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701
Geodesic Active Contours
, 1997
"... A novel scheme for the detection of object boundaries is presented. The technique is based on active contours evolving in time according to intrinsic geometric measures of the image. The evolving contours naturally split and merge, allowing the simultaneous detection of several objects and both in ..."
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Cited by 1143 (44 self)
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A novel scheme for the detection of object boundaries is presented. The technique is based on active contours evolving in time according to intrinsic geometric measures of the image. The evolving contours naturally split and merge, allowing the simultaneous detection of several objects and both interior and exterior boundaries. The proposed approach is based on the relation between active contours and the computation of geodesics or minimal distance curves. The minimal distance curve lays in a Riemannian space whose metric is defined by the image content. This geodesic approach for object segmentation allows to connect classical "snakes" based on energy minimization and geometric active contours based on the theory of curve evolution. Previous models of geometric active contours are improved, allowing stable boundary detection when their gradients suffer from large variations, including gaps. Formal results concerning existence, uniqueness, stability, and correctness of the evolution are presented as well. The scheme was implemented using an efficient algorithm for curve evolution. Experimental results of applying the scheme to real images including objects with holes and medical data imagery demonstrate its power. The results may be extended to 3D object segmentation as well.
Active Contours without Edges
, 2001
"... In this paper, we propose a new model for active contours to detect objects in a given image, based on techniques of curve evolution, MumfordShah functional for segmentation and level sets. Our model can detect objects whose boundaries are not necessarily defined by gradient. We minimize an energy ..."
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Cited by 868 (36 self)
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In this paper, we propose a new model for active contours to detect objects in a given image, based on techniques of curve evolution, MumfordShah functional for segmentation and level sets. Our model can detect objects whose boundaries are not necessarily defined by gradient. We minimize an energy which can be seen as a particular case of the minimal partition problem. In the level set formulation, the problem becomes a "meancurvature flow"like evolving the active contour, which will stop on the desired boundary. However, the stopping term does not depend on the gradient of the image, as in the classical active contour models, but is instead related to a particular segmentation of the image. We will give a numerical algorithm using finite differences. Finally, we will present various experimental results and in particular some examples for which the classical snakes methods based on the gradient are not applicable. Also, the initial curve can be anywhere in the image, and interior contours are automatically detected.
Interactive Graph Cuts for Optimal Boundary & Region Segmentation of Objects in ND Images
, 2001
"... In this paper we describe a new technique for general purpose interactive segmentation of Ndimensional images. The user marks certain pixels as “object” or “background” to provide hard constraints for segmentation. Additional soft constraints incorporate both boundary and region information. Graph ..."
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Cited by 706 (14 self)
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In this paper we describe a new technique for general purpose interactive segmentation of Ndimensional images. The user marks certain pixels as “object” or “background” to provide hard constraints for segmentation. Additional soft constraints incorporate both boundary and region information. Graph cuts are used to find the globally optimal segmentation of the Ndimensional image. The obtained solution gives the best balance of boundary and region properties among all segmentations satisfying the constraints. The topology of our segmentation is unrestricted and both “object” and “background” segments may consist of several isolatedparts. Some experimental results are presented in the context ofphotohideo editing and medical image segmentation. We also demonstrate an interesting Gestalt example. A fast implementation of our segmentation method is possible via a new mar$ow algorithm in [2].
Object Tracking: A Survey
, 2006
"... The goal of this article is to review the stateoftheart tracking methods, classify them into different categories, and identify new trends. Object tracking, in general, is a challenging problem. Difficulties in tracking objects can arise due to abrupt object motion, changing appearance patterns o ..."
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Cited by 362 (6 self)
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The goal of this article is to review the stateoftheart tracking methods, classify them into different categories, and identify new trends. Object tracking, in general, is a challenging problem. Difficulties in tracking objects can arise due to abrupt object motion, changing appearance patterns of both the object and the scene, nonrigid object structures, objecttoobject and objecttoscene occlusions, and camera motion. Tracking is usually performed in the context of higherlevel applications that require the location and/or shape of the object in every frame. Typically, assumptions are made to constrain the tracking problem in the context of a particular application. In this survey, we categorize the tracking methods on the basis of the object and motion representations used, provide detailed descriptions of representative methods in each category, and examine their pros and cons. Moreover, we discuss the important issues related to tracking including the use of appropriate image features, selection of motion models, and detection of objects.
A Multiphase Level Set Framework for Image Segmentation Using the Mumford and Shah Model
 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTER VISION
, 2002
"... We propose a new multiphase level set framework for image segmentation using the Mumford and Shah model, for piecewise constant and piecewise smooth optimal approximations. The proposed method is also a generalization of an active contour model without edges based 2phase segmentation, developed by ..."
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Cited by 355 (21 self)
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We propose a new multiphase level set framework for image segmentation using the Mumford and Shah model, for piecewise constant and piecewise smooth optimal approximations. The proposed method is also a generalization of an active contour model without edges based 2phase segmentation, developed by the authors earlier in T. Chan and L. Vese (1999. In ScaleSpace'99, M. Nilsen et al. (Eds.), LNCS, vol. 1682, pp. 141151) and T. Chan and L. Vese (2001. IEEEIP, 10(2):266277). The multiphase level set formulation is new and of interest on its own: by construction, it automatically avoids the problems of vacuum and overlap; it needs only log n level set functions for n phases in the piecewise constant case; it can represent boundaries with complex topologies, including triple junctions; in the piecewise smooth case, only two level set functions formally suffice to represent any partition, based on The FourColor Theorem. Finally, we validate the proposed models by numerical results for signal and image denoising and segmentation, implemented using the Osher and Sethian level set method.
Image retrieval: ideas, influences, and trends of the new age
 ACM COMPUTING SURVEYS
, 2008
"... We have witnessed great interest and a wealth of promise in contentbased image retrieval as an emerging technology. While the last decade laid foundation to such promise, it also paved the way for a large number of new techniques and systems, got many new people involved, and triggered stronger ass ..."
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Cited by 303 (8 self)
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We have witnessed great interest and a wealth of promise in contentbased image retrieval as an emerging technology. While the last decade laid foundation to such promise, it also paved the way for a large number of new techniques and systems, got many new people involved, and triggered stronger association of weakly related fields. In this article, we survey almost 300 key theoretical and empirical contributions in the current decade related to image retrieval and automatic image annotation, and in the process discuss the spawning of related subfields. We also discuss significant challenges involved in the adaptation of existing image retrieval techniques to build systems that can be useful in the real world. In retrospect of what has been achieved so far, we also conjecture what the future may hold for image retrieval research.
Automatic linguistic indexing of pictures by a statistical modeling approach
 PAMI
"... Automatic linguistic indexing of pictures is an important but highly challenging problem for researchers in computer vision and contentbased image retrieval. In this paper, we introduce a statistical modeling approach to this problem. Categorized images are used to train a dictionary of hundreds of ..."
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Cited by 241 (22 self)
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Automatic linguistic indexing of pictures is an important but highly challenging problem for researchers in computer vision and contentbased image retrieval. In this paper, we introduce a statistical modeling approach to this problem. Categorized images are used to train a dictionary of hundreds of statistical models each representing a concept. Images of any given concept are regarded as instances of a stochastic process that characterizes the concept. To measure the extent of association between an image and the textual description of a concept, the likelihood of the occurrence of the image based on the characterizing stochastic process is computed. A high likelihood indicates a strong association. In our experimental implementation, we focus on a particular group of stochastic processes, that is, the twodimensional multiresolution hidden Markov models (2D MHMMs). We implemented and tested our ALIP (Automatic Linguistic Indexing of Pictures) system on a photographic image database of 600 dierent concepts, each with about 40 training images. The system is evaluated quantitatively using more than 4,600 images outside the training database and compared with a random annotation scheme. Experiments have demonstrated the good accuracy of the system and its high potential in linguistic indexing of photographic images. Index Terms { Contentbased image retrieval, image classication, hidden Markov model, computer vision, statistical learning, wavelets. 1
Unsupervised Segmentation of ColorTexture Regions in Images and Video
, 2001
"... A new method for unsupervised segmentation of colortexture regions in images and video is presented. This method, which we refer to as JSEG, consists of two independent steps: color quantization and spatial segmentation. In the first step, colors in the image are quantized to several representative ..."
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Cited by 234 (1 self)
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A new method for unsupervised segmentation of colortexture regions in images and video is presented. This method, which we refer to as JSEG, consists of two independent steps: color quantization and spatial segmentation. In the first step, colors in the image are quantized to several representative classes that can be used to differentiate regions in the image. The image pixels are then replaced by their corresponding color class labels, thus forming a classmap of the image. The focus of this work is on spatial segmentation, where a criterion for "good" segmentation using the classmap is proposed. Applying the criterion to local windows in the classmap results in the "Jimage, " in which high and low values correspond to possible boundaries and interiors of colortexture regions. A region growing method is then used to segment the image based on the multiscale Jimages. A similar approach is applied to video sequences. An additional region tracking scheme is embedded into the region growing process to achieve consistent segmentation and tracking results, even for scenes with nonrigid object motion. Experiments show the robustness of the JSEG algorithm on real images and video.
Image Segmentation by Data Driven Markov Chain Monte Carlo
, 2001
"... 1 This paper presents a computational paradigm called Data Driven Markov Chain Monte Carlo (DDMCMC) for image segmentation in the Bayesian statistical framework. The paper contributes to image segmentation in three aspects. Firstly, it designs eective and well balanced Markov Chain dynamics to expl ..."
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Cited by 231 (32 self)
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1 This paper presents a computational paradigm called Data Driven Markov Chain Monte Carlo (DDMCMC) for image segmentation in the Bayesian statistical framework. The paper contributes to image segmentation in three aspects. Firstly, it designs eective and well balanced Markov Chain dynamics to explore the solution space and makes the split and merge process reversible at a middle level vision formulation. Thus it achieves globally optimal solution independent of initial segmentations. Secondly, instead of computing a single maximum a posteriori solution, it proposes a mathematical principle for computing multiple distinct solutions to incorporates intrinsic ambiguities in image segmentation. A kadventurers algorithm is proposed for extracting distinct multiple solutions from the Markov chain sequence. Thirdly, it utilizes datadriven (bottomup) techniques, such as clustering and edge detection, to compute importance proposal probabilities, which eectively drive the Markov chain dynamics and achieve tremendous speedup in comparison to traditional jumpdiusion method[4]. Thus DDMCMC paradigm provides a unifying framework where the role of existing segmentation algorithms, such as, edge detection, clustering, region growing, splitmerge, SNAKEs, region competition, are revealed as either realizing Markov chain dynamics or computing importance proposal probabilities. We report some results on color and grey level image segmentation in this paper and refer to a detailed report and a web site for extensive discussion. 1 Motivation and
Filters, Random Fields and Maximum Entropy . . .
 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTER VISION
, 1998
"... This article presents a statistical theory for texture modeling. This theory combines filtering theory and Markov random field modeling through the maximum entropy principle, and interprets and clarifies many previous concepts and methods for texture analysis and synthesis from a unified point of vi ..."
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Cited by 204 (17 self)
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This article presents a statistical theory for texture modeling. This theory combines filtering theory and Markov random field modeling through the maximum entropy principle, and interprets and clarifies many previous concepts and methods for texture analysis and synthesis from a unified point of view. Our theory characterizes the ensemble of images I with the same texture appearance by a probability distribution f (I) on a random field, and the objective of texture modeling is to make inference about f (I), given a set of observed texture examples. In our theory, texture modeling consists of two steps. (1) A set of filters is selected from a general filter bank to capture features of the texture, these filters are applied to observed texture images, and the histograms of the filtered images are extracted. These histograms are estimates of the marginal distributions of f (I). This step is called feature extraction. (2) The maximum entropy principle is employed to derive a distribution p(I), which is restricted to have the same marginal distributions as those in (1). This p(I) is considered as an estimate of f (I). This step is called feature fusion. A stepwise algorithm is proposed to choose filters from a general filter bank. The resulting model, called FRAME (Filters, Random fields And Maximum Entropy), is a Markov random field (MRF) model, but with a much enriched vocabulary and hence much stronger descriptive ability than the previous MRF models used for texture modeling. Gibbs sampler is adopted to synthesize texture images by drawing typical samples from p(I), thus the model is verified by seeing whether the synthesized texture images have similar visual appearances