Results 1  10
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21
Operations for Learning with Graphical Models
 Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research
, 1994
"... This paper is a multidisciplinary review of empirical, statistical learning from a graphical model perspective. Wellknown examples of graphical models include Bayesian networks, directed graphs representing a Markov chain, and undirected networks representing a Markov field. These graphical models ..."
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Cited by 249 (12 self)
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This paper is a multidisciplinary review of empirical, statistical learning from a graphical model perspective. Wellknown examples of graphical models include Bayesian networks, directed graphs representing a Markov chain, and undirected networks representing a Markov field. These graphical models are extended to model data analysis and empirical learning using the notation of plates. Graphical operations for simplifying and manipulating a problem are provided including decomposition, differentiation, and the manipulation of probability models from the exponential family. Two standard algorithm schemas for learning are reviewed in a graphical framework: Gibbs sampling and the expectation maximization algorithm. Using these operations and schemas, some popular algorithms can be synthesized from their graphical specification. This includes versions of linear regression, techniques for feedforward networks, and learning Gaussian and discrete Bayesian networks from data. The paper conclu...
Efficient approximations for the marginal likelihood of Bayesian networks with hidden variables
 Machine Learning
, 1997
"... We discuss Bayesian methods for learning Bayesian networks when data sets are incomplete. In particular, we examine asymptotic approximations for the marginal likelihood of incomplete data given a Bayesian network. We consider the Laplace approximation and the less accurate but more efficient BIC/MD ..."
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Cited by 178 (10 self)
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We discuss Bayesian methods for learning Bayesian networks when data sets are incomplete. In particular, we examine asymptotic approximations for the marginal likelihood of incomplete data given a Bayesian network. We consider the Laplace approximation and the less accurate but more efficient BIC/MDL approximation. We also consider approximations proposed by Draper (1993) and Cheeseman and Stutz (1995). These approximations are as efficient as BIC/MDL, but their accuracy has not been studied in any depth. We compare the accuracy of these approximations under the assumption that the Laplace approximation is the most accurate. In experiments using synthetic data generated from discrete naiveBayes models having a hidden root node, we find that (1) the BIC/MDL measure is the least accurate, having a bias in favor of simple models, and (2) the Draper and CS measures are the most accurate. 1
Efficient BackProp
, 1998
"... . The convergence of backpropagation learning is analyzed so as to explain common phenomenon observed by practitioners. Many undesirable behaviors of backprop can be avoided with tricks that are rarely exposed in serious technical publications. This paper gives some of those tricks, and offers expl ..."
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Cited by 125 (24 self)
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. The convergence of backpropagation learning is analyzed so as to explain common phenomenon observed by practitioners. Many undesirable behaviors of backprop can be avoided with tricks that are rarely exposed in serious technical publications. This paper gives some of those tricks, and offers explanations of why they work. Many authors have suggested that secondorder optimization methods are advantageous for neural net training. It is shown that most "classical" secondorder methods are impractical for large neural networks. A few methods are proposed that do not have these limitations. 1 Introduction Backpropagation is a very popular neural network learning algorithm because it is conceptually simple, computationally efficient, and because it often works. However, getting it to work well, and sometimes to work at all, can seem more of an art than a science. Designing and training a network using backprop requires making many seemingly arbitrary choices such as the number ...
Neural networks for classification: a survey
 and Cybernetics  Part C: Applications and Reviews
, 2000
"... Abstract—Classification is one of the most active research and application areas of neural networks. The literature is vast and growing. This paper summarizes the some of the most important developments in neural network classification research. Specifically, the issues of posterior probability esti ..."
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Cited by 45 (0 self)
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Abstract—Classification is one of the most active research and application areas of neural networks. The literature is vast and growing. This paper summarizes the some of the most important developments in neural network classification research. Specifically, the issues of posterior probability estimation, the link between neural and conventional classifiers, learning and generalization tradeoff in classification, the feature variable selection, as well as the effect of misclassification costs are examined. Our purpose is to provide a synthesis of the published research in this area and stimulate further research interests and efforts in the identified topics. Index Terms—Bayesian classifier, classification, ensemble methods, feature variable selection, learning and generalization, misclassification costs, neural networks. I.
A Comparison of Some Error Estimates for Neural Network Models
, 1994
"... this paper we focus on the problem of estimation of the standard error of the predicted values ..."
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Cited by 30 (0 self)
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this paper we focus on the problem of estimation of the standard error of the predicted values
A generalized learning paradigm exploiting the structure of feedforward neural networks
 IEEE Trans. Neural Networks
, 1996
"... In this paper a general class of fast learning algorithms for feedforward neural networks is introduced and described. The approach exploits the separability of each layer into linear and nonlinear blocks and consists of two steps. The first step is the descent of the error functional in the space o ..."
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Cited by 12 (0 self)
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In this paper a general class of fast learning algorithms for feedforward neural networks is introduced and described. The approach exploits the separability of each layer into linear and nonlinear blocks and consists of two steps. The first step is the descent of the error functional in the space of the outputs of the linear blocks (descent in the neuron space), which can be performed using any preferred optimization strategy. In the second step, each linear block is optimized separately by using a Least Squares (LS) criterion. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the new approach, a detailed treatment of a gradient descent in the neuron space is conducted. The main properties of this approach are the higher speed of convergence with respect to methods that employ an ordinary gradient descent in the weight space (Backpropagation, BP), better numerical conditioning and lower computational cost compared to techniques based on the Hessian matrix. The numerical stability is assured by the use of robust LS linear system solvers, operating directly on the input data of each layer. Experimental results obtained in three problems are described, which confirm the effectiveness of the new method.
Neuralnetwork construction and selection in nonlinear modeling
 IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks
, 2003
"... In this paper, we study how statistical tools which are commonly used independently can advantageously be exploited together in order to improve neural network estimation and selection in nonlinear static modeling. The tools we consider are the analysis of the numerical conditioning of the neural ne ..."
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Cited by 9 (1 self)
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In this paper, we study how statistical tools which are commonly used independently can advantageously be exploited together in order to improve neural network estimation and selection in nonlinear static modeling. The tools we consider are the analysis of the numerical conditioning of the neural network candidates, statistical hypothesis tests, and cross validation. We present and analyze each of these tools in order to justify at what stage of a construction and selection procedure they can be most useful. On the basis of this analysis, we then propose a novel and systematic construction and selection procedure for neural modeling. We finally illustrate its efficiency through large scale simulations experiments and real world modeling problems.
Embedded Bayesian Network Classifiers
, 1997
"... Lowdimensional probability models for local distribution functions in a Bayesian network include decision trees, decision graphs, and causal independence models. We describe a new probability model for discrete Bayesian networks, which we call an embedded Bayesian network classifier or EBNC. The mo ..."
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Cited by 9 (2 self)
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Lowdimensional probability models for local distribution functions in a Bayesian network include decision trees, decision graphs, and causal independence models. We describe a new probability model for discrete Bayesian networks, which we call an embedded Bayesian network classifier or EBNC. The model for a node Y given parents X is obtained from a (usually different) Bayesian network for Y and X in which X need not be the parents of Y . We show that an EBNC is a special case of a softmax polynomial regression model. Also, we show how to identify a nonredundant set of parameters for an EBNC, and describe an asymptotic approximation for learning the structure of Bayesian networks that contain EBNCs. Unlike the decision tree, decision graph, and causal independence models, we are unaware of a semantic justification for the use of these models. Experiments are needed to determine whether the models presented in this paper are useful in practice. Keywords: Bayesian networks, model dimen...
A Very Fast Learning Method for Neural Networks Based On Sensitivity
 JOURNAL OF MACHINE LEARNING RESEARCH
, 2006
"... This paper introduces a learning method for twolayer feedforward neural networks based on sensitivity analysis, which uses a linear training algorithm for each of the two layers. First, random values are assigned to the outputs of the first layer; later, these initial values are updated based on ..."
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Cited by 6 (2 self)
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This paper introduces a learning method for twolayer feedforward neural networks based on sensitivity analysis, which uses a linear training algorithm for each of the two layers. First, random values are assigned to the outputs of the first layer; later, these initial values are updated based on sensitivity formulas, which use the weights in each of the layers; the process is repeated until convergence. Since these
A Theoretical Comparison of BatchMode, onLine, Cyclic, and Almost Cyclic Learning
"... We study and compare different neural network learning strategies: batchmode learning, online learning, cyclic learning, and almost cyclic learning. Incremental learning strategies require less storage capacity than batchmode learning. However, due to the arbitrariness in the presentation order o ..."
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Cited by 6 (3 self)
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We study and compare different neural network learning strategies: batchmode learning, online learning, cyclic learning, and almost cyclic learning. Incremental learning strategies require less storage capacity than batchmode learning. However, due to the arbitrariness in the presentation order of the training patterns, incremental learning is a stochastic process, whereas batchmode learning is deterministic. In zeroth order, i.e., as the learning parameter j tends to zero, all learning strategies approximate the same ordinary differential equation, for convenience referred to as the "ideal behavior". Using stochastic methods valid for small learning parameters j, we derive differential equation describing the evolution of the lowest order deviations from this ideal behavior. We compute how the asymptotic misadjustment, measuring the average asymptotic distance from a stable fixed point of the ideal behavior, scales as a function of the learning parameter and the number of trainin...