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45
Abduction in Logic Programming
"... Abduction in Logic Programming started in the late 80s, early 90s, in an attempt to extend logic programming into a framework suitable for a variety of problems in Artificial Intelligence and other areas of Computer Science. This paper aims to chart out the main developments of the field over th ..."
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Cited by 616 (76 self)
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Abduction in Logic Programming started in the late 80s, early 90s, in an attempt to extend logic programming into a framework suitable for a variety of problems in Artificial Intelligence and other areas of Computer Science. This paper aims to chart out the main developments of the field over the last ten years and to take a critical view of these developments from several perspectives: logical, epistemological, computational and suitability to application. The paper attempts to expose some of the challenges and prospects for the further development of the field.
A New Model of Plan Recognition
 Artificial Intelligence
, 1999
"... We present a new abductive, probabilistic theory of plan recognition. This model differs from previous theories in being centered around a model of plan execution: most previous methods have been based on plans as formal objects or on rules describing the recognition process. We show that our ..."
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Cited by 357 (15 self)
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We present a new abductive, probabilistic theory of plan recognition. This model differs from previous theories in being centered around a model of plan execution: most previous methods have been based on plans as formal objects or on rules describing the recognition process. We show that our new model accounts for phenomena omitted from most previous plan recognition theories: notably the cumulative effect of a sequence of observations of partiallyordered, interleaved plans and the effect of context on plan adoption. The model also supports inferences about the evolution of plan execution in situations where another agent intervenes in plan execution. This facility provides support for using plan recognition to build systems that will intelligently assist a user. 1
Locationbased activity recognition
 In Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems (NIPS
, 2005
"... Learning patterns of human behavior from sensor data is extremely important for highlevel activity inference. We show how to extract and label a person’s activities and significant places from traces of GPS data. In contrast to existing techniques, our approach simultaneously detects and classifies ..."
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Cited by 79 (8 self)
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Learning patterns of human behavior from sensor data is extremely important for highlevel activity inference. We show how to extract and label a person’s activities and significant places from traces of GPS data. In contrast to existing techniques, our approach simultaneously detects and classifies the significant locations of a person and takes the highlevel context into account. Our system uses relational Markov networks to represent the hierarchical activity model that encodes the complex relations among GPS readings, activities and significant places. We apply FFTbased message passing to perform efficient summation over large numbers of nodes in the networks. We present experiments that show significant improvements over existing techniques. 1
Abducing through negation as failure: stable models within the independent choice logic
 J. Log. Program
"... The independent choice logic (ICL) is part of a project to combine logic and decision/game theory into a coherent framework. The ICL has a simple possibleworlds semantics characterised by independent choices and an acyclic logic program that specifies the consequences of these choices. This paper g ..."
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Cited by 50 (8 self)
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The independent choice logic (ICL) is part of a project to combine logic and decision/game theory into a coherent framework. The ICL has a simple possibleworlds semantics characterised by independent choices and an acyclic logic program that specifies the consequences of these choices. This paper gives an abductive characterization of the ICL. The ICL is defined modeltheoretically, but we show that it is naturally abductive: the set of explanations of a proposition g is a concise description of the worlds in which g is true. We give an algorithm for computing explanations and show it is sound and complete with respect to the possibleworlds semantics. What is unique about this approach is that the explanations of the negation of g can be derived from the explanations of g. The use of probabilities over choices in this framework and going beyond acyclic logic programs are also discussed.
A new probabilistic plan recognition algorithm based on string rewriting
 In Proceedings of the International Conference on Automated Planning and Scheduling (ICAPS
, 2008
"... This document formalizes and discusses the implementation of a new, more efficient probabilistic plan recognition algorithm called Yet Another Probabilistic Plan Recognizer, (Yappr). Yappr is based on weighted model counting, building its models using string rewriting rather than tree adjunction or ..."
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Cited by 49 (6 self)
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This document formalizes and discusses the implementation of a new, more efficient probabilistic plan recognition algorithm called Yet Another Probabilistic Plan Recognizer, (Yappr). Yappr is based on weighted model counting, building its models using string rewriting rather than tree adjunction or other tree building methods used in previous work. Since model construction is often the most computationally expensive part of such algorithms, this results in significant reductions in the algorithm’s runtime.
Plan Recognition in Intrusion Detection Systems
 In DARPA Information Survivability Conference and Exposition (DISCEX
, 2001
"... To be effective, current intrusion detection systems (IDSs) must incorporate artificial intelligence methods for plan recognition. Plan recognition is critical both to predicting the future actions of attackers and planning appropriate responses to their actions. However network security places a ne ..."
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Cited by 44 (4 self)
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To be effective, current intrusion detection systems (IDSs) must incorporate artificial intelligence methods for plan recognition. Plan recognition is critical both to predicting the future actions of attackers and planning appropriate responses to their actions. However network security places a new set of requirements on plan recognition. In this paper we present an argument for including plan recognition in IDSs and an algorithm for conducting plan recognition that meets the needs of the network security domain. 1.
The Independent Choice Logic and Beyond
"... Abstract. The Independent Choice Logic began in the early 90’s as a way to combine logic programming and probability into a coherent framework. The idea of the Independent Choice Logic is straightforward: there is a set of independent choices with a probability distribution over each choice, and a l ..."
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Cited by 31 (5 self)
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Abstract. The Independent Choice Logic began in the early 90’s as a way to combine logic programming and probability into a coherent framework. The idea of the Independent Choice Logic is straightforward: there is a set of independent choices with a probability distribution over each choice, and a logic program that gives the consequences of the choices. There is a measure over possible worlds that is defined by the probabilities of the independent choices, and what is true in each possible world is given by choices made in that world and the logic program. ICL is interesting because it is a simple, natural and expressive representation of rich probabilistic models. This paper gives an overview of the work done over the last decade and half, and points towards the considerable work ahead, particularly in the areas of lifted inference and the problems of existence and identity. 1
A Logical Account of Perception Incorporating Feedback and Expectation
, 2002
"... This paper presents the theoretical foundations of a vision system in which the effects of highlevel reasoning percolate all the way down to influence the lowlevel processing of raw sensor data. This is achieved through the mechanisms of feedback and expectation. The main contribution of the ..."
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Cited by 27 (6 self)
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This paper presents the theoretical foundations of a vision system in which the effects of highlevel reasoning percolate all the way down to influence the lowlevel processing of raw sensor data. This is achieved through the mechanisms of feedback and expectation. The main contribution of the paper is to present a formal framework, based on the abductive interpretation of sensor data, that incorporates the ideas of feedback and expectation in a way that marries them to logical reasoning. To enable this, two alternative measures of explanatory value are defined.
The PITA System: Tabling and Answer Subsumption for Reasoning under Uncertainty
 UNDER CONSIDERATION FOR PUBLICATION IN THEORY AND PRACTICE OF LOGIC PROGRAMMING
, 2003
"... Many real world domains require the representation of a measure of uncertainty. The most common such representation is probability, and the combination of probability with logic programs has given rise to the field of Probabilistic Logic Programming (PLP), leading to languages such as the Independen ..."
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Cited by 26 (11 self)
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Many real world domains require the representation of a measure of uncertainty. The most common such representation is probability, and the combination of probability with logic programs has given rise to the field of Probabilistic Logic Programming (PLP), leading to languages such as the IndependentChoice Logic, Logic Programs with Annotated Disjunctions (LPADs), Problog, PRISM and others. These languages share a similar distribution semantics, and methods have been devised to translate programs between these languages. The complexity of computing the probability of queries to these general PLP programs is very high due to the need to combine the probabilities of explanations that may not be exclusive. As one alternative, the PRISM system reduces the complexity of query answering by restricting the form of programs it can evaluate. As an entirely different alternative, Possibilistic Logic Programs adopt a simpler metric of uncertainty than probability. Each of these approaches – general PLP, restricted PLP, and Possibilistic Logic Programming – can be useful in different domains depending on the form of uncertainty to be represented, on the form of programs needed to model problems, and on the scale of
Probabilistic conflicts in a search algorithm for estimating posterior probabilities in Bayesian networks
, 1996
"... This paper presents a search algorithm for estimating posterior probabilities in discrete Bayesian networks. It shows how conflicts (as used in consistencybased diagnosis) can be adapted to speed up the search. This algorithm is especially suited to the case where there are skewed distributions, al ..."
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Cited by 23 (6 self)
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This paper presents a search algorithm for estimating posterior probabilities in discrete Bayesian networks. It shows how conflicts (as used in consistencybased diagnosis) can be adapted to speed up the search. This algorithm is especially suited to the case where there are skewed distributions, although nothing about the algorithm or the definitions depends on skewness of distributions. The general idea is to forward simulate the network, based on the `normal' values for each variable (the value with high probability given its parents). When a predicted value is at odds with the observations, we analyse which variables were responsible for the expectation failure  these form a conflict  and continue forward simulation considering different values for these variables. This results in a set of possible worlds from which posterior probabilities  together with error bounds  can be 1 derived. Empirical results with Bayesian networks having tens of thousands of nodes are presented.