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## The concept of fit in strategy research: Towards verbal and statistical correspondence (1989)

Venue: | ACADEMY OF MANAGEMENT REVIEW |

Citations: | 299 - 9 self |

### Citations

3462 |
Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences (3rd
- Cohen, Cohen, et al.
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...Recognizing that this is not a forum for an extensive primer on MRA (interested readers are referred to sources such as: Sharma, Durand, and Gur-Arie, 1981; Neter and Wasserman, 1982; Pedhazur, 1982; =-=Cohen and Cohen, 1983-=-), four critical analytical issues that directly relate to the testing of theoretical relationships are addressed: (a) the form versus strength of moderation; (b) the role and Impact of multicollinear... |

2138 | What is strategy - PORTER - 1996 |

1365 | Organizations in Action - Thompson - 1967 |

1112 | Competitive Advantage - Porter - 1985 |

971 |
Strategy and Structure
- Chandler
- 1962
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...rcher may be interested in the effects of chosen business-unit strategy on performance as well as additional effects of the fit between strategy and administrative characteristics, such as structure (=-=Chandler, 1962-=-), systems •^ Southwood (1978; p. 1198) demonstrates that 3ny .equation (X^, X,2, X3=Xi .X2) can .be transformed into one (X-j , X^ , X3 =Xi . Xo ), where X^ = (X^*c), and X2 = (X2*k); that is the two... |

968 |
The Social Psychology of Organizations
- Katz, Kahn
- 1966
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...search. Introduction The concept of 'fit' has served as an important building block for theory construction in several areas of management research (Aldrich, 1979; Fry & Smith, 1987; Galbraith, 1977; =-=Katz & Kahn, 1966-=-; Lawrence L Lorsch, 1967; Thompson; 1967; Van de Ven £. Drazin, 1985; Woodward, 1965) including strategic management research (Chakravarthy , 1982; Jauch £• Osborn, 1981; Miles & Snow, 1978; Snow t M... |

961 | Significance tests and goodness of fit in the analysis of covariance structures - Bentler, Bonett - 1980 |

885 | Applied Linear Statistical Models - Neter, Wasserman - 1974 |

656 |
Mixing Qualitative and Quantitative Methods: Triangulation in Action
- Jick
- 1979
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...le-deviation (i.e. , perspective four)? Such questions are in the spirit of triangulation' that calls for testing theoretical relationships using multiple measures and multiple methods (Denzin, 1978; =-=Jick, 1979-=-), and are relevant since a general theoretical perspective of performance effects of structure-context fit was supported using some analytical perspectives and not others (see Drazin and Van de Ven, ... |

644 | The Structuring of Organizations - Mintzberg - 1979 |

620 |
Organizational Design
- Galbraith
- 1977
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...gic management research. Introduction The concept of 'fit' has served as an important building block for theory construction in several areas of management research (Aldrich, 1979; Fry & Smith, 1987; =-=Galbraith, 1977-=-; Katz & Kahn, 1966; Lawrence L Lorsch, 1967; Thompson; 1967; Van de Ven £. Drazin, 1985; Woodward, 1965) including strategic management research (Chakravarthy , 1982; Jauch £• Osborn, 1981; Miles & S... |

608 |
Organization and Environment
- Lawrence, Lorsch
- 1967
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...on The concept of fit' has served as an important building block for theory construction in several areas of management research (Aldrich, 1979; Fry C Smith, 1987; Galbraith, 1977; Katz L Kahn, 1966; =-=Lawrence & Lorsch, 1967-=-; Thompson; 1967; Van de Ven & Drazin, 1985; Woodward, 1965) including strategic management research (Chakravarthy , 1982; Jauch & Osborn, 1981; Miles & Snow, 1978; Snow & Miles, 1983; Venkatraman & C... |

519 | Organizational Structure, Environment and Performance: The Role of Strategic Choice - Child - 1972 |

513 |
Industrial market structure and economic performance. Second Edition
- Scherer
- 1980
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e 13 strategy -- market-share fit on performance using different theoretical and analytical perspectives. Similarly, if one is embracing the classical industrial organization (10) economics paradigm (=-=Scherer, 1980-=-; Porter, 1981) of Structure --> Conduct --> Performance to test the role (if any) of firm-level strategic actions in influencing the relationship between market structure characteristics and firm per... |

457 |
The Concept of Corporate Strategy
- Andrews
- 1971
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...d not find any significant multiplicative effects. Indeed, a careful review of the research literature arguing for environment--strategy coalignment indicates that the proponents of this view (e.g. , =-=Andrews, 1980-=-; Bourgeois, 1980; Miles and Snow, 1978) invoke the notion of fit rather metaphorically, and hardly specify the specific functional form of joint, multiplicative effects. It is the empirical researche... |

457 |
Organizational strategy, structure, and process
- Miles, Snow
- 1978
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...7; Katz & Kahn, 1966; Lawrence L Lorsch, 1967; Thompson; 1967; Van de Ven £. Drazin, 1985; Woodward, 1965) including strategic management research (Chakravarthy , 1982; Jauch £• Osborn, 1981; Miles & =-=Snow, 1978-=-; Snow t Miles, 1983; Venkatraman L Camillus, 1984). However, a major problem in testing theories rooted in this concept lies in the lack of corresponding schemes for its operationalization and statis... |

448 |
Organization and Environment
- Aldrich
- 1979
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... their operational tests in strategic management research. Introduction The concept of 'fit' has served as an important building block for theory construction in several areas of management research (=-=Aldrich, 1979-=-; Fry & Smith, 1987; Galbraith, 1977; Katz & Kahn, 1966; Lawrence L Lorsch, 1967; Thompson; 1967; Van de Ven £. Drazin, 1985; Woodward, 1965) including strategic management research (Chakravarthy , 19... |

308 | In search of excellence: Lessons from America's best run companies - Peters, Waterman - 1982 |

301 |
Structure and Economic Performance
- Rumelt
- 1974
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...cture fit can be derived without reference to any particular view of administrative efficiency. Such a theoretical proposition is most appropriately operationalized within a matching perspective (see =-=Rumelt, 1974-=-; Grinyer, Yasai-Ardekani, and Al-Bazzaz, 1981), and independent of the specific conceptualization of performance. Similarly, Chakravarthy (1987) defined fit 17 within a planning system context as exi... |

287 |
The Research Act
- Denzin
- 1978
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ctive of profile-deviation (i.e. , perspective four)? Such questions are in the spirit of triangulation' that calls for testing theoretical relationships using multiple measures and multiple methods (=-=Denzin, 1978-=-; Jick, 1979), and are relevant since a general theoretical perspective of performance effects of structure-context fit was supported using some analytical perspectives and not others (see Drazin and ... |

260 | A Framework for the Comparative Analysis of Organizations - Perrow - 1967 |

259 | A comparative analysis of complex organizations - Etzioni - 1961 |

237 |
Strategy Formulation: Analytic Concepts
- Hofer, Schendal
- 1978
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...f this perspective using six (illustrative) dimensions of strategy. This perspective is useful for testing the effects of environment-- strategy coalignment (Andrews, 1980; Bourgeois, 1980; Hofer and =-=Schendel, 1978-=-; Miles and Snow, 1978) in the sense that deviations in strategy from an environment-specific ideal' profile should be negatively related to performance. Venkatraman and Prescott (1988) argued that th... |

208 |
Patterns in Strategy Formation
- Mintzberg
- 1978
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...profile, this perspective views coalignment as reflected in the pattern of covariation among a set of dimensions. Indeed this is a response to an oft-repeated call to develop notions of meqastrateqy (=-=Mintzberg, 1978-=-) or to treat strategy as "a pattern or stream of major and minor decisions" (Miles & Snow, 1978). The notions of 'megastrategy' and 'pattern of decisions' are best represented as covariation among th... |

207 | Innovation in conservative and entrepreneurial firms: Two models of strategic momentum - Miller, Friesen - 1982 |

183 |
Organizations: A Quantum View
- Miller, Friesen
- 1984
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... between the treatment of fit as gestalts and strategy taxonomies. The latter represents an empirical identification of naturally-occurring strategy types (Galbraith t Schendel, 1985; Hambrick, 1983; =-=Miller & Friesen, 1984-=-)-- which do not invoke the concept of internal congruence, except indirectly to name the gestalts. The selection of the underlying variables for taxonomic inquiry is guided by the need to balance par... |

178 | In defense of multiplicative terms in multiple regression equations
- Friedrich
- 1982
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ts because the standardized coefficients are meaningless. However, if it is possible to develop ratio scales for X, and Z, then one can compare their relative effects (Allison, 1977; Southwood, 1978; =-=Friedrich, 1982-=-). Thus, the implication is that if the theory calls for a comparison of main and interaction effects, the moderation perspective may be limited to those cases that accommodate ratio-levels of measure... |

157 |
Representing and Testing Organizational Theories: A Holistic Construal.” Administrative Science Quarterly
- Bagozzi, Phillips
- 1982
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...re 5 About Here) The second issue pertains to testing the impact of fit modeled as covariation. Without getting into the details of model estimation within a LISREL framework (readers are directed to =-=Bagozzi & Phillips, 1982-=-; Joreskog L Sorbom, 1978; 1979), we note that three complementary test statistics are to be used: (a) a comparison of the coefficients of determination; (b) the calculation of the Target Coefficient,... |

140 |
Causal models in marketing
- Bagozzi
- 1980
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... -- one that may, for example, specify only inter-correlated first-order factors. Given the relative benefits of CFA over EFA for theory testing purposes (see Mulaik, 1972; Joreskog and Sorbom, 1979; =-=Bagozzi, 1980-=-), and the need to distinguish this perspective from other inductive perspectives (e.g., gestalts as in perspective four), the use of CFA is preferred over EFA in modeling fit as covariation. Figure 5... |

133 | The decomposition of effects in path analysis
- Alwin, Hauser
- 1975
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...lationships, especially the ordering of the variables. Analytical Issues . The tests of fit as mediation is typically carried out within a path-analytic framework (for details, refer sources such as: =-=Alwin & Hauser, 1972-=-; Blalock, 1971; Duncan, 1971; Heise, 1975; Kenny, 1979), and two issues are important: (a) distinction between complete versus partial mediation; and (b) the test for the performance impacts of fit. ... |

126 | Business unit strategy, managerial characteristics, and business unit effectiveness at strategy implementation
- Gupta, Govindarajan
- 1984
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...relation coefficients across the groups . The complementary moderated regression analysis (MRA) is the most common approach for testing fit-based relationships in strategic management research (e.g., =-=Gupta & Govindarajan, 1984-=-; 1986; Hitt, Ireland, & Palia, 1982; Hitt, Ireland, & Stadter, 1982; Prescott, 1986). The use of MRA can be represented through a set of two equations as follows: Y = ao * a^X * ^-jZ * e (2) Y = ag *... |

120 |
Environment-strategy coalignment: An empirical test of its performance implications. Strategic Management Journal 11:1–23
- Venkatraman, Prescott
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ask of developing such a profile with numerical scores along 24 a set of dimensions is difficult^. The other option is to empirically develop this profile (see Drazin L Van de Van, 1985; Ferry, 1979; =-=Venkatraman and Prescott, 1988-=-) using a calibration sample. In a strategy research context, Venkatraman and Prescott (1988) developed their profile of ideal strategic resource deployments using the mean scores of a calibration sam... |

116 |
Identification and analysis of moderator variables
- Sharma, Durand, et al.
- 1981
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...his is important because the mathematical representation (1) can be specified such that it can be tested through (a) the subgroup analysis, and/or (b) the moderated regression analysis (Arnold, 1982; =-=Sharma, Durand, & Gur-Arie, 1981-=-) with differing theoretical meanings and empirical support. The subgroup analysis addresses the strength of moderation. In this case, the sample is split into groups generally based on the contextual... |

100 |
Computational Handbook of Statistics
- Bruening, Kintz
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...though significant differences are likely to exist in the theoretical conceptualization. ^ The differences in the correlation coefficients can be tested as a tstatistic when there are two groups (see =-=Bruning and Kintz, 1987-=-; pp. 226-8); and as a chi-squared statistic for when there are multiple groups (see Arnold, 1982; p. 152). represented through a set of two equations as follows: Y = aQ ^ a^X * a2Z * e (2) Y = aQ * a... |

97 | Archetypes of Strategy Formulation - Miller, H - 1978 |

96 |
Mind and nature
- Bateson
- 1979
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...cts because theoretically, relationships implied by the set of individual interaction components may not adequately represent the nature of systemic interaction, implying an error of logical typing' (=-=Bateson, 1979-=-; Van de Ven & Drazin, 1985). 11 Let us consider the study by Jauch, Osborn, and Glueck (1980), which examined the financial performance implications of the environment-strategy fit using a multiplica... |

92 |
Advances in factor analysis and structural equations mode
- Joreskog, Sorbom
- 1979
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...s with oblique rotations with correlations among the first-order factors used to examine the possibility of second-order factors (see Cattell, 1978; Chapter 9 for details) . In contrast, the CFA (see =-=Joreskog and Sorbom, 1979-=-) seeks to test one (or, more) theoretically-specified second-order factor(s) against the observed data. Thus, unlike EFA that uses predefined mathematical criteria to determine the optimal rotation w... |

91 | Alternative forms of fit in contingency theory - Drazin, Ven - 1985 |

91 |
Problems with contingency theory: Testing assumptions hidden within the language of contingency "theory". Administrative Science Quarterly
- Schoonhoven
- 1981
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...convenient) mathematical form, and perform statistical tests without really examining the validity of the assumptions underlying their choice of operationalization (see Drazin I Van de Ven, 1985; and =-=Schoonhoven, 1981-=- for exceptions) . Poor operationalizations give rise to problems of "methodological [injvalidity" (Brinberg £ McGrath, 1982), and could seriously limit the use of fit as a central concept for theory ... |

80 |
Strategic goals, perceived uncertainty, and economic performance in volatile environments
- Bourgeois
- 1985
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...degree of match between two variables, then the absolute difference between the standardized scores of two variables is an indication of the lack of fit (see for instance, Alexander & Randolph, 1985; =-=Bourgeois, 1985-=-). For instance, in the three variable system discussed earlier, IX-ZI is an indication of the lack of fit between X and Z, and the performance implications of fit is tested by examining the impact of... |

79 |
Strategy and environment: A conceptual integration
- Bourgeois
- 1980
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...significant multiplicative effects. Indeed, a careful review of the research literature arguing for environment--strategy coalignment indicates that the proponents of this view (e.g. , Andrews, 1980; =-=Bourgeois, 1980-=-; Miles and Snow, 1978) invoke the notion of fit rather metaphorically, and hardly specify the specific functional form of joint, multiplicative effects. It is the empirical researcher who has transla... |

71 | The concept of fit in contingency theory - Ven, Drazin - 1985 |

59 |
Moderator variables: A clarification on conceptual, analytic and psychometric issues. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance
- Arnold
- 1982
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e requirement of partialling out quadratic effects for testing the moderating effects. In specifying fit as moderation, it is important to distinguish between the form and the strength of moderation (=-=Arnold, 1982-=-). This is important because the mathematical representation (1) can be specified such that it can be tested through (a) the subgroup analysis, and/or (b) the moderated regression analysis (Arnold, 19... |

56 | Toward a contingency theory of business strategy - Hofer - 1975 |

51 |
High Profit Strategies in Mature Capital Goods Industries: A Contingency Approach
- Hambrick
- 1983
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...based research seek to explain variations in business performance through a set of variables reflecting both strategic resource deployments as well as environmental characteristics (see for instance, =-=Hambrick, 1983-=-; Prescott, 1986). Within the variance paradigm, one can distinguish between the 'main effects model' and the fit model.' The former seeks to maximize the variance explained by the chosen set of varia... |

50 |
Taxonomic approach to studying strategy: Some conceptual and methodological issues
- Hambrick
- 1984
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...artial solution to this problem may be found in the development of gestalts -- which can be viewed as a logical extension of the bivariate frt perspective through a multi-tiered taxonomical approach (=-=Hambrick, 1984-=-). The role of gestalts in reflecting the multivariate fit is best described in Miller's (1981) terms as follows: "Instead of looking at a few variables or at linear associations among such variables ... |

47 |
Contingency perspectives of organizational strategy: A critical review of the empirical research
- Ginsberg, Venkatraman
- 1985
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...universally superior irrespective of the environmental and/or organizational context. Consequently, the contingency perspective has dominated our thinking (Hofer, 1976; Steiner, 1979; Harrigan, 1983; =-=Ginsberg & Venkatraman, 1985-=-), operationalized within a moderation (i.e., interaction) perspective. As noted by Schoonhoven: "when contingency theorists assert that there is a relationship between two variables... which predicts... |

45 |
Testing for interaction in multiple regression
- Allison
- 1977
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... for rejecting MRA for testing fit due to multicollinearity problems (Dewar & Werbel, 1979; Drazin & Van de Ven, 1985; p. 519), it is a valid analytical method for testing fit as moderation (see also =-=Allison, 1977-=-; Arnold I Evans, 1979). The implication is that if researchers conceptualize their theories within the moderation perspective, they should not dismiss the use of MRA for multicollinearity reasons wit... |

45 | Theory Construction: From Verbal to Mathematical Formulations - Blalock - 1969 |

44 | Fundamentals of Concept Formation in Empirical Science - Hempel |

43 | Toward a new contingency approach: the search for organizational gestalts - Miller - 1981 |

39 |
Research methodologies for contingency approaches to business strategy
- Harrigan
- 1983
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... no strategy is universally superior irrespective of the environmental and/or organizational context. Consequently, the contingency perspective has dominated our thinking (Hofer, 1976; Steiner, 1979; =-=Harrigan, 1983-=-; Ginsberg t Venkatraman, 1985), operationalized within a moderation (i.e., interaction) perspective. As noted by Schoonhoven: "when contingency theorists assert that there is a relationship between t... |

38 | Stages of product life cycle, business strategy and business performance - Anderson, ZeithamI - 1984 |

38 | Strategy and structure in multinational corporations: An information processing approach. Administrative Science Quarterly - Egelhoff - 1982 |

35 |
Contingency linkages between strategy and general manager characteristics: A conceptual examination. Academy of Management Review
- Gupta
- 1984
(Show Context)
Citation Context ..., and X2 However, if the variables are measured using ratio scales, such a transformation alters the meaning of the measures and can not be applied. (Lorange and Vancil, 1978), or rrunagerial traits (=-=Gupta, 1984-=-). Such theorizations require the joint assessment of main and interaction effects, which can not be accomplished at an interval-level of measurement. As shown in note 2, testing for a3= can not be ac... |

33 |
Operationalizing the concept of business-level strategy in research. Academv of Management Review
- Hambrick
- 1980
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...cal linkage among the dimensions. General linear models like the regression analysis are of limited use given that they miss "the concept of a central thread or internal logic underlying a strategy" (=-=Hambrick, 1980-=-) as the "regression coefficient may have statistical significance, but may indicate no apparent logical linkage among the various independent variables" (1980; p. 571). The concept of megastrategy is... |

28 |
LISERL V: Analysis of Linear Structural Relationships by the Method of maximum Likelihood. Chicago: National Education Resources
- Jöreskog, Sörbom
- 1981
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ue pertains to the tests of the impact of fit modeled as covariation. Without getting into the details of model estimation within a LISREL framework (readers are directed to Bagozzi & Phillips, 1982; =-=Joreskog & Sorbom, 1978-=-; 1979), we note that two complementary test statistics can be used: (a) a comparison of the coefficients of determination; and (b) the calculation of the Target Coefficient (Marsh & Hocevar, 1985). W... |

26 |
Substantive Theory and Statistical Interaction: Five Models
- Southwood
- 1978
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...sformation does not affect the test for the unstandardized coefficient a3, although it affects the tests for unstandardized coefficients, a-], and 32 as well as all the standardized coefficients (see =-=Southwood, 1978-=-; pp. 1166-1167; 1199-1201). Thus, contrary to the call for rejecting MRA for testing fit due to multicollinearity problems (Dewar & Werbel, 1979; Drazin & Van de Ven, 1985; p. 519), it is a valid ana... |

25 | Strategic attributes and performance in the BCG matrix -- a PIMS-based analysis of industrial product businesses. Academy of Management Journal - Hambrick, MacMillan, et al. - 1982 |

23 | Strategic planning systems - Lorange, Vancil - 1977 |

22 |
Of strategies, deliberate and emergent’. Strategic Management journal 6(3
- Mintzberg, Waters
- 1985
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...rg (1978), Mintzberg and Waters (1985); Miles and Snow (1978), and Burgelman (1983). The distinguishing characteristics lie in their ability to describe and explain the process of strategy formation (=-=Mintzberg & Waters, 1985-=-; Miles & Snow, 1978), and internal corporate venturing (Burgelman, 1983) rather than explain the variance in the dependent variable (say, performance) using a set of theoretically-related independent... |

21 |
Universalistic and contingency predictions of employee satisfaction and conflict. Administrative Science Quarterly
- Dewar, Werbel
- 1979
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e cross-product term (X.Z) is likely to be strongly correlated with X, and Z. Some researchers explicitly invoke multicollinearity as a reason for not testing fit within a moderation perspective (see =-=Dewar & Werbel, 1979-=-; Drazin & Van de Ven, 1985). While we recognize the statistical estimation problems posed by multicollinearity, it is important to recognize that it is not problematic for establishing the existence ... |

20 |
The fit between technology and structure as a predictor of performance in nursing subunits
- Alexander, Randolph
- 1985
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...terested in quantifying the degree of match between two variables, then the absolute difference between the standardized scores of two variables is an indication of the lack of fit (see for instance, =-=Alexander & Randolph, 1985-=-; Bourgeois, 1985). For instance, in the three variable system discussed earlier, IX-ZI is an indication of the lack of fit between X and Z, and the performance implications of fit is tested by examin... |

20 | The logic of strategic planning - Grant, King - 1982 |

14 | Multicollinearity and non-additive regression models - Althauser - 1971 |

14 | Person-situation interaction: Competing models of fit - Slocum, Glinow - 1982 |

14 | The resurrection of taxonomy to aid the development of middle range theories of organizational behavior. Administrative Science Quarterly - Finder, Moore - 1979 |

14 |
Contingency theory: Some suggested directions
- Tosi, Slocum
- 1984
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...angulation-trap" is under preparation. 34 convergence across the three perspectives (moderation, matching, and mediation) is close to zero, implying that recommendations calling for posthoc attempts (=-=Tosi and Slocum, 1984-=-) to assess triangulation is of limited use. Longitudinal Operationalizations of Fit Most (if not all) perspectives discussed in this paper have focused on static, cross-sectional approaches to the sp... |

13 | A network of validity concepts within the research process - Brinberg, McGrath - 1982 |

12 |
Statistical analysis of congeneric tests
- Joreskog
- 1971
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... difference in chi-squared statistic (which follows a chi-squared distribution) for assessing model superiority. Since the two models (5a b 5b) are not nested, a chi-square difference test criterion (=-=Joreskog, 1971-=-) cannot be employed here. Thus, a preliminary indication of the model superiority is provided by the comparison of the coefficients of determination of the two models (analogous to R^). A more formal... |

12 | Guidelines for the empirical classification of organizations - McKelvey - 1975 |

11 | On tailoring a strategic planning system to its context: Some empirical evidence - Chakravarthy - 1987 |

11 | Short-term financial success in large business organizations: The environment-strategy connection. Strategic Management Journal - Jauch, Osborn, et al. - 1980 |

8 |
Testing multiplicative models does not require ratio scales. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance
- Arnold, Evans
- 1979
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...MRA for testing fit due to multicollinearity problems (Dewar & Werbel, 1979; Drazin & Van de Ven, 1985; p. 519), it is a valid analytical method for testing fit as moderation (see also Allison, 1977; =-=Arnold & Evans, 1979-=-). The implication is that if researchers conceptualize their theories within the moderation perspective, they should not dismiss the use of MRA for multicollinearity reasons without evaluating this i... |

8 |
An empirical typology of mature industrial product environments
- Hambrick
- 1983
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...based research seek to explain variations in business performance through a set of variables reflecting both strategic resource deployments as well as environmental characteristics (see for instance, =-=Hambrick, 1983-=-; Prescott, 1986). Within the variance paradigm, one can distinguish between the 'main effects model' and the fit model.' The former seeks to maximize the variance explained by the chosen set of varia... |

8 |
Functional importance and company performance: Moderating effects of grand strategy and industry type. Strategic Management Journal
- Hitt, Ireland, et al.
- 1982
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...rated regression analysis (MRA) is the most common approach for testing fit-based relationships in strategic management research (e.g., Gupta & Govindarajan, 1984; 1986; Hitt, Ireland, & Palia, 1982; =-=Hitt, Ireland, & Stadter, 1982-=-; Prescott, 1986). The use of MRA can be represented through a set of two equations as follows: Y = ao * a^X * ^-jZ * e (2) Y = ag * a^X * a2Z + a3X.Z * e .(3) The moderation hypothesis is supported i... |

7 | Managerial and organization factors associated with company performance - Part II, A contingency analysis - Child - 1975 |

7 | Toward a multi-level congruence theory of organization. Administrative Science Quarterly - Nightingale, Toulouse - 1977 |

7 |
The role of strategy in the development of a general theory of organizations
- Snow, Miles
- 1983
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...Kahn, 1966; Lawrence & Lorsch, 1967; Thompson; 1967; Van de Ven & Drazin, 1985; Woodward, 1965) including strategic management research (Chakravarthy , 1982; Jauch & Osborn, 1981; Miles & Snow, 1978; =-=Snow & Miles, 1983-=-; Venkatraman & Camillus, 1984). However, a major problem in testing theories rooted in this concept lies in the lack of corresponding schemes for its operationalization and statistical testing. Thus,... |

7 |
Construct measurement in strategy research: A critique and proposal. Academy of Management Review
- Venkatraman, Grant
- 1986
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ion that the research results are sensitive to this choice. As we expect that strategy researchers routinely demonstrate the link between conceptual definition and operational measures (Venkatraman & =-=Grant, 1986-=-), it should be that researchers justify not only the measures of their constructs, but also their specific scheme of fit between (or among) the constructs. Specifically, this requires that empirical ... |

6 |
Congruence, contingency, and theory building. Academy of Management Review
- Smith
- 1987
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...sts in strategic management research. Introduction The concept of 'fit' has served as an important building block for theory construction in several areas of management research (Aldrich, 1979; Fry & =-=Smith, 1987-=-; Galbraith, 1977; Katz & Kahn, 1966; Lawrence L Lorsch, 1967; Thompson; 1967; Van de Ven £. Drazin, 1985; Woodward, 1965) including strategic management research (Chakravarthy , 1982; Jauch £• Osborn... |

6 | Exploring the concepts of "fit" in strategic management. Academy o f Management Review - Venkatraman, Camillus - 1984 |

5 |
Theory building and the statistical concept of Interaction
- Blalock
- 1965
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ack of correspondence between the conceptualization (of fit-based propositions) and its mathematical formulation (and statistical testing) weakens the link between theory-building and theory-testing (=-=Blalock, 1965-=-), and could be a major reason for inconsistent results in research streams rooted in this concept. Indeed, Galbraith and Nathanson's following observations nearly a decade ago is equally valid today:... |

5 | Explaining organizational behavior . San Francisco: Jossey-Bass - Mohr - 1982 |

5 | Implementing strategy: Making strategy happen - Stonich - 1982 |

4 | The role of organizational structure and process in strategy implementation - Galbraith, Nathanson - 1979 |

4 |
Environment as a moderator of strategy-performance relationship
- Prescott
- 1986
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...eek to explain variations in business performance through a set of variables reflecting both strategic resource deployments as well as environmental characteristics (see for instance, Hambrick, 1983; =-=Prescott, 1986-=-). Within the variance paradigm, one can distinguish between the 'main effects model' and the fit model.' The former seeks to maximize the variance explained by the chosen set of variables in terms of... |

3 | Review of Aldrich's (1979) book -- Organization and environments. Administrative Science Quarterly - Ven - 1979 |

2 | The organization and environment research program: An overview and critigue - Hrebiniak - 1982 |

2 |
Toward an integrated theory of strategy. Academy of Management Reyiew
- Jauch, Osborn
- 1981
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ry C Smith, 1987; Galbraith, 1977; Katz L Kahn, 1966; Lawrence & Lorsch, 1967; Thompson; 1967; Van de Ven & Drazin, 1985; Woodward, 1965) including strategic management research (Chakravarthy , 1982; =-=Jauch & Osborn, 1981-=-; Miles & Snow, 1978; Snow & Miles, 1983; Venkatraman & Camillus, 1984). However, a major problem in testing theories rooted in this concept lies in the lack of corresponding schemes for its operation... |

1 | A model of the interaction of strategic behavior, corporate context, and the concept of strategy. Academy of Management Review - H - 1983 |

1 |
The logic and use of factor analysis . San Francisco: Jossey-Bass
- Cattell
- 1978
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...of second-order factor within EFA involves a common factor analysis with oblique rotations with correlations among the first-order factors used to examine the possibility of second-order factors (see =-=Cattell, 1978-=-; Chapter 9 for details) . In contrast, the CFA (see Joreskog and Sorbom, 1979) seeks to test one (or, more) theoretically-specified second-order factor(s) against the observed data. Thus, unlike EFA ... |

1 | Adaptation: A promising metaphor for strategic management - S - 1982 |

1 | I ndus trial firm s ground strategy and functional importance: Moderating effects of technology and uncertainty. Academy of Management Journal - Ireland - 1982 |

1 | Strategy, management design, and firm performance. Strategic Management Journal - Horoyitz, Thietart - 1982 |

1 | Toward clarity in contingency hypothesis analysis. Paper presented at the Academy of Management Meeting - Miller - 1982 |

1 | The market share -- profitability relationship: An empirical assessment of assertions and contradictions - Kohli - 1986 |

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Mediation variables in scientific theory
- Roseboom
- 1956
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Citation Context ...ilistic relation Y=f(X), if Z is a probabilistic function of X (i.e., Z=f[X]) and Y is a probabilistic function of Z (i.e., Y=f[Z]), where X, Z, and Y have different distinct theoretical content (see =-=Roseboom, 1956-=-). Figure 3 is a schematic representation of fit as mediation involving three variables, where, Z (say, market-share level) acts as a mediating mechanism (fit) between X (say, strategic decisions) and... |

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Strategic management: A new yiew of business policy and planning
- Schendel, Hofer
- 1979
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Citation Context ...how do we compete?"). Such tests directly address the theoretical position that firm performance is a function of structural factors as well as strategic choice (e.g., Andrews, 1980; Bourgeois, 1980; =-=Schendel & Hofer, 1979-=-). Finally, if the direct effect, a-] is much stronger than the indirect effects, the implication is that there is insignificant role for firm-level conduct (i.e., strategic choice). The second issue ... |

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Performance implications of strategic coalignment. Revised version of the paper presented at the Academy of Management meetings at
- Venkatraman
- 1986
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Citation Context ... among the firstorder factors in terms of second-order factor(s). Fit as covariation is specified as a second-order factor, where the first-order factors represent the dimensions to be coaligned (see =-=Venkatraman, 1986-=-). Given the basic choice in exploratory versus confirmatory specification, the pattern of covariation can be modeled either as exploratory factor analysis (EFA) or confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) ... |