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558
FAST VOLUME RENDERING USING A SHEARWARP FACTORIZATION OF THE VIEWING TRANSFORMATION
, 1995
"... Volume rendering is a technique for visualizing 3D arrays of sampled data. It has applications in areas such as medical imaging and scientific visualization, but its use has been limited by its high computational expense. Early implementations of volume rendering used bruteforce techniques that req ..."
Abstract

Cited by 442 (2 self)
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Volume rendering is a technique for visualizing 3D arrays of sampled data. It has applications in areas such as medical imaging and scientific visualization, but its use has been limited by its high computational expense. Early implementations of volume rendering used bruteforce techniques that require on the order of 100 seconds to render typical data sets on a workstation. Algorithms with optimizations that exploit coherence in the data have reduced rendering times to the range of ten seconds but are still not fast enough for interactive visualization applications. In this thesis we present a family of volume rendering algorithms that reduces rendering times to one second. First we present a scanlineorder volume rendering algorithm that exploits coherence in both the volume data and the image. We show that scanlineorder algorithms are fundamentally more efficient than commonlyused ray casting algorithms because the latter must perform analytic geometry calculations (e.g. intersecting rays with axisaligned boxes). The new scanlineorder algorithm simply streams through the volume and the image in storage order. We describe variants of the algorithm for both parallel and perspective projections and
Precomputed Radiance Transfer for RealTime Rendering in Dynamic, LowFrequency Lighting Environments
 ACM Transactions on Graphics
, 2002
"... We present a new, realtime method for rendering diffuse and glossy objects in lowfrequency lighting environments that captures soft shadows, interreflections, and caustics. As a preprocess, a novel global transport simulator creates functions over the object's surface representing transfer of arbi ..."
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Cited by 352 (23 self)
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We present a new, realtime method for rendering diffuse and glossy objects in lowfrequency lighting environments that captures soft shadows, interreflections, and caustics. As a preprocess, a novel global transport simulator creates functions over the object's surface representing transfer of arbitrary, lowfrequency incident lighting into transferred radiance which includes global effects like shadows and interreflections from the object onto itself. At runtime, these transfer functions are applied to actual incident lighting. Dynamic, local lighting is handled by sampling it close to the object every frame; the object can also be rigidly rotated with respect to the lighting and vice versa. Lighting and transfer functions are represented using loworder spherical harmonics. This avoids aliasing and evaluates efficiently on graphics hardware by reducing the shading integral to a dot product of 9 to 25 element vectors for diffuse receivers. Glossy objects are handled using matrices rather than vectors. We further introduce functions for radiance transfer from a dynamic lighting environment through a preprocessed object to neighboring points in space. These allow soft shadows and caustics from rigidly moving objects to be cast onto arbitrary, dynamic receivers. We demonstrate realtime global lighting effects with this approach.
Rendering Synthetic Objects into Real Scenes: Bridging Traditional and Imagebased Graphics with Global Illumination and High Dynamic Range Photography
, 1998
"... We present a method that uses measured scene radiance and global illumination in order to add new objects to lightbased models with correct lighting. The methodusesahighdynamicrangeimagebasedmodelofthescene, ratherthansyntheticlightsources,toilluminatethe new objects. Tocomputetheillumination,thesc ..."
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Cited by 319 (13 self)
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We present a method that uses measured scene radiance and global illumination in order to add new objects to lightbased models with correct lighting. The methodusesahighdynamicrangeimagebasedmodelofthescene, ratherthansyntheticlightsources,toilluminatethe new objects. Tocomputetheillumination,thesceneis consideredasthreecomponents:thedistantscene, the localscene, andthesyntheticobjects. The
distant scene is assumed
tobephotometricallyunaffectedbytheobjects, obviatingtheneedforreflectancemodelinformation. Thelocalsceneisendowedwithestimatedreflectancemodel
informationsothatitcancatchshadows andreceivereflectedlightfromthenewobjects. Renderings are createdwithastandardglobalilluminationmethodby simulating theinteractionoflightamongstthethreecomponents.
A differentialrenderingtechniqueallowsforgoodresults
to be obtained when only an estimate ofthelocalscenereflectancepropertiesisknown. Weapplythegeneralmethodtotheproblemofrendering
syntheticobjectsintorealscenes.
The lightbased model is constructed from an approximategeometricmodelofthesceneandbyusinga lightprobetomeasuretheincidentilluminationatthe locationof thesyntheticobjects.
Theglobalilluminationsolutionisthen
compositedintoaphotographofthesceneusing
thedifferentialrenderingtechnique.
Weconcludebydiscussingtherelevance of the technique to recovering surface reflectance properties in uncontrolled lighting situations. Applications of the method include visual effects, interior design, and architectural visualization.
Optical Models for Direct Volume Rendering
, 1995
"... This tutorial survey paper reviews several different models for light interaction with volume densities of absorbing, glowing, reflecting, and/or scattering material. They are, in order of increasing realism, absorption only, emission only, emission and absorption combined, single scattering of exte ..."
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Cited by 241 (6 self)
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This tutorial survey paper reviews several different models for light interaction with volume densities of absorbing, glowing, reflecting, and/or scattering material. They are, in order of increasing realism, absorption only, emission only, emission and absorption combined, single scattering of external illumination without shadows, single scattering with shadows, and multiple scattering. For each model I give the physical assumptions, describe the applications for which it is appropriate, derive the differential or integral equations for light transport, present calculations methods for solving them, and show output images for a data set representing a cloud. Special attention is given to calculation methods for the multiple scattering model.
A progressive refinement approach to fast radiosity image generation
 Computer Graphics
, 1988
"... A reformulated radiosity algorithm is presented that produces initial images in time linear to the number of patches. The enormous memory costs of the radiosity algorithm are also eliminated by computing formfactors onthefly. The technique is based on the approach of rendering by progressive ref ..."
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Cited by 236 (5 self)
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A reformulated radiosity algorithm is presented that produces initial images in time linear to the number of patches. The enormous memory costs of the radiosity algorithm are also eliminated by computing formfactors onthefly. The technique is based on the approach of rendering by progressive refinement. The algorithm provides a useful solution almost immediately which progresses gracefully and continuously to the complete radiosity solution. In this way the competing demands of realism and interactivity are accommodated. The technique brings the use of radiosity for interactive rendering within reach and has implications for the use and development of current and future graphics workstations.
The radiance lighting simulation and rendering system
 In Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 94, ACM SIGGRAPH / ACM
, 1994
"... This paper describes a physicallybased rendering system tailored to the demands of lighting design and architecture. The simulation uses a lightbackwards raytracing method with extensions to efficiently solve the rendering equation under most conditions. This includes specular, diffuse and direct ..."
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Cited by 232 (5 self)
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This paper describes a physicallybased rendering system tailored to the demands of lighting design and architecture. The simulation uses a lightbackwards raytracing method with extensions to efficiently solve the rendering equation under most conditions. This includes specular, diffuse and directionaldiffuse reflection and transmission in any combination to any level in any environment, including complicated, curved geometries. The simulation blends deterministic and stochastic raytracing techniques to achieve the best balance between speed and accuracy in its local and global illumination methods. Some of the more interesting techniques are outlined, with references to more detailed descriptions elsewhere. Finally, examples are given of successful applications of this free software by others. CR Categories: I.3.3 [Computer Graphics]: Picture/image generation Display algorithms; I.3.7 [Computer Graphics]:
Global Illumination using Photon Maps
, 1996
"... This paper presents a two pass global illumination method based on the concept of photon maps. It represents a significant improvement of a previously described approach both with respect to speed, accuracy and versatility. In the first pass two photon maps are created by emitting packets of energy ..."
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Cited by 215 (9 self)
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This paper presents a two pass global illumination method based on the concept of photon maps. It represents a significant improvement of a previously described approach both with respect to speed, accuracy and versatility. In the first pass two photon maps are created by emitting packets of energy (photons) from the light sources and storing these as they hit surfaces within the scene. We use one high resolution caustics photon map to render caustics that are visualized directly and one low resolution photon map that is used during the rendering step. The scene is rendered using a distribution ray tracing algorithm optimized by using the information in the photon maps. Shadow photons are used to render shadows more efficiently and the directional information in the photon map is used to generate optimized sampling directions and to limit the recursion in the distribution ray tracer by providing an estimate of the radiance on all surfaces with the exception of specular...
Animation and Rendering of Complex Water Surfaces
, 2002
"... We present a new method for the animation and rendering of photorealistic water effects. Our method is designed to produce visually plausible three dimensional effects, for example the pouring of water into a glass (see figure 1) and the breaking of an ocean wave, in a manner which can be used in a ..."
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Cited by 210 (21 self)
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We present a new method for the animation and rendering of photorealistic water effects. Our method is designed to produce visually plausible three dimensional effects, for example the pouring of water into a glass (see figure 1) and the breaking of an ocean wave, in a manner which can be used in a computer animation environment. In order to better obtain photorealism in the behavior of the simulated water surface, we introduce a new "thickened" front tracking technique to accurately represent the water surface and a new velocity extrapolation method to move the surface in a smooth, waterlike manner. The velocity extrapolation method allows us to provide a degree of control to the surface motion, e.g. to generate a windblown look or to force the water to settle quickly. To ensure that the photorealism of the simulation carries over to the final images, we have integrated our method with an advanced physically based rendering system.
Inverse Global Illumination: Recovering Reflectance Models of Real Scenes from Photographs
, 1999
"... In this paper we present a method for recovering the reflectance properties of all surfaces in a real scene from a sparse set of photographs, taking into account both direct and indirect illumination. The result is a lightingindependent model of the scene's geometry and reflectance properties, whic ..."
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Cited by 206 (9 self)
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In this paper we present a method for recovering the reflectance properties of all surfaces in a real scene from a sparse set of photographs, taking into account both direct and indirect illumination. The result is a lightingindependent model of the scene's geometry and reflectance properties, which can be rendered with arbitrary modifications to structure and lighting via traditional rendering methods. Our technique models reflectance with a lowparameter reflectance model, and allows diffuse albedo to vary arbitrarily over surfaces while assuming that nondiffuse characteristics remain constant across particular regions. The method's input is a geometric model of the scene and a set of calibrated high dynamic range photographs taken with known direct illumination. The algorithm hierarchically partitions the scene into a polygonal mesh, and uses imagebased rendering to construct estimates of both the radiance and irradiance of each patch from the photographic data. The algorithm computes the expected location of specular highlights, and then analyzes the highlight areas in the images by running a novel iterative optimization procedure to recover the diffuse and specular reflectance parameters for each region. Lastly, these parameters are used in constructing highresolution diffuse albedo maps for each surface.
Instant Radiosity
, 1997
"... We present a fundamental procedure for instant rendering from the radiance equation. Operating directly on the textured scene description, the very efficient and simple algorithm produces photorealistic images without any finite element kernel or solution discretization of the underlying integral eq ..."
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Cited by 180 (3 self)
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We present a fundamental procedure for instant rendering from the radiance equation. Operating directly on the textured scene description, the very efficient and simple algorithm produces photorealistic images without any finite element kernel or solution discretization of the underlying integral equation. Rendering rates of a few seconds are obtained by exploiting graphics hardware, the deterministic technique of the quasirandom walk for the solution of the global illumination problem, and the new method of jittered low discrepancy sampling.