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74
Dynamic Bayesian Networks: Representation, Inference and Learning
, 2002
"... Modelling sequential data is important in many areas of science and engineering. Hidden Markov models (HMMs) and Kalman filter models (KFMs) are popular for this because they are simple and flexible. For example, HMMs have been used for speech recognition and biosequence analysis, and KFMs have bee ..."
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Cited by 565 (3 self)
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Modelling sequential data is important in many areas of science and engineering. Hidden Markov models (HMMs) and Kalman filter models (KFMs) are popular for this because they are simple and flexible. For example, HMMs have been used for speech recognition and biosequence analysis, and KFMs have been used for problems ranging from tracking planes and missiles to predicting the economy. However, HMMs
and KFMs are limited in their “expressive power”. Dynamic Bayesian Networks (DBNs) generalize HMMs by allowing the state space to be represented in factored form, instead of as a single discrete random variable. DBNs generalize KFMs by allowing arbitrary probability distributions, not just (unimodal) linearGaussian. In this thesis, I will discuss how to represent many different kinds of models as DBNs, how to perform exact and approximate inference in DBNs, and how to learn DBN models from sequential data.
In particular, the main novel technical contributions of this thesis are as follows: a way of representing
Hierarchical HMMs as DBNs, which enables inference to be done in O(T) time instead of O(T 3), where T is the length of the sequence; an exact smoothing algorithm that takes O(log T) space instead of O(T); a simple way of using the junction tree algorithm for online inference in DBNs; new complexity bounds on exact online inference in DBNs; a new deterministic approximate inference algorithm called factored frontier; an analysis of the relationship between the BK algorithm and loopy belief propagation; a way of
applying RaoBlackwellised particle filtering to DBNs in general, and the SLAM (simultaneous localization
and mapping) problem in particular; a way of extending the structural EM algorithm to DBNs; and a variety of different applications of DBNs. However, perhaps the main value of the thesis is its catholic presentation of the field of sequential data modelling.
The maxmin hillclimbing bayesian network structure learning algorithm
 Machine Learning
, 2006
"... Abstract. We present a new algorithm for Bayesian network structure learning, called MaxMin HillClimbing (MMHC). The algorithm combines ideas from local learning, constraintbased, and searchandscore techniques in a principled and effective way. It first reconstructs the skeleton of a Bayesian n ..."
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Cited by 75 (7 self)
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Abstract. We present a new algorithm for Bayesian network structure learning, called MaxMin HillClimbing (MMHC). The algorithm combines ideas from local learning, constraintbased, and searchandscore techniques in a principled and effective way. It first reconstructs the skeleton of a Bayesian network and then performs a Bayesianscoring greedy hillclimbing search to orient the edges. In our extensive empirical evaluation MMHC outperforms on average and in terms of various metrics several prototypical and stateoftheart algorithms, namely the PC, Sparse Candidate, Three Phase Dependency Analysis, Optimal Reinsertion, Greedy Equivalence Search, and Greedy Search. These are the first empirical results simultaneously comparing most of the major Bayesian network algorithms against each other. MMHC offers certain theoretical advantages, specifically over the Sparse Candidate algorithm, corroborated by our experiments. MMHC and detailed results of our study are publicly available at
Semisupervised Learning of Classifiers: Theory, Algorithms and Their Application to HumanComputer Interaction
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PATTERN ANALYSIS AND MACHINE INTELLIGENCE
, 2004
"... Automatic classification is one of the basic tasks required in any pattern recognition and human computer interaction application. In this paper we discuss training probabilistic classifiers with labeled and unlabeled data. We provide a new analysis that shows under what conditions unlabeled data ..."
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Cited by 60 (15 self)
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Automatic classification is one of the basic tasks required in any pattern recognition and human computer interaction application. In this paper we discuss training probabilistic classifiers with labeled and unlabeled data. We provide a new analysis that shows under what conditions unlabeled data can be used in learning to improve classification performance. We also show that if the conditions are violated, using unlabeled data can be detrimental to classification performance. We discuss the implications of this analysis to a specific type of probabilistic classifiers, Bayesian networks, and propose a new structure learning algorithm that can utilize unlabeled data to improve classification. Finally, we show how the resulting algorithms are successfully employed in two applications related to humancomputer interaction and pattern recognition; facial expression recognition and face detection.
Structural extension to logistic regression: Discriminative parameter learning of belief net classifiers
 In Proceedings of the Eighteenth Annual National Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI02
, 2002
"... Abstract. Bayesian belief nets (BNs) are often used for classification tasks — typically to return the most likely class label for each specified instance. Many BNlearners, however, attempt to find the BN that maximizes a different objective function — viz., likelihood, rather than classification a ..."
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Cited by 59 (8 self)
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Abstract. Bayesian belief nets (BNs) are often used for classification tasks — typically to return the most likely class label for each specified instance. Many BNlearners, however, attempt to find the BN that maximizes a different objective function — viz., likelihood, rather than classification accuracy — typically by first learning an appropriate graphical structure, then finding the parameters for that structure that maximize the likelihood of the data. As these parameters may not maximize the classification accuracy, “discriminative parameter learners ” follow the alternative approach of seeking the parameters that maximize conditional likelihood (CL), over the distribution of instances the BN will have to classify. This paper first formally specifies this task, shows how it extends standard logistic regression, and analyzes its inherent sample and computational complexity. We then present a general algorithm for this task, ELR, that applies to arbitrary BN structures and that works effectively even when given incomplete training data. Unfortunately, ELR is not guaranteed to find the parameters that optimize conditional likelihood; moreover, even the optimalCL parameters need not have minimal classification error. This paper therefore presents empirical evidence that ELR produces effective classifiers, often superior to the ones produced by the standard “generative” algorithms, especially in common situations where the given BNstructure is incorrect. Keywords: (Bayesian) belief nets, Logistic regression, Classification, PAClearning, Computational/sample complexity
Learning factor graphs in polynomial time and sample complexity
 JMLR
, 2006
"... We study the computational and sample complexity of parameter and structure learning in graphical models. Our main result shows that the class of factor graphs with bounded degree can be learned in polynomial time and from a polynomial number of training examples, assuming that the data is generated ..."
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Cited by 45 (0 self)
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We study the computational and sample complexity of parameter and structure learning in graphical models. Our main result shows that the class of factor graphs with bounded degree can be learned in polynomial time and from a polynomial number of training examples, assuming that the data is generated by a network in this class. This result covers both parameter estimation for a known network structure and structure learning. It implies as a corollary that we can learn factor graphs for both Bayesian networks and Markov networks of bounded degree, in polynomial time and sample complexity. Importantly, unlike standard maximum likelihood estimation algorithms, our method does not require inference in the underlying network, and so applies to networks where inference is intractable. We also show that the error of our learned model degrades gracefully when the generating distribution is not a member of the target class of networks. In addition to our main result, we show that the sample complexity of parameter learning in graphical models has an O(1) dependence on the number of variables in the model when using the KLdivergence normalized by the number of variables as the performance criterion.
Learning Bayesian Networks from Data: An Efficient Approach Based on Information Theory
, 1997
"... This paper addresses the problem of learning Bayesian network structures from data by using an information theoretic dependency analysis approach. Based on our threephase construction mechanism, two efficient algorithms have been developed. One of our algorithms deals with a special case where the ..."
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Cited by 35 (0 self)
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This paper addresses the problem of learning Bayesian network structures from data by using an information theoretic dependency analysis approach. Based on our threephase construction mechanism, two efficient algorithms have been developed. One of our algorithms deals with a special case where the node ordering is given, the algorithm only require ) ( 2 N O CI tests and is correct given that the underlying model is DAGFaithful [Spirtes et. al., 1996]. The other algorithm deals with the general case and requires ) ( 4 N O conditional independence (CI) tests. It is correct given that the underlying model is monotone DAGFaithful (see Section 4.4). A system based on these algorithms has been developed and distributed through the Internet. The empirical results show that our approach is efficient and reliable. 1 Introduction The Bayesian network is a powerful knowledge representation and reasoning tool under conditions of uncertainty. A Bayesian network is a directed acyclic graph ...
Time and Sample Efficient Discovery of Markov Blankets And Direct Causal Relations
 Proceedings of the 9th CAN SIGKDD International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining
, 2003
"... Data Mining with Bayesian Network learning has two important characteristics: under broad conditions learned edges between variables correspond to causal influences, and second, for every variable T in the network a special subset (Markov Blanket) identifiable by the network is the mini mal variabl ..."
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Cited by 28 (7 self)
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Data Mining with Bayesian Network learning has two important characteristics: under broad conditions learned edges between variables correspond to causal influences, and second, for every variable T in the network a special subset (Markov Blanket) identifiable by the network is the mini mal variable set required to predict T. However, all known algorithms learning a complete BN do not scale up beyond a few hundred variables. On the other hand, all known sound algorithms learning a local region of the network require an exponential number of training instances to the size of the learned region.
Quantifying and visualizing attribute interactions: An approach based on entropy
 http://arxiv.org/abs/cs.AI/0308002 v3
, 2004
"... Interactions are patterns between several attributes in data that cannot be inferred from any subset of these attributes. While mutual information is a wellestablished approach to evaluating the interactions between two attributes, we surveyed its generalizations as to quantify interactions between ..."
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Cited by 25 (4 self)
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Interactions are patterns between several attributes in data that cannot be inferred from any subset of these attributes. While mutual information is a wellestablished approach to evaluating the interactions between two attributes, we surveyed its generalizations as to quantify interactions between several attributes. We have chosen McGill’s interaction information, which has been independently rediscovered a number of times under various names in various disciplines, because of its many intuitively appealing properties. We apply interaction information to visually present the most important interactions of the data. Visualization of interactions has provided insight into the structure of data on a number of domains, identifying redundant attributes and opportunities for constructing new features, discovering unexpected regularities in data, and have helped during construction of predictive models; we illustrate the methods on numerous examples. A machine learning method that disregards interactions may get caught in two traps: myopia is caused by learning algorithms assuming independence in spite of interactions, whereas fragmentation arises from assuming an interaction in spite of independence.
A Scoring Function for Learning Bayesian Networks based on Mutual Information and Conditional Independence Tests
 JOURNAL OF MACHINE LEARNING RESEARCH
, 2006
"... We propose a new scoring function for learning Bayesian networks from data using score search algorithms. This is based on the concept of mutual information and exploits some wellknown properties of this measure in a novel way. Essentially, a statistical independence test based on the chisquare di ..."
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Cited by 17 (0 self)
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We propose a new scoring function for learning Bayesian networks from data using score search algorithms. This is based on the concept of mutual information and exploits some wellknown properties of this measure in a novel way. Essentially, a statistical independence test based on the chisquare distribution, associated with the mutual information measure, together with a property of additive decomposition of this measure, are combined in order to measure the degree of interaction between each variable and its parent variables in the network. The result is a nonBayesian scoring function called MIT (mutual information tests) which belongs to the family of scores based on information theory. The MIT score also represents a penalization of the KullbackLeibler divergence between the joint probability distributions associated with a candidate network and with the available data set. Detailed results of a complete experimental evaluation of the proposed scoring function and its comparison with the wellknown K2, BDeu and BIC/MDL scores are also presented.
An effective structure learning method for constructing gene networks
 Bioinformatics
, 2006
"... Motivation: Bayesian network methods have shown promise in gene regulatory network reconstruction because of their capability of capturing causal relationships between genes and handling data with noises found in biological experiments. The problem of learning network structures, however, is NP hard ..."
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Cited by 15 (1 self)
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Motivation: Bayesian network methods have shown promise in gene regulatory network reconstruction because of their capability of capturing causal relationships between genes and handling data with noises found in biological experiments. The problem of learning network structures, however, is NP hard. Consequently, heuristic methods such as hill climbing are used for structure learning. For networks of a moderate size, hill climbing methods are not computationally efficient. Furthermore, relatively low accuracy of the learned structures may be observed. The purpose of this paper is to present a novel structure learning method for gene network discovery.. Results: In this paper, we present a novel structure learning method to reconstruct the underlying gene networks from the observational gene expression data. Unlike hill climbing approaches, the proposed method first constructs an undirected network based on mutual information between two nodes and then split the structure into substructures. The directional orientations for the edges that connect two nodes are then obtained by optimizing a scoring function for each substructure. Our method is evaluated using two benchmark network datasets with known structures. The results show that the proposed method can identify networks that are close to the optimal structures. It outperforms hill climbing methods in terms of both computation time and predicted structure accuracy. We also apply the method to gene expression data measured during the yeast cycle and show the effectiveness of the proposed method for network reconstruction.