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## TRADITIONAL LECTURE VERSUS AN ACTIVITY APPROACH FOR TEACHING STATISTICS: A COMPARISON OF OUTCOMES (2014)

### Citations

798 | Seven principles for good practice in undergraduate education.
- Chickering, Gamson
- 1987
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...and facilitates higher order thinking such as evaluation and analysis (Bonwell, 1995). Students need to be actively engaged in their learning. Students do not learn as much by listening to a teacher (=-=Chickering & Gamson, 1987-=-). Researchers have demonstrated that students have a short attention span for lectures. According to Thomas (1972) the amount of information retained by students in a lecture dramatically declines af... |

349 | Introduction to the Practice of Statistics, - Moore, McCabe, et al. - 2003 |

289 |
Interactive-Engagement Versus Traditional Methods: A Six-Thousand-Student Survey of
- Hake
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...es. Nevertheless, there are few papers detailing actual comparative experiments (Garfield, 2002; Towns, 1998). Such studies were found for other academic fields (e.g. by Chappell & Killpatrick, 2007; =-=Hake, 1998-=-; Klionsky, 1998), but there are very few comparative experiments that have been conducted in statistics classes. The articles that were discovered are documented and discussed below. Traditional Lect... |

274 | Active Learning: Creating Excitement in the Classroom.
- Bonwell, Eisen
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ning class is to develop students' skills and understanding, not to transfer knowledge to the students. Active learning requires and facilitates higher order thinking such as evaluation and analysis (=-=Bonwell, 1995-=-). Students need to be actively engaged in their learning. Students do not learn as much by listening to a teacher (Chickering & Gamson, 1987). Researchers have demonstrated that students have a short... |

148 | New pedagogy and new content: the case of statistics.
- Moore
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... university settings (Aliaga et al., 2010; Garfield, 2002). As the number of students taking introductory statistics courses has risen, the need for an improved statistics course has become apparent (=-=Moore, 1997-=-). Since, the reform movement started in the early 1990s (delMas, Garfield, Ooms, & Chance, 2007), a multitude of ideas on how to change the introductory statistics 2course have been presented (Cobb, ... |

141 |
How students learn statistics.
- Garfield
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...f us would like to think (1992, p. 9). Research shows that the traditional lecture typically is not very effective. Students often do not remember or understand all they are taught during a lecture (=-=Garfield, 1995-=-; Moore, 2005). The traditional lecture should no longer be the primary method of instruction, but it should be supplemented as much as possible with active learning methods (Aliaga et al., 2010). Whe... |

109 | Adults’ statistical literacy: Meanings, components, responsibilities.
- Gal
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...? Introductory statistics courses are often considered difficult and confusing by students (e.g. see Batanero et al., 2004a; Cobb & Moore, 1997; delMas, Garfield, & Chance, 1999; delMas et al., 2007; =-=Gal, 2004-=-; Garfield & Ben-Zvi, 2007). Many students do not understand the basic concepts, and their limited understanding may be shallow and fragmented (Chance, delMas, & Garfield, 2004; delMas et al., 1999; G... |

100 |
Design research: What we learn when we engage in design.
- Edelson
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...o create instructional materials, conduct experiments using the teaching materials, and then analyze the results and refine the instructional materials (Bakker & Gravemeijer, 2004; Cobb et al., 2003; =-=Edelson, 2002-=-). Perhaps the simplest definition of developmental research comes from Cobb, it involves both instructional development and classroom-based research (1999, p. 6). Edelson (2002) asserted that desig... |

91 |
Qualitative data analysis: A methods sourcebook (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks,
- Miles, Huberman, et al.
- 2013
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...t did you find particularly helpful about today's lesson? • What do you still feel confused about? • Suggestions to improve today's lesson: When analyzing students' comments, loose analysis was used (=-=Miles, Huberman, & Saldana, 2013-=-). In loose analysis, qualitative data are examined without preexisting categories. Instead, the student comments were read and then tagged with categories. Through an iterative process, the student c... |

75 | Generalizations of the familywise error rate.
- Lehmann, Romano
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e. 57 The significance tests conducted for this study are divided into families as described henceforth. A family of tests is defined as a set of tests conducted jointly on a set of data (Abdi, 2010; =-=Lehmann & Romano, 2012-=-). Raftery, Abelly, and Braseltony (2002, p. 261) defines a family as a collection of inferences for which it is meaningful to take into account some overall measure of errors. Which tests should be... |

73 |
Individual and Collective Mathematical Development: The Case of Statistical Data Analysis.
- Cobb
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...nalyzing the results, and then enhancing the materials (Cobb et al., 2003; Edelson, 2002). Indeed, even the conjectures and proposed student learning trajectories are revised throughout the semester (=-=Cobb, 1999-=-). This research study was designed in a way to allow the instructor to use informal and formal assessments to guide the development of the future activities throughout the semester. 40 Participants a... |

65 |
A model of classroom research in action: Developing simulation activities to improve students' statistical reasoning.
- delMas, Garfield, et al.
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...n were searched manually. Why Are Reform Efforts Needed? Introductory statistics courses are often considered difficult and confusing by students (e.g. see Batanero et al., 2004a; Cobb & Moore, 1997; =-=delMas, Garfield, & Chance, 1999-=-; delMas et al., 2007; Gal, 2004; Garfield & Ben-Zvi, 2007). Many students do not understand the basic concepts, and their limited understanding may be shallow and fragmented (Chance, delMas, & Garfie... |

61 |
First courses in statistical science: The status of educational reform efforts.
- Garfield, Hogg, et al.
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...d, I found that students do not respond well to the complete elimination of lectures (1998, p. 337). In fact, implementing active learning in the classroom often leads to lower student evaluations (=-=Garfield, 2002-=-). Students complain that they should not have to teach themselves. As Keeley, Shemberg, Cowell, and Zinnbauer described a typical student's resistance to critical thinking, I want you (the expert)... |

56 |
Teaching and assessing statistical reasoning. In
- Garfield, Gal
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...aticians. Nevertheless, many statisticians and educators hold the conviction that statistics is not merely a sub-branch of mathematics, but is more akin to physics or engineering (Cobb & Moore, 1997; =-=Garfield, 2003-=-) in that statistics is its own field that uses mathematics. A statistics problem may require mathematics, but it also involves generating data, exploring data, choosing an appropriate statistical mod... |

54 |
Teaching statistics using small-group cooperative learning.
- Garfield
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...rk together in small groups to facilitate their own and the other group members' learning (Giraud, 1997). It is generally acknowledged that group work can be an effective learning technique (e.g. see =-=Garfield, 1993-=-; Giraud, 1997; Meyers, 1997; Rosenthal, 1995). Cooperative learning can lead to increased student understanding, positive student attitudes, and greater self-efficacy (Garfield, 1995; Giraud, 1997; K... |

52 |
Wait time: Slowing down may be a way of speeding up!
- Rowe
- 1986
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ssimilate the new information (Ruhl, Hughes, & Schloss, 1987). Sufficient wait time was given after an instructor's question and after a student response to allow students to process the information (=-=Rowe, 1986-=-). Students were occasionally given two to four minutes to work on a problem on their own, but only when the instructor felt that sufficient examples had already been covered. Students did not work to... |

46 |
Assessing students' conceptual understanding after a first course in statistics.
- delMas, Garfield, et al.
- 2007
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...mber of students taking introductory statistics courses has risen, the need for an improved statistics course has become apparent (Moore, 1997). Since, the reform movement started in the early 1990s (=-=delMas, Garfield, Ooms, & Chance, 2007-=-), a multitude of ideas on how to change the introductory statistics 2course have been presented (Cobb, 1992; Garfield, 2002; Moore, 1997). The more prevalent suggestions include more focus on concept... |

46 |
How students learn statistics revisited: A current review of research on teaching and learning statistics.
- Garfield, Ben-Zvi
- 2007
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ory statistics courses are often considered difficult and confusing by students (e.g. see Batanero et al., 2004a; Cobb & Moore, 1997; delMas, Garfield, & Chance, 1999; delMas et al., 2007; Gal, 2004; =-=Garfield & Ben-Zvi, 2007-=-). Many students do not understand the basic concepts, and their limited understanding may be shallow and fragmented (Chance, delMas, & Garfield, 2004; delMas et al., 1999; Garfield & Ben-Zvi, 2007; M... |

44 |
Beyond Testing and Grading: Using Assessment To Improve Student Learning.
- Garfield
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...teractive technology application designed for a specific purpose; usually internetbased. • Assessment: A process of gathering information about a student's progress on the learning goals of a course (=-=Garfield, 1994-=-). Assessment can also refer to the instrument used to gather information. 6• Conceptual: Related to ideas and concepts; often used in terms such as conceptual knowledge, conceptual understanding, or ... |

41 |
Learning to reason about distribution
- Bakker, Gravemeijer
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context .... • Students tend to have difficulty designing and understanding representative samples (Garfield, 2003). • Students tend to focus on individual data points instead of the distribution of a data set (=-=Bakker & Gravemeijer, 2004-=-; Cobb & McClain, 2004; Garfield & Ben-Zvi, 2007). 13 • Students are confused when the expected value for a random variable is not one of the possible values. This is especially true when the possible... |

40 |
Self-efficacy beliefs in college statistics courses.
- Finney, Schraw
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...aturally, most instructors desire students to have 24 high self-efficacy at the end of a course. Self-efficacy has also been shown to correlate with student understanding and performance in a course (=-=Finney & Schraw, 2003-=-; Hall & Vance, 2010). Some Existing Models for Teaching with Reform Statistics The PACE Model A common approach to teaching statistics that incorporates several reform methods is the PACE approach. T... |

39 |
Reasoning about sampling distributions. In
- Chance, delMas, et al.
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...Garfield, & Chance, 1999; delMas et al., 2007; Gal, 2004; Garfield & Ben-Zvi, 2007). Many students do not understand the basic concepts, and their limited understanding may be shallow and fragmented (=-=Chance, delMas, & Garfield, 2004-=-; delMas et al., 1999; Garfield & Ben-Zvi, 2007; Moore, 1997). Students are often able to come to a correct solution without understanding the statistical concepts behind the procedure (Garfield, 1994... |

39 | The importance of pilot studies. - Teijlingen, Hundley - 2001 |

36 |
Using small groups to promote active learning in the introductory statistics course: A report from the field
- Keeler, Steinhorst
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ructors have enjoyed their new courses (Garfield, 2002) and some studies have suggested improved student attitudes and learning outcomes (Batanero, Tauber, & Sánchez, 2004b; Carlson & Winquist, 2011; =-=Keeler & Steinhorst, 1995-=-). However, few comparative studies have been done to actually validate the theory of improved student outcomes with reform methods. Lack of Existing Research The literature is unclear on whether usin... |

36 |
The development and validation of a scale measuring attitudes toward statistics.
- Wise
- 1985
(Show Context)
Citation Context .... The first course should focus on developing statistical reasoning and then future classes can develop their technical statistical abilities (Garfield, 2002). The Attitudes Towards Statistics (ATS) (=-=Wise, 1985-=-) survey was used for this study. However, the Survey of Attitudes Toward Statistics (SATS) (Schau, Stevens, Dauphinee, & Vecchio, 1995) scale might be a better choice for a future study. The SATS sur... |

31 | Using the Pause Procedure to Enhance Lecture Recall." Teacher Education and Special Education, Vol, No 10
- Ruhl
- 1987
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...tor's past experiences as a student and teacher. Attempts were made to give thirty second pauses several times throughout the lecture to allow students to catch up and assimilate the new information (=-=Ruhl, Hughes, & Schloss, 1987-=-). Sufficient wait time was given after an instructor's question and after a student response to allow students to process the information (Rowe, 1986). Students were occasionally given two to four mi... |

26 | Learning about statistical covariation
- Cobb, McClain, et al.
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...earch studies are to create instructional materials, conduct experiments using the teaching materials, and then analyze the results and refine the instructional materials (Bakker & Gravemeijer, 2004; =-=Cobb et al., 2003-=-; Edelson, 2002). Perhaps the simplest definition of developmental research comes from Cobb, it involves both instructional development and classroom-based research (1999, p. 6). Edelson (2002) asse... |

26 |
The ‘Muddiest Point in the Lecture’ as a Feedback device, On Teaching and Learning, The Journal of Harvard-Danforth Center,
- Mosteller
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... slips were also used to judge student comprehension and understanding. The exit slips are a variation of common feedback devices, such as minute papers and muddiest point in the lecture questions (=-=Mosteller, 1989-=-). Students were encouraged, but not required to respond to the questions on the exit slip. The questions were the same each day. The questions were: • What did you find particularly helpful about tod... |

25 |
A comparison of mathematical and statistical reasoning. In
- delMas
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...In addition, statistics requires a different type of reasoning than mathematics does (Garfield, 2003). An obvious difference between mathematics and statistics is that statistics is based in context (=-=delMas, 2004-=-). Mathematics can deal with numbers stripped of any context. In statistics, the context of the numbers can be crucial; solutions to statistical problems need to be communicated in context (Cobb & Moo... |

20 | Teaching mathematics in secondary and middle school: An interactive approach (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ - Cangelosi - 2003 |

20 | Assessment in statistics education: Issues and challenges.
- Garfield, Chance
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...udents to emerge from a statistics course statistically literate, with reasoning abilities they can accurately apply to statistical situations, and the ability to apply statistical methods correctly (=-=Garfield & Chance, 2000-=-). Students Need to be Actively Engaged in the Learning Process Traditionally, teachers are the authority in the classroom, delivering the knowledge to their students and controlling what the students... |

19 |
Cooperative learning and statistics instruction
- Giraud
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...aught using lecture in some sections and reform methods in other sections. Even fewer are studies in which the sections were taught for the same course, in the same semester, and by the same teacher (=-=Giraud, 1997-=-). Variation in exam scores, student comprehension of concepts, and student attitudes is expected to occur from instructor to instructor. The ability and background of students also varies from sectio... |

18 | Training teachers to teach probability.
- Batanero, Godino, et al.
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...stically literate. Every person should be able to interpret the statistics they encounter in their personal or professional lives and be able to make decisions based on the data (Aliaga et al., 2010; =-=Batanero, Godino, & Roa, 2004-=-a; Pfannkuch, 2008). Since the 1980s, interest in statistics education has grown, resulting in an increase of statistical education research and literature. Statistics topics have become more prevalen... |

13 |
Comparison of three instructional methods for teaching cardiopulmonary resuscitation and use of an automatic external defibrillator to high school students. Resuscitation. 2006; 69:443–53. [PubMed: 16678958
- Reder, Cummings, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...iraud, 1997). The articles described studies with 2 to 19 classes. Only one article acknowledged the fact that students within a class might not be independent and that there could be a class effect (=-=Reder, Cummings, & Quan, 2006-=-). The researchers used a hierarchical general linear mixed regression model to account for the clustering effect. However, their study included 36 classes; it is less common to see studies with so ma... |

12 | Analyzing Likert Data’. - Boone, Boone - 2012 |

12 | Coping with student resistance to critical thinking: what the psychotherapy literature can tell us, - KEELEY, SHEMBERG, et al. - 1995 |

12 | Development and assessment of a preliminary randomisation-based introductory statistics curriculum.
- Tintle, VandenStoep, et al.
- 2011
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...sary. They transitioned from a more traditional mix of lecture and laboratory exercises, to a focus on tactile, self-discovery learning experiences supported by a mix of lecture and concept review (=-=Tintle et al., 2011-=-, p. 6). Students were taught in multiple sections of approximately 25 students each. 28 Students in both courses were given the Comprehensive Assessment of Outcomes in a First Statistics course (CAOS... |

11 |
Holm’s sequential Bonferroni procedure. In N. Salkind (Eds.), Encyclopedia of research design
- Abdi
- 2010
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ple tests necessitates controlling the familywise error rate. The familywise error rate is the probability of rejecting at least one true null hypothesis when multiple hypothesis tests are conducted (=-=Abdi, 2010-=-). For example, if 100 tests are performed at the α = .05 level, then even if the null hypothesis was true, we would expect to see approximately five significant results, or false positives which are ... |

11 |
Principles of instructional design for supporting the development of students' statistical reasoning
- Cobb, McClain
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...h types of procedures rest on the concept of sampling distributions; understanding sampling distributions has been shown to be difficult for students even at the university level (Cobb & Moore, 1997; =-=Cobb & McClain, 2004-=-). Chance et al. described students' difficulty with inferential statistics. While many students may be able to carry out the necessary calculations, they are often unable to understand the underlying... |

11 |
Increasing student participation and productivity in small-group activities for psychology classes
- Meyers
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... facilitate their own and the other group members' learning (Giraud, 1997). It is generally acknowledged that group work can be an effective learning technique (e.g. see Garfield, 1993; Giraud, 1997; =-=Meyers, 1997-=-; Rosenthal, 1995). Cooperative learning can lead to increased student understanding, positive student attitudes, and greater self-efficacy (Garfield, 1995; Giraud, 1997; Keeler & Steinhorst, 1995; To... |

11 |
Model for active learning: Collaborative peer teaching.
- Rubin, Hebert
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...r-centered methods in the following areas: application of concepts, problem solving, attitude, motivation, group membership and leadership skills... (McKeachie, Pintrich, Lin and Smith as quoted in =-=Rubin & Hebert, 1998-=-, p. 26). Active Learning in the Statistics Education Literature As Moore (1997) asserted, the views of teaching statistic have moved from information transfer to a constructivist approach. Instead of... |

11 |
How do I get my students to work together? Getting cooperative learning started.
- Towns
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...97; Rosenthal, 1995). Cooperative learning can lead to increased student understanding, positive student attitudes, and greater self-efficacy (Garfield, 1995; Giraud, 1997; Keeler & Steinhorst, 1995; =-=Towns, 1998-=-). Benefits of group work include: students teach each other, at least one student in a group will probably be able to understand a given topic, students discuss ideas, and students can give each othe... |

9 |
A cooperative learning approach to teaching introductory biology
- Klionsky
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...less, there are few papers detailing actual comparative experiments (Garfield, 2002; Towns, 1998). Such studies were found for other academic fields (e.g. by Chappell & Killpatrick, 2007; Hake, 1998; =-=Klionsky, 1998-=-), but there are very few comparative experiments that have been conducted in statistics classes. The articles that were discovered are documented and discussed below. Traditional Lecture Versus a Ran... |

8 |
Statistics in action: Understanding a world of data.
- Watkins, Scheaffer, et al.
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...y textbooks that claim to be conceptually intensive and even a few textbooks that are focused on activities, two examples are Workshop Statistics (Rossman & Chance, 2012)and Statistics in Action (=-=Watkins, Scheaffer, & Cobb, 2004-=-). However, the Introduction to the Practice of Statistics textbook is traditionally used for STAT 2000 at Utah State University. For the spring semester, the textbooks had already been ordered throu... |

7 |
Students’ reasoning about the normal distribution. In
- Batanero, Tauber, et al.
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...s. Anecdotal evidence suggests that the majority of these instructors have enjoyed their new courses (Garfield, 2002) and some studies have suggested improved student attitudes and learning outcomes (=-=Batanero, Tauber, & Sánchez, 2004-=-b; Carlson & Winquist, 2011; Keeler & Steinhorst, 1995). However, few comparative studies have been done to actually validate the theory of improved student outcomes with reform methods. Lack of Exist... |

7 |
Variations on Split Plot and Split Block Experiment Designs,
- Federer, King
- 2007
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...gnificantly throughout the semester, with regard to enjoyment? Sample Size Versus Experimental Unit An experimental unit is considered to be the smallest unit that can have a treatment applied to it (=-=Federer & King, 2007-=-; Lazic, 2010; Stoker, King, & Foster, 1981). The sample size, usually reported as n, is commonly defined as the number of experimental units. However, the definition of sample size can be ambiguous. ... |

7 |
Mathematics teachers teaching statistics: What are the challenges for the classroom teacher?
- Nicholson, Darnton
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...after a long mathematical career. Because mathematics commonly has only one correct answer to a problem, statistics teachers trained in mathematics often focus on a procedural approach to statistics (=-=Nicholson & Darnton, 2003-=-). As a result, students can often give a correct answer to a statistical question without understanding the underlying statistical concepts (Garfield, 1994; Meletiou-Mavrotheris et al., 2007). Even w... |

6 | Evaluating an active learning approach to teaching introductory statistics: A classroom workbook approach
- Carlson, Winquist
- 2011
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...the majority of these instructors have enjoyed their new courses (Garfield, 2002) and some studies have suggested improved student attitudes and learning outcomes (Batanero, Tauber, & Sánchez, 2004b; =-=Carlson & Winquist, 2011-=-; Keeler & Steinhorst, 1995). However, few comparative studies have been done to actually validate the theory of improved student outcomes with reform methods. Lack of Existing Research The literature... |

6 |
On the formalist view of mathematics: Impact on statistics instruction and learning
- Meletiou-Mavrotheris
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...hers are trying to introduce innovative methods, a substantial number of teachers and professors find themselves resorting to the old standby of a lecture (Meletiou-Mavrotheris, Lee, & Fouladi, 2007; =-=Meletiou-Mavrotheris, 2003-=-). Many established teachers either have no desire to revamp their curriculum, no time to do so, or no idea how to actually undertake such a monumental task. Incoming teachers are presented with new i... |

6 |
Preparing Graduate Students to Teach Statistics: Introduction.
- Moore
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...to think (1992, p. 9). Research shows that the traditional lecture typically is not very effective. Students often do not remember or understand all they are taught during a lecture (Garfield, 1995; =-=Moore, 2005-=-). The traditional lecture should no longer be the primary method of instruction, but it should be supplemented as much as possible with active learning methods (Aliaga et al., 2010). When Is Lecture ... |

6 | Do hands-on activities increase student understanding? A case study.
- Pfaff, J, et al.
- 2009
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ttitudes or test scores with active learning techniques (Keeler & Steinhorst, 1995), while other studies have shown little or no effect on student learning outcomes (MeletiouMavrotheris et al., 2007; =-=Pfaff & Weinberg, 2009-=-). Finally, some studies have shown a detrimental effect when using active learning methods (Brandsma, 2000; Weltman & Whiteside, 2010). One possibility for the conflicting results is the variety of a... |

6 |
Active learning strategies in advanced mathematics classes
- Rosenthal
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...earn by doing the thing, for though you think you know it-you have no certainty until you try. An old proverb expresses the same sentiment, I hear, I forget; I see, I remember; I do, I understand (=-=Rosenthal, 1995-=-, p. 223). Studies have shown that active learning methods give better results than teacher-centered methods in the following areas: application of concepts, problem solving, attitude, motivation, gr... |

5 | Assessing the statistics knowledge of pre-service teachers - Burgess - 2001 |

5 | The variation of memory with time for information appearing during a lecture. Stud Adult Educ. - Thomas - 1972 |

5 | Retention of statistical concepts in a preliminary randomisation-based introductory statistics curriculum.
- Tintle, Topliff, et al.
- 2012
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...andard deviation from a boxplot (Tintle et al., 2011). Yet when the overall scores for the entire CAOS test are considered, the students in the traditional course have slightly higher average scores (=-=Tintle, Topliff, Vanderstoep, Holmes, & Swanson, 2012-=-). Overall, the randomization course showed promise to improve student comprehension of statistical inference, but there is not enough evidence to draw firm conclusions. Also, the authors changed not ... |

4 |
Effects of concept-based instruction on students’ conceptual understanding and procedural knowledge of calculus.
- Chappell, Killpatrick
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... with active learning techniques. Nevertheless, there are few papers detailing actual comparative experiments (Garfield, 2002; Towns, 1998). Such studies were found for other academic fields (e.g. by =-=Chappell & Killpatrick, 2007-=-; Hake, 1998; Klionsky, 1998), but there are very few comparative experiments that have been conducted in statistics classes. The articles that were discovered are documented and discussed below. Trad... |

4 | Toward the development and validation of the reasoning about p-values and statistical significance scale - Lane-Getaz |

4 |
The problem of pseudoreplication in neuroscientific studies: is it affecting your analysis
- Lazic
- 2010
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... the semester, with regard to enjoyment? Sample Size Versus Experimental Unit An experimental unit is considered to be the smallest unit that can have a treatment applied to it (Federer & King, 2007; =-=Lazic, 2010-=-; Stoker, King, & Foster, 1981). The sample size, usually reported as n, is commonly defined as the number of experimental units. However, the definition of sample size can be ambiguous. Many times, r... |

4 |
Introductory statistics, college student attitudes and knowledge - A qualitative analysis of the impact of technology-based instruction
- Meletiou-Mavrotheris, Lee, et al.
- 2007
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ng strategies. Nevertheless, while many teachers are trying to introduce innovative methods, a substantial number of teachers and professors find themselves resorting to the old standby of a lecture (=-=Meletiou-Mavrotheris, Lee, & Fouladi, 2007-=-; Meletiou-Mavrotheris, 2003). Many established teachers either have no desire to revamp their curriculum, no time to do so, or no idea how to actually undertake such a monumental task. Incoming teach... |

4 |
Training teachers to develop statistical thinking. In Joint ICMI/IASE Study: Teaching Statistics in School Mathematics: Challenges for Teaching and Teacher Education , edited by
- Pfannkuch
- 2008
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...should be able to interpret the statistics they encounter in their personal or professional lives and be able to make decisions based on the data (Aliaga et al., 2010; Batanero, Godino, & Roa, 2004a; =-=Pfannkuch, 2008-=-). Since the 1980s, interest in statistics education has grown, resulting in an increase of statistical education research and literature. Statistics topics have become more prevalent in elementary, s... |

4 | Workshop Statistics: Using Technology to Promote Learning by SelfDiscovery
- Rossman
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...esearch was worthwhile (Chance, 2012; Rossman, 2012). 29 As of 2012, Rossman had not conducted any experiments to see if his workshop statistics approach actually resulted in higher student outcomes (=-=Rossman, 1995-=-, 2012). In personal correspondence Rossman indicated that he only knew of one research study that compared Workshop Statistics to a control group (Rossman, 2012). John Zhang and Charles Bertness cond... |

4 | Overview of ActivityBased Statistics: Student Guide - Scheaffer, Watkins, et al. - 1996 |

4 |
Assessment of quantitative reasoning to enhance educational quality
- Sundre
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...t of students' statistical reasoning was unrelated to their learning outcomes in the course. The correlation between items was low suggesting that the reliability of the instrument was not very high (=-=Sundre, 2003-=-; Tempelaar, 2004). The items on the SRA are interesting, but purely conceptual and quite limited in content; the majority of SRA items are focused on probability. As the goal of this research study w... |

4 | Statistical Reasoning Assessment: an Analysis of the SRA Instrument
- Tempelaar, Dirk
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... a classroom with prior beliefs, misconceptions, and incorrect intuition. Unfortunately, changing beliefs and intuition can be a lengthy and arduous process (Garfield, 1995; Garfield & Ben-Zvi, 2007; =-=Tempelaar, 2004-=-). Proposed Methods for Teaching Statistics While many resources and suggestions to reform statistics education can be found, the prominent source is the Guidelines for Assessment and Instruction in S... |

3 |
Data Collection and Analysis: Examining Community College Students' Understanding of Elementary Statistics through Laboratory Activities . (Doctoral dissertation
- Brandsma
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... little or no effect on student learning outcomes (MeletiouMavrotheris et al., 2007; Pfaff & Weinberg, 2009). Finally, some studies have shown a detrimental effect when using active learning methods (=-=Brandsma, 2000-=-; Weltman & Whiteside, 2010). One possibility for the conflicting results is the variety of active learning methods that have been used in the studies (Carlson & Winquist, 2011). In fact, Garfield (20... |

3 |
Teaching statistics. In Heading the Call for Change: Suggestions for Curricular Action, edited by
- Cobb
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ..., 1997). Since, the reform movement started in the early 1990s (delMas, Garfield, Ooms, & Chance, 2007), a multitude of ideas on how to change the introductory statistics 2course have been presented (=-=Cobb, 1992-=-; Garfield, 2002; Moore, 1997). The more prevalent suggestions include more focus on concepts, more active learning, and more technology (Aliaga et al., 2010; Cobb, 1992; Moore, 1997). The committees ... |

3 | Improving self-efficacy in statistics: Role of self-explanation & feedback
- Hall, Vance
- 2010
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ducation; e.g. fewer lectures, more active learning, cooperative learning, technology, and assessment (Aliaga et al., 2010). • Self-efficacy: A student's view of his or her own knowledge and ability (=-=Hall & Vance, 2010-=-). 7LITERATURE REVIEW The literature review that follows describes the need for statistics education reform, the benefits and implementation of active learning techniques, and specific reform oriented... |

2 | Development and Validation of a Research-based Assessment: Reasoning about P-values and Statistical Significance. (Doctoral dissertation - Lane-Getaz |

2 | Two applets for teaching hypothesis testing
- Schneiter
- 2008
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ample, consider a p-value. Students typically desire a concrete interpretation of the p-value such as the common, but false, notion that a p-value is the probability that the null hypothesis is true (=-=Schneiter, 2008-=-). The theoretically correct, but very abstract, interpretation may feel like circular logic. Statistics Deals with Variability and Uncertainty Statistical content is based on variability and uncertai... |

2 |
A comparison of two methods of teaching research to master of social work students
- Walsh, Hewson
- 2012
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Citation Context ...o determine their statistical methods. Nineteen of the twenty articles used the number of participants as the sample size and did not account for any hierarchical structure (e.g. Tintle et al., 2011; =-=Walsh & Hewson, 2012-=-; Stanton, 1997; Thomas, 2008; Chappell & Killpatrick, 2007; Carlson & Winquist, 2011; Giraud, 1997). The articles described studies with 2 to 19 classes. Only one article acknowledged the fact that s... |

1 |
Recent dissertations
- Brandsma
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...g a lecture approach. A year later, she taught 40 students in two sections of the same course using the same basic lecture approach, but she inserted ten disjoint, constructive hands-on activities (=-=Brandsma, 2001-=-, p. 9). Students in the class with activities scored higher on only one exam and students in the traditional class actually showed higher retention in interviews conducted eight weeks after the end o... |

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Guidelines for group work
- Cuseo
- 1997
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Citation Context ... critical thinking, Cuseo (1997) recommends that instructors carefully choose the groups. Cuseo explained that there is not a specific recommended group size, but most groups range from 3-6 students (=-=Cuseo, 1997-=-). Depending on the situation, homogenous or heterogeneous group formations might be desired. Students can be placed into groups based on gender, ethnicity, or statistical ability (Cuseo, 1997; Keeler... |

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ARTIST topic scales. Retrieved from https://apps3.cehd.umn.edu/artist/index.html
- delMas
- 2006
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Citation Context ... of the ARTIST project, the ARTIST Topic Scales were developed. The scales are short tests each designed to assess one of eleven topics. Each scale contains seven to fifteen multiple 37 choice items (=-=delMas, 2006-=-). According to an email correspondence with delMas, no systematic analysis or validation study has been conducted on the ARTIST Topic Scales (delMas, 2012). Reasoning about P-values and Statistical S... |

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Experimental unit. Retrieved from http://isogenic.info/html/6__experimental_unit.html
- Festing
- 2012
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Citation Context ...toker et al., 1981). This concern can be addressed by using the average value for each experimental unit instead of the value from each participant; unfortunately, this method loses much of the data (=-=Festing, 2012-=-). In addition, it is impractical for situations with small numbers of experimental units. Another method is to use hierarchical models to analyze the data (Stoker et al., 1981). 60 Hierarchical struc... |

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Interactive lectures. Retrieved from http://serc.carleton.edu/sp/library/interactive/index.html
- Macdonald, Teed
- 2012
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Citation Context ...ile lecture still needs to be used in the classroom, it should be used less (Moore, 1997). Use Interactive Lectures One possible method to make lectures more effective is to use interactive lectures (=-=Macdonald & Teed, 2012-=-). The lecture can be broken up with short segments of active learning methods such as demonstrations, discussions, or activities. Methods should be used that allow all students to participate. Weltma... |

1 | Developing and Validating an Instrument to Measure College Students' Inferential Reasoning in Statistics: An Argument-Based Approach to Validation . (Doctoral dissertation - Park - 2012 |

1 | Multiple comparison methods for means - Raftery, Abelly, et al. - 2002 |

1 |
Email interview
- Rossman
- 2012
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Citation Context ...tudies involving active learning methods and lecture. They both established that there was little research in this arena, and expressed the opinion that further research was worthwhile (Chance, 2012; =-=Rossman, 2012-=-). 29 As of 2012, Rossman had not conducted any experiments to see if his workshop statistics approach actually resulted in higher student outcomes (Rossman, 1995, 2012). In personal correspondence Ro... |

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The development and validation of the survey of atitudes toward statistics
- Schau, Stevens, et al.
- 1995
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Citation Context ... their technical statistical abilities (Garfield, 2002). The Attitudes Towards Statistics (ATS) (Wise, 1985) survey was used for this study. However, the Survey of Attitudes Toward Statistics (SATS) (=-=Schau, Stevens, Dauphinee, & Vecchio, 1995-=-) scale might be a better choice for a future study. The SATS survey has a specific pretest and 118 posttest version. This would allow a more precise measurement of the change in student attitudes tow... |

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Effectiveness Comparison for Two Methods of Teaching Process Simulation to Industrial Technology Students. (Doctoral dissertation
- Stanton
- 1997
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Citation Context ...istical methods. Nineteen of the twenty articles used the number of participants as the sample size and did not account for any hierarchical structure (e.g. Tintle et al., 2011; Walsh & Hewson, 2012; =-=Stanton, 1997-=-; Thomas, 2008; Chappell & Killpatrick, 2007; Carlson & Winquist, 2011; Giraud, 1997). The articles described studies with 2 to 19 classes. Only one article acknowledged the fact that students within ... |

1 | The class as an experimental unit
- Stoker, King, et al.
- 1981
(Show Context)
Citation Context ..., with regard to enjoyment? Sample Size Versus Experimental Unit An experimental unit is considered to be the smallest unit that can have a treatment applied to it (Federer & King, 2007; Lazic, 2010; =-=Stoker, King, & Foster, 1981-=-). The sample size, usually reported as n, is commonly defined as the number of experimental units. However, the definition of sample size can be ambiguous. Many times, researchers consider the number... |

1 | A Comparison of Three Instructional MethodsTeacher-Directed Lectureand Text-Based Instruction, Analog Video
- Thomas
- 2008
(Show Context)
Citation Context .... Nineteen of the twenty articles used the number of participants as the sample size and did not account for any hierarchical structure (e.g. Tintle et al., 2011; Walsh & Hewson, 2012; Stanton, 1997; =-=Thomas, 2008-=-; Chappell & Killpatrick, 2007; Carlson & Winquist, 2011; Giraud, 1997). The articles described studies with 2 to 19 classes. Only one article acknowledged the fact that students within a class might ... |

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Learning to teach statistics through project work
- Vithal
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ining their thinking, and listening to other students explain their thinking. Students should be involved in laboratory exercises and projects (Aliaga et al., 2010; Garfield, 1995; Moore, 1997, 2005; =-=Vithal, 2002-=-). There should be a variety of learning activities in a classroom. Direct instruction still has a place in learning, but it should be used less often. The student learning objectives have also change... |

1 | Comparing the effectiveness of traditional and active learning methods in business statistics: Convergence to the mean - Weltman, M - 2010 |