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20
On Interpolation and Automatization for Frege Systems
, 2000
"... The interpolation method has been one of the main tools for proving lower bounds for propositional proof systems. Loosely speaking, if one can prove that a particular proof system has the feasible interpolation property, then a generic reduction can (usually) be applied to prove lower bounds for the ..."
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Cited by 52 (7 self)
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The interpolation method has been one of the main tools for proving lower bounds for propositional proof systems. Loosely speaking, if one can prove that a particular proof system has the feasible interpolation property, then a generic reduction can (usually) be applied to prove lower bounds for the proof system, sometimes assuming a (usually modest) complexitytheoretic assumption. In this paper, we show that this method cannot be used to obtain lower bounds for Frege systems, or even for TC 0 Frege systems. More specifically, we show that unless factoring (of Blum integers) is feasible, neither Frege nor TC 0 Frege has the feasible interpolation property. In order to carry out our argument, we show how to carry out proofs of many elementary axioms/theorems of arithmetic in polynomial size TC 0 Frege. As a corollary, we obtain that TC 0 Frege as well as any proof system that polynomially simulates it, is not automatizable (under the assumption that factoring of Blum integ...
Normalisation control in deep inference via atomic flows
, 2008
"... Abstract. We introduce ‘atomic flows’: they are graphs obtained from derivations by tracing atom occurrences and forgetting the logical structure. We study simple manipulations of atomic flows that correspond to complex reductions on derivations. This allows us to prove, for propositional logic, a n ..."
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Cited by 23 (11 self)
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Abstract. We introduce ‘atomic flows’: they are graphs obtained from derivations by tracing atom occurrences and forgetting the logical structure. We study simple manipulations of atomic flows that correspond to complex reductions on derivations. This allows us to prove, for propositional logic, a new and very general normalisation theorem, which contains cut elimination as a special case. We operate in deep inference, which is more general than other syntactic paradigms, and where normalisation is more difficult to control. We argue that atomic flows are a significant technical advance for normalisation theory, because 1) the technique they support is largely independent of syntax; 2) indeed, it is largely independent of logical inference rules; 3) they constitute a powerful geometric formalism, which is more intuitive than syntax. 1.
Naming proofs in classical propositional logic
 IN PAWE̷L URZYCZYN, EDITOR, TYPED LAMBDA CALCULI AND APPLICATIONS, TLCA 2005, VOLUME 3461 OF LECTURE
"... We present a theory of proof denotations in classical propositional logic. The abstract definition is in terms of a semiring of weights, and two concrete instances are explored. With the Boolean semiring we get a theory of classical proof nets, with a geometric correctness criterion, a sequentiali ..."
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Cited by 20 (7 self)
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We present a theory of proof denotations in classical propositional logic. The abstract definition is in terms of a semiring of weights, and two concrete instances are explored. With the Boolean semiring we get a theory of classical proof nets, with a geometric correctness criterion, a sequentialization theorem, and a strongly normalizing cutelimination procedure. This gives us a “Boolean ” category, which is not a poset. With the semiring of natural numbers, we obtain a sound semantics for classical logic, in which fewer proofs are identified. Though a “real” sequentialization theorem is missing, these proof nets have a grip on complexity issues. In both cases the cut elimination procedure is closely related to its equivalent in the calculus of structures.
On the axiomatisation of boolean categories with and without medial
 THEORY APPL. CATEG
, 2007
"... ..."
Cycling in proofs and feasibility
 Transactions of the American Mathematical Society
, 1998
"... Abstract. There is a common perception by which small numbers are considered more concrete and large numbers more abstract. A mathematical formalization of this idea was introduced by Parikh (1971) through an inconsistent theory of feasible numbers in which addition and multiplication are as usual b ..."
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Cited by 8 (4 self)
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Abstract. There is a common perception by which small numbers are considered more concrete and large numbers more abstract. A mathematical formalization of this idea was introduced by Parikh (1971) through an inconsistent theory of feasible numbers in which addition and multiplication are as usual but for which some very large number is defined to be not feasible. Parikh shows that sufficiently short proofs in this theory can only prove true statements of arithmetic. We pursue these topics in light of logical flow graphs of proofs (Buss, 1991) and show that Parikh’s lower bound for concrete consistency reflects the presence of cycles in the logical graphs of short proofs of feasibility of large numbers. We discuss two concrete constructions which show the bound to be optimal and bring out the dynamical aspect of formal proofs. For this paper the concept of feasible numbers has two roles, as an idea with its own life and as a vehicle for exploring general principles on the dynamics and geometry of proofs. Cycles can be seen as a measure of how complicated a proof can be. We prove that short proofs must have cycles. 1.
Quasipolynomial normalisation in deep inference via atomic flows and threshold formulae
, 2009
"... ABSTRACT. Jeˇrábek showed that analytic propositionallogic deepinference proofs can be constructed in quasipolynomial time from nonanalytic proofs. In this work, we improve on that as follows: 1) we significantly simplify the technique; 2) our normalisation procedure is direct, i.e., it is interna ..."
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Cited by 8 (4 self)
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ABSTRACT. Jeˇrábek showed that analytic propositionallogic deepinference proofs can be constructed in quasipolynomial time from nonanalytic proofs. In this work, we improve on that as follows: 1) we significantly simplify the technique; 2) our normalisation procedure is direct, i.e., it is internal to deep inference. The paper is selfcontained, and provides a starting point and a good deal of information for tackling the problem of whether a polynomialtime normalisation procedure exists. 1.
A Quasipolynomial CutElimination Procedure in Deep Inference via Atomic Flows and Threshold Formulae
"... Jerábek showed in 2008 that cuts in propositionallogic deepinference proofs can be eliminated in quasipolynomial time. The proof is an indirect one relying on a result of Atserias, Galesi and Pudlák about monotone sequent calculus and a correspondence between this system and cutfree deepinference ..."
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Cited by 7 (4 self)
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Jerábek showed in 2008 that cuts in propositionallogic deepinference proofs can be eliminated in quasipolynomial time. The proof is an indirect one relying on a result of Atserias, Galesi and Pudlák about monotone sequent calculus and a correspondence between this system and cutfree deepinference proofs. In this paper we give a direct proof of Jeˇrábek’s result: we give a quasipolynomialtime cutelimination procedure in propositionallogic deep inference. The main new ingredient is the use of a computational trace of deepinference proofs called atomic flows, which are both very simple (they trace only structural rules and forget logical rules) and strong enough to faithfully represent the cutelimination procedure.
From deep inference to proof nets via cut elimination
 Jour. of Logic and Comp
"... This paper shows how derivations in the deep inference system SKS for classical propositional logic can be translated into proof nets. Since an SKS derivation contains more information about a proof than the corresponding proof net, we observe a loss of information which can be understood as “elimin ..."
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Cited by 7 (6 self)
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This paper shows how derivations in the deep inference system SKS for classical propositional logic can be translated into proof nets. Since an SKS derivation contains more information about a proof than the corresponding proof net, we observe a loss of information which can be understood as “eliminating bureaucracy”. Technically this is achieved by cut reduction on proof nets. As an intermediate step between the two extremes, SKS derivations and proof nets, we will see proof graphs representing derivations in “Formalism A”. 1
Turning Cycles into Spirals
, 1999
"... Introduction The structure of LK proofs presents intriguing combinatorial aspects which turn out to be very difficult to study [6,8]. It is wellknown that as soon as one wants to intervene over the structure of a proof to simplify it, the complexity of the proof might increase enormously [16,12,14 ..."
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Cited by 6 (3 self)
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Introduction The structure of LK proofs presents intriguing combinatorial aspects which turn out to be very difficult to study [6,8]. It is wellknown that as soon as one wants to intervene over the structure of a proof to simplify it, the complexity of the proof might increase enormously [16,12,14]. There is a link between the presence of cut formulas with nested quantifiers and the nonelementary expansion needed to prove a theorem without the help of such formulas. If one considers the graph defined by tracing the flow of occurrences of formulas (in the sense of [2]) for proofs allowing a nonelementary compression, one Preprint submitted to Elsevier Preprint 7 November 1997 finds that such graphs contain cycles [5] or almost cyclic structures[6]. These cycles codify in a small space (i.e. a proof with a small number of lines) all the information which is present in the proof once cuts on formulas wit