world to reasoning with abstract axioms (=-=Lehrer and Lesh, 2003-=-). That is, a primarysgoal of mathematics argumentation is to abstract from real-world contexts to more general understandingssthat transcend such real-world contexts. In the Thinking with Data projec... |

14 |
Discussion as exploration: Literature and the horizon of possibilities
- Langer
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...s argumentation is proof of absolute truth; • in science argumentation is a search for the most parsimonious explanation; • in English language arts argumentation uncovers a horizon of possibilities (=-=Langer, 2000-=-). These are described in more depth and in the context of the Thinking with Data curriculum below. Social Studies One of the most important goals of social studies is to develop “critical analytic ab... |

13 | Interdisciplinary curriculum: Challenges to implementation - Wineburg, Grossman - 2000 |

11 | The comparative understanding of school subjects: past, present and future
- Stevens, Wineburg, et al.
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...lines assseparate and unrelated topics to be “covered” in 45-minute periods. The separation results in pedagogicalsTWD AERA paper draft Page 1 cultures that miss opportunities to build on each other (=-=Stevens et al., 2005-=-; Wineburg & Grossman,s2000). Most math classes, for example, limit students to approaching mathematics as exercises in numbersmanipulation (see Cobb & Bauersfeld, 1995), without thinking about real p... |

10 |
Grounding metaphors and inscriptional resonance: Children’s emerging understanding of mathematical similarity
- Lehrer, Strom, et al.
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ituations, and is a key element in thinking with data (Rubin, 2005). When embodied in authenticssituations, proportionality entails multiple entry points for children’s reasoning (Kaput & West, 1994;s=-=Lehrer, Strom, & Confrey, 2002-=-), and is fundamental to productive growth in mathematical reasonings(Lamon, 1994). We also note that an understanding of proportionality is vital to understanding watersquality data. For instance, th... |

10 |
Images of rate. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting
- Thompson, Thompson
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...udies contexts required a transformation of data, from raw values (suchsas the amount of water used by a set of countries, or their gross domestic products) to a measure thatscombined two quantities (=-=Thompson & Thompson, 1992-=-), such as a per capita measure. While the notionsof transforming data to make it more meaningful is a key understanding in its own right, central to theswork of creating common measures is the role o... |

9 |
Research on issues-centered social studies
- Hahn
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...riculum below. Social Studies One of the most important goals of social studies is to develop “critical analytic abilities that willsenable citizens to make informed decisions” about societal issues (=-=Hahn, 1996-=-, p. 30). In order to do so,ssocial studies teachers need to create a context for learning that includes real-world data, information, andsissues (Engle & Ochoa, 1988; Shaver, 1977). This need is refl... |

9 |
Mathematizing middle school: Results from a cross-disci plinary study of data literacy
- Vahey, Yarnall, et al.
- 2006
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...em. TWD AERA paper draft Page 3 The data literacy focus for the TWD unit is the creation of common measures as key to the use ofsappropriate data and numerical representations. In our prior research (=-=Vahey et al., 2006-=-), we discoveredsthat data analysis in many social studies contexts required a transformation of data, from raw values (suchsas the amount of water used by a set of countries, or their gross domestic ... |

6 |
Mathematical dimensions of students’ use of proportional reasoning in high school physics
- Akatugba, Wallace
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...nking about real problems or pushing forsevidence to back up claims (Kuhn, 1999). Unsurprisingly, students often fail to transfer and applysmathematical reasoning to understanding scientific content (=-=Akatugba & Wallace, 1999-=-; Aldridge, 1994)sor exploring societal problems. Moreover, in social studies and English language arts, argumentation issoften rhetorical rather than quantitative (Stodolsky & Grossman, 1995). As a r... |

5 |
Empowering students in the use of statistics
- Lajoie, V, et al.
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...tion and fair comparison, as well as the fairness of data representations. Evaluating fairness is asproductive activity for middle school students when engaged in data analysis (Hancock et al., 1992;s=-=Lajoie et al., 1995-=-; Vahey et. al, 2000), and fairness is almost always deeply related with proportionality.sThe question of fair allocation of resources, such as water, almost always drives toward the notion of ansallo... |

4 | Learning Probability Through the Use of A Collaborative, Inquiry-Based Simulation Environment - Vahey, Enyedy, et al. - 2000 |

4 | The interdisciplinary imperative for citizenship education - Wraga - 1993 |

3 |
Controversial issues: The teacher's crucial role
- Lockwood
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... What is important is that the disagreements entailsincreasingly sophisticated debates about the quality and relevance of evidence as well as theslogic employed in coming to a particular conclusion. (=-=Lockwood, 1996-=-) Finally, as Wraga (1993) has argued: “because societal problems are complex and they transcendsconventional subject divisions, civic competence depends upon integrating knowledge from a variety ofss... |

2 |
Retrieved July 20, 2008 from http://www-math.cudenver.edu/~wbriggs/qr/siam_news.html
- Cobb, Moore
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ortunities to build on each other (Stevens et al., 2005; Wineburg & Grossman,s2000). Most math classes, for example, limit students to approaching mathematics as exercises in numbersmanipulation (see =-=Cobb & Bauersfeld, 1995-=-), without thinking about real problems or pushing forsevidence to back up claims (Kuhn, 1999). Unsurprisingly, students often fail to transfer and applysmathematical reasoning to understanding scient... |

2 |
Math that matters. Hands On: A
- Rubin
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...rmation here, but how do you judge the reliability of what you read, see, or hear?sThis is no trivial skill—and we are not preparing students to make these critical and subtlesdistinctions.” -- Andee =-=Rubin, 2005-=- Introduction Data literacy is the ability to ask and answer meaningful questions by collecting, analyzing andsmaking sense of data encountered in our everyday lives. In our increasingly data-driven s... |

1 |
The role of mathematics in science education
- Aldridge
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...or pushing forsevidence to back up claims (Kuhn, 1999). Unsurprisingly, students often fail to transfer and applysmathematical reasoning to understanding scientific content (Akatugba & Wallace, 1999; =-=Aldridge, 1994-=-)sor exploring societal problems. Moreover, in social studies and English language arts, argumentation issoften rhetorical rather than quantitative (Stodolsky & Grossman, 1995). As a result, the divis... |

1 | Information Literacy Standards for Student Learning: Standards and Indicators. Available online at http://www.ala.org/aasl/ip_nine.html - Applebee, Langer, et al. - 1998 |

1 |
Quantitative literacy and SIAM
- Briggs
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...acts to beginning to acquire skillssin inquiry, critical reasoning, argumentation, and communication.sMuch has been written about the importance of understanding quantitative data in today’s societys(=-=Briggs, 2002-=-; Madison, 2002; Scheaffer, 2001; Steen, 2001). Unfortunately, the realization of thissimportance has not translated into classroom practice. While there has been significant research on thesteaching ... |

1 |
Educating for numeracy: A challenging responsibility. Notices of the American Mathematical Society 49(2). Retrieved July 30, 2008 from: www.ams.org/notices/200202/ commentary.pdf National Academy of Science
- Madison
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ing to acquire skillssin inquiry, critical reasoning, argumentation, and communication.sMuch has been written about the importance of understanding quantitative data in today’s societys(Briggs, 2002; =-=Madison, 2002-=-; Scheaffer, 2001; Steen, 2001). Unfortunately, the realization of thissimportance has not translated into classroom practice. While there has been significant research on thesteaching and learning of... |

1 |
Classroom Mathematical Argumentation as Joint Activity: A New Framework for Understanding an Important Classroom Practice. Presented at the American Educational Research Association Annual Conference
- Shechtman, Kim, et al.
- 2008
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... whether a mathematical statement is true based onsevidence. This includes constructing conjectures and articulating and defending these conjectures throughsexplanation and justification (NCTM, 2000; =-=Shechtman, Kim, and Knudsen, 2008-=-). While this view orsargumentation is consistent with social studies, mathematics argumentation requires an epistemic shiftsfrom belief about the world to reasoning with abstract axioms (Lehrer and L... |

1 |
Ed.). Building rationales for citizenship education (NCSS Bulletin 52). Washington DC: National Council for the Social Studies
- Shaver
- 1977
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...bout societal issues (Hahn, 1996, p. 30). In order to do so,ssocial studies teachers need to create a context for learning that includes real-world data, information, andsissues (Engle & Ochoa, 1988; =-=Shaver, 1977-=-). This need is reflected in the NCSS (1994) standards, whichsemphasize the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data “in relation to its physical and culturalsenvironments”s(see Table 1). More... |