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## 1 A SiGe BiCMOS 8-Channel Multi-Dithering, Sub-Microsecond Adaptive Controller

### Citations

81 |
A Precise Four-Quadrant Multiplier with Subnanosecond Response
- Gilbert
- 1968
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ce on IAMP , and its secondary effect on oscillation frequency, is beyond the current paper and is presented in [12]. B. Multiplier The multiplier uses a standard Gilbert multiplier topology (Fig. 3) =-=[15]-=-. In order to enhance linearity, the dither input is pre-distorted. Further linearization, without compromising the translinear nature of the multiplier, is achieved by using multi-tanh “doublets”, i.... |

42 | A fast stochastic error-descent algorithm for supervised learning and optimization - CAUWENBERGHS - 1992 |

31 | An efficient digital sliding controller for adaptive powersupply regulation
- Kim, Horowitz
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...resented. A fully translinear implementation using a SiGe BiCMOS process provides linear tunability TABLE II COMPARISON BETWEEN HIGH-SPEED VLSI ADAPTIVE CONTROLLERS Reference [25] [26] [27] [28] [29] =-=[30]-=- [31] This work Process 2µm CMOS 0.4µm CMOS 0.13µm CMOS 0.13µm CMOS 0.25µm CMOS 0.25µm CMOS IBM SiGe Parameters 4 4 4 4 2 1 4 8 Power (mW) 236 43 100 N/A 43.2 5.7 N/A 110 Adaptation time (µs) 20 10 25... |

28 |
A parallel gradient descent method for learning in analog VLSI neural networks
- Alspector, Meir, et al.
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... performing synchronous detection for each of them. In the case of broad-band random dithers, this technique is known as model-free adaptation (MFA) [1] or stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) =-=[2]-=--[5]. Several analog hardware implementations of SPGD have been presented, most of them based on Bernoulli distributed dithers [6]-[8]. In the case of narrow-band sinusoidal dithers, the technique is ... |

26 |
The multi-tanh principle: A tutorial overview
- Gilbert
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...linear nature of the multiplier, is achieved by using multi-tanh “doublets”, i.e., setting a 1:4//4:1 emitter ratio for the input transistors of both the pre-distorter and the actual multiplier [16], =-=[17]-=-. + + Gm R - - C in+ Q4 Q3 Q1 + - Gm Q7 IAMP + - Q9 R (a) (b) Q10 C VCC Gm Q8 IFREQ IFREQ Fig. 2. (a) Architecture of the 3-phase oscillator. (b) Circuit implementation of the Gm − R blocks. IAMP + - ... |

20 |
Model-free distributed learning
- Dembo, Kailath
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...l dithers to the control variables in parallel, and performing synchronous detection for each of them. In the case of broad-band random dithers, this technique is known as model-free adaptation (MFA) =-=[1]-=- or stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) [2]-[5]. Several analog hardware implementations of SPGD have been presented, most of them based on Bernoulli distributed dithers [6]-[8]. In the case o... |

17 | Analog vlsi stochastic perturbative learning architectures
- Cauwenberghs
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...d only by mismatches in the fabrication process. The charge pump, providing constant-modulus updates of either polarity in the control variable ui according to (4), is implemented using the design in =-=[7]-=- and shown in Fig. 7(a). The rate G at which the capacitor C is charged or discharged (i.e., ui incremented or decremented) can be independently controlled by separate biasing of the NMOS and PMOS cur... |

14 |
Adaptive phase-distortion correction based on parallel gradient-descent optimization
- Vorontsov, Carhart, et al.
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... SiGe BiCMOS circuit implementation supports dither frequencies linearly tunable from 4kHz-600MHz, serving a wide range of applications in high-speed adaptive control for optical wavefront correction =-=[4]-=-, [9], multi-beam optical communications [10], and aberration correction in twophoton microscopy [11], among others. A SiGe BiCMOS current-controlled oscillator circuit that provides sinusoidal dither... |

14 |
The multidither principle in adaptive optics
- O’Meara
- 1977
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...implementations of SPGD have been presented, most of them based on Bernoulli distributed dithers [6]-[8]. In the case of narrow-band sinusoidal dithers, the technique is known as multi-dithering (MD) =-=[9]-=- and has been used extensively in adaptive optics for wavefront correction. One limitation of broad-band excitation is that delays in the plant and in evaluation of the metric distort the gradient Cop... |

10 |
An Integrated LMS Adaptive Filter of TX Leakage for CDMA Receiver Front Ends
- Aparin, Ballantyne, et al.
- 2006
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...een presented. A fully translinear implementation using a SiGe BiCMOS process provides linear tunability TABLE II COMPARISON BETWEEN HIGH-SPEED VLSI ADAPTIVE CONTROLLERS Reference [25] [26] [27] [28] =-=[29]-=- [30] [31] This work Process 2µm CMOS 0.4µm CMOS 0.13µm CMOS 0.13µm CMOS 0.25µm CMOS 0.25µm CMOS IBM SiGe Parameters 4 4 4 4 2 1 4 8 Power (mW) 236 43 100 N/A 43.2 5.7 N/A 110 Adaptation time (µs) 20 ... |

8 | Analog VLSI implementation of multi-dimensional gradient descent
- Kirk, Kerns, et al.
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e adaptation (MFA) [1] or stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) [2]-[5]. Several analog hardware implementations of SPGD have been presented, most of them based on Bernoulli distributed dithers =-=[6]-=--[8]. In the case of narrow-band sinusoidal dithers, the technique is known as multi-dithering (MD) [9] and has been used extensively in adaptive optics for wavefront correction. One limitation of bro... |

8 |
A 125-MHz mixed-signal echo canceller for gigabit ethernet on copper wire
- Lee, Razavi
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... descent, has been presented. A fully translinear implementation using a SiGe BiCMOS process provides linear tunability TABLE II COMPARISON BETWEEN HIGH-SPEED VLSI ADAPTIVE CONTROLLERS Reference [25] =-=[26]-=- [27] [28] [29] [30] [31] This work Process 2µm CMOS 0.4µm CMOS 0.13µm CMOS 0.13µm CMOS 0.25µm CMOS 0.25µm CMOS IBM SiGe Parameters 4 4 4 4 2 1 4 8 Power (mW) 236 43 100 N/A 43.2 5.7 N/A 110 Adaptatio... |

7 |
Analog CMOS implementation of high frequency leastmean square error learning circuit
- Kub, Justh
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...dient descent, has been presented. A fully translinear implementation using a SiGe BiCMOS process provides linear tunability TABLE II COMPARISON BETWEEN HIGH-SPEED VLSI ADAPTIVE CONTROLLERS Reference =-=[25]-=- [26] [27] [28] [29] [30] [31] This work Process 2µm CMOS 0.4µm CMOS 0.13µm CMOS 0.13µm CMOS 0.25µm CMOS 0.25µm CMOS IBM SiGe Parameters 4 4 4 4 2 1 4 8 Power (mW) 236 43 100 N/A 43.2 5.7 N/A 110 Adap... |

7 |
et al, "8-Gb/s source-synchronous I/O link with adaptive receiver equalization, offset cancellation, and clock de-skew
- Jaussi
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ent, has been presented. A fully translinear implementation using a SiGe BiCMOS process provides linear tunability TABLE II COMPARISON BETWEEN HIGH-SPEED VLSI ADAPTIVE CONTROLLERS Reference [25] [26] =-=[27]-=- [28] [29] [30] [31] This work Process 2µm CMOS 0.4µm CMOS 0.13µm CMOS 0.13µm CMOS 0.25µm CMOS 0.25µm CMOS IBM SiGe Parameters 4 4 4 4 2 1 4 8 Power (mW) 236 43 100 N/A 43.2 5.7 N/A 110 Adaptation tim... |

5 |
Phase noise and AM noise measurements in the frequency domain,” Infrared and millimeter waves
- Lance, Seal, et al.
- 1984
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...formation is its property of filtering out phase noise. To clarify this point, synchronous detection can be thought of as an FM discriminator and more specifically as a delay line discriminator [19], =-=[20]-=- (Figs. 8(a) and (b)). For constant delay τp the power spectral density (PSD) of the noise Sφ,out(f) at the output of a delay line discriminator has been shown [21]-[23] to be Sφ,out(f) = Sd(f) · Sφ(f... |

5 | Multi-channel coherent detection for delay-insensitive model-free adaptive control
- Loizos, Sotiriadis, et al.
- 2007
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... to stochastic parallel gradient descent [2]-[5]. Practical levels of phase noise retain the narrowband frequency property of the dither signals, necessary for delay-insensitive model-free adaptation =-=[24]-=-, [14]. � � + + u J cos(�t) delay �p cos(�t) (a) J(u) + �J cos(�(t-�p)) �u out cos(�(t-�p)) LPF LPF Fig. 8. (a) Simplified model of the synchronous detection scheme for closedloop operation of the pro... |

5 |
et al., “A 6.25 Gb/s Binary Adaptive DFE with First Post-Cursor Tap Cancellation for Serial Backplane Communications
- Payne
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...has been presented. A fully translinear implementation using a SiGe BiCMOS process provides linear tunability TABLE II COMPARISON BETWEEN HIGH-SPEED VLSI ADAPTIVE CONTROLLERS Reference [25] [26] [27] =-=[28]-=- [29] [30] [31] This work Process 2µm CMOS 0.4µm CMOS 0.13µm CMOS 0.13µm CMOS 0.25µm CMOS 0.25µm CMOS IBM SiGe Parameters 4 4 4 4 2 1 4 8 Power (mW) 236 43 100 N/A 43.2 5.7 N/A 110 Adaptation time (µs... |

4 |
Fast adaptive control for electronic equalization of
- Wedding, Chiarotto, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ted. A fully translinear implementation using a SiGe BiCMOS process provides linear tunability TABLE II COMPARISON BETWEEN HIGH-SPEED VLSI ADAPTIVE CONTROLLERS Reference [25] [26] [27] [28] [29] [30] =-=[31]-=- This work Process 2µm CMOS 0.4µm CMOS 0.13µm CMOS 0.13µm CMOS 0.25µm CMOS 0.25µm CMOS IBM SiGe Parameters 4 4 4 4 2 1 4 8 Power (mW) 236 43 100 N/A 43.2 5.7 N/A 110 Adaptation time (µs) 20 10 25 20 2... |

4 | Auditory feature extraction using self-timed, continuous-time discrete-signal processing circuits
- Kumar, Cauwenberghs, et al.
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...c to analog mismatch in the circuit realization of the comparator in the synchronous detector (Fig. 6). An offset-independent, autoadaptive comparator that alleviates this sensitivity is described in =-=[32]-=-, whereas an alternative approach could be a wideband comparator with adaptable offset as presented in [33]. Measured power dissipation for simultaneous operation of all 8 channels ranges between 50mW... |

3 |
Obtaining digital gradient signals for analog adaptive filters
- Carusone, Johns
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...forming synchronous detection for each of them. In the case of broad-band random dithers, this technique is known as model-free adaptation (MFA) [1] or stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) [2]-=-=[5]-=-. Several analog hardware implementations of SPGD have been presented, most of them based on Bernoulli distributed dithers [6]-[8]. In the case of narrow-band sinusoidal dithers, the technique is know... |

3 | Digital LMS adaptation of analog filters without gradient information
- Carusone, Johns
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...aptation (MFA) [1] or stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) [2]-[5]. Several analog hardware implementations of SPGD have been presented, most of them based on Bernoulli distributed dithers [6]-=-=[8]-=-. In the case of narrow-band sinusoidal dithers, the technique is known as multi-dithering (MD) [9] and has been used extensively in adaptive optics for wavefront correction. One limitation of broad-b... |

3 |
Laser beam projection with adaptive array of fiber collimators. II. Analysis of atmospheric compensation efficiency
- Lachinova, Vorontsov
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... dither frequencies linearly tunable from 4kHz-600MHz, serving a wide range of applications in high-speed adaptive control for optical wavefront correction [4], [9], multi-beam optical communications =-=[10]-=-, and aberration correction in twophoton microscopy [11], among others. A SiGe BiCMOS current-controlled oscillator circuit that provides sinusoidal dither signals with wide tuning range is given in [... |

3 |
A translinearSiGeBiCMOS current-controlled oscillator with 80 Hz–800 MHz tuning range. Analog IntegrCirc Sig Process
- Loizos, andGertCauwenberghs
- 2008
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...], and aberration correction in twophoton microscopy [11], among others. A SiGe BiCMOS current-controlled oscillator circuit that provides sinusoidal dither signals with wide tuning range is given in =-=[12]-=-. Architecture considerations and circuit design of the multi-dithering gradient descent adaptive control system, and first experimental results from the integrated SiGe BiCMOS implementation, are pre... |

3 | High-speed, model-free adaptive control using parallel synchronous detection
- Loizos, Sotiriadis, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ture considerations and circuit design of the multi-dithering gradient descent adaptive control system, and first experimental results from the integrated SiGe BiCMOS implementation, are presented in =-=[13]-=-. Here we provide a detailed description, analysis, and experimental characterization of the circuits comprising the multi-dithering control system, quantify the system performance in terms of normali... |

3 |
A multi-dithering controller with sub-microsecond response time: analysis and SiGe BiCMOS implementation
- Loizos
- 2007
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...delay line discriminator [19], [20] (Figs. 8(a) and (b)). For constant delay τp the power spectral density (PSD) of the noise Sφ,out(f) at the output of a delay line discriminator has been shown [21]-=-=[23]-=- to be Sφ,out(f) = Sd(f) · Sφ(f) = 2(1 − cos(2πfτp)) · Sφ(f), where Sφ(f) is the PSD of the phase noise of the oscillator and f is the frequency offset from the carrier. For small delays τp and for sm... |

2 |
et al., “Adaptive aberration correction in a two-photon microscope
- Neil
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...erving a wide range of applications in high-speed adaptive control for optical wavefront correction [4], [9], multi-beam optical communications [10], and aberration correction in twophoton microscopy =-=[11]-=-, among others. A SiGe BiCMOS current-controlled oscillator circuit that provides sinusoidal dither signals with wide tuning range is given in [12]. Architecture considerations and circuit design of t... |

2 | Adaptive delay compensation in multi-dithering adaptive control
- Loizos, Sotiriadis, et al.
- 2008
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...nor reduction in the rate of convergence. A practical algorithm to dynamically select the phase ϕi during 1 Overline denotes low-pass filtering. closed-loop adaptation of a varying metric is given in =-=[14]-=-. In what follows we assume that the phase factor is maintained close to identity, cos(ϕi) ≈ 1. A comparator extracts the signum of the metric’s derivative ∂J/∂ui. The signum controls the direction of... |

2 | Automatic phase noise measurements using MSW-delay-line-based discriminators - Reese, Ishak - 1985 |

1 |
Tunable high-frequency Gm −C filters
- Voorman, Veenstra
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... translinear nature of the multiplier, is achieved by using multi-tanh “doublets”, i.e., setting a 1:4//4:1 emitter ratio for the input transistors of both the pre-distorter and the actual multiplier =-=[16]-=-, [17]. + + Gm R - - C in+ Q4 Q3 Q1 + - Gm Q7 IAMP + - Q9 R (a) (b) Q10 C VCC Gm Q8 IFREQ IFREQ Fig. 2. (a) Architecture of the 3-phase oscillator. (b) Circuit implementation of the Gm − R blocks. IAM... |

1 |
The Delay Line Discriminator, Technical Note 10
- Halford
- 1976
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...as a delay line discriminator [19], [20] (Figs. 8(a) and (b)). For constant delay τp the power spectral density (PSD) of the noise Sφ,out(f) at the output of a delay line discriminator has been shown =-=[21]-=--[23] to be Sφ,out(f) = Sd(f) · Sφ(f) = 2(1 − cos(2πfτp)) · Sφ(f), where Sφ(f) is the PSD of the phase noise of the oscillator and f is the frequency offset from the carrier. For small delays τp and f... |

1 |
A 1.2-GHz comparator with adaptable offset in 0.35-µm CMOS
- Wong, Cohen, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...offset-independent, autoadaptive comparator that alleviates this sensitivity is described in [32], whereas an alternative approach could be a wideband comparator with adaptable offset as presented in =-=[33]-=-. Measured power dissipation for simultaneous operation of all 8 channels ranges between 50mW for dither frequencies in the range of 12-20MHz and 110mW for dither frequencies of 120-200MHz. The design... |