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Finding Maximum Clique in Stochastic Graphs Using Distributed Learning Automata
 International Journal of Uncertainty, Fuzziness and KnowledgeBased Systems
, 2015
"... Because of unpredictable, uncertain and timevarying nature of real networks it seems that stochastic graphs, in which weights associated to the edges are random variables, may be a better candidate as a graph model for real world networks. Once the graph model is chosen to be a stochastic graph, ev ..."
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Because of unpredictable, uncertain and timevarying nature of real networks it seems that stochastic graphs, in which weights associated to the edges are random variables, may be a better candidate as a graph model for real world networks. Once the graph model is chosen to be a stochastic graph, every feature of the graph such as path, clique, spanning tree and dominating set, to mention a few, should be treated as a stochastic feature. For example, choosing stochastic graph as the graph model of an online social network and defining community structure in terms of clique, and the associations among the individuals within the community as random variables, the concept of stochastic clique may be used to study community structure properties. In this paper maximum clique in stochastic graph is first defined and then several learning automatabased algorithms are proposed for solving maximum clique problem in stochastic graph where the probability distribution functions of the weights associated with the edges of the graph are unknown. It is shown that by a proper choice of the parameters of the proposed algorithms, one can make the probability of finding maximum clique in stochastic graph as close to unity as possible. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithms significantly reduce the number of samples needed to be taken from the edges of the stochastic graph as compared to the number of samples needed by standard sampling method at a given confidence level.
Sampling social networks using shortest paths
"... In recent years, online social networks (OSN) have emerged as a platform of sharing variety of information about people, and their interests, activities, events and news from real worlds. Due to the large scale and access limitations (e.g., privacy policies) of online social network services such as ..."
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In recent years, online social networks (OSN) have emerged as a platform of sharing variety of information about people, and their interests, activities, events and news from real worlds. Due to the large scale and access limitations (e.g., privacy policies) of online social network services such as Facebook and Twitter, it is difficult to access the whole public network in a limited amount of time. For this reason researchers try to study and characterize OSN by taking appropriate and reliable samples from the network. In this paper, we propose to use the concept of shortest path for sampling social networks. The proposed sampling method first finds the shortest paths between several pairs of nodes selected according to some criteria. Then the edges in these shortest paths are ranked according to the number of times that each edge has appeared in the set of found shortest paths. The sampled network is then computed as a subgraph of the social network which contains a percentage of highly ranked edges. In order to investigate the performance of the proposed sampling method, we provide a number of experiments on synthetic and real networks. Experimental results show that the proposed sampling method outperforms the existing method such as random edge sampling, random node sampling, random walk sampling and MetropolisHastings random walk sampling in terms of relative error (RE), normalized root mean square error (NMSE), and KolmogorovSmirnov (KS) test.
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"... Artificial Intelligence Publication details, including instructions for authors and subscription information: ..."
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Artificial Intelligence Publication details, including instructions for authors and subscription information:
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International Journal of Modern Physics C © World Scientific Publishing Company Social network sampling using spanning trees
, 2015
"... Due to the large scales and limitations in accessing most online social networks, it is hard or infeasible to directly access them in a reasonable amount of time for studying and analysis. Hence, network sampling has emerged as a suitable technique to study and analyze real networks. The main goal o ..."
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Due to the large scales and limitations in accessing most online social networks, it is hard or infeasible to directly access them in a reasonable amount of time for studying and analysis. Hence, network sampling has emerged as a suitable technique to study and analyze real networks. The main goal of sampling online social networks is constructing a small scale sampled network which preserves the most important properties of the original network. In this paper, we propose two sampling algorithms for sampling online social networks using spanning trees. The first proposed sampling algorithm finds several spanning trees from randomly chosen starting nodes; then the edges in these spanning trees are ranked according to the number of times that each edge has appeared in the set of found spanning trees in the given network. The sampled network is then constructed as a subgraph of the original network which contains a fraction of nodes that are incident on highly ranked edges. In order to avoid traversing the entire network, the second sampling algorithm is proposed using partial spanning trees. The second sampling algorithm is similar to the first algorithm except that it uses partial spanning trees. Several experiments are conducted to examine the performance of the proposed sampling algorithms on wellknown real networks. The obtained results in comparison with other popular sampling methods demonstrate the efficiency of
Physica A 424 (2015) 254–268 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect
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