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15
Subgraph Isomorphism in Planar Graphs and Related Problems
, 1999
"... We solve the subgraph isomorphism problem in planar graphs in linear time, for any pattern of constant size. Our results are based on a technique of partitioning the planar graph into pieces of small treewidth, and applying dynamic programming within each piece. The same methods can be used to ..."
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Cited by 109 (3 self)
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We solve the subgraph isomorphism problem in planar graphs in linear time, for any pattern of constant size. Our results are based on a technique of partitioning the planar graph into pieces of small treewidth, and applying dynamic programming within each piece. The same methods can be used to solve other planar graph problems including connectivity, diameter, girth, induced subgraph isomorphism, and shortest paths.
Lifelong Planning A*
, 2005
"... Heuristic search methods promise to find shortest paths for pathplanning problems faster than uninformed search methods. Incremental search methods, on the other hand, promise to find shortest paths for series of similar pathplanning problems faster than is possible by solving each pathplanning p ..."
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Cited by 29 (3 self)
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Heuristic search methods promise to find shortest paths for pathplanning problems faster than uninformed search methods. Incremental search methods, on the other hand, promise to find shortest paths for series of similar pathplanning problems faster than is possible by solving each pathplanning problem from scratch. In this article, we develop Lifelong Planning A * (LPA*), an incremental version of A * that combines ideas from the artificial intelligence and the algorithms literature. It repeatedly finds shortest paths from a given start vertex to a given goal vertex while the edge costs of a graph change or vertices are added or deleted. Its first search is the same as that of a version of A * that breaks ties in favor of vertices with smaller gvalues but many of the subsequent searches are potentially faster because it reuses those parts of the previous search tree that are identical to the new one. We present analytical results that demonstrate its similarity to A * and experimental results that demonstrate its potential advantage in two different domains if the pathplanning problems change only slightly and the changes are close to the goal.
Fully Dynamic Output Bounded Single Source Shortest Path Problem (Extended Abstract)
 In ACMSIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms
"... ) Abstract We consider the problem of maintaining the distances and the shortest paths from a single source in either a directed or an undirected graph with positive real edge weights, handling insertions, deletions and cost updates of edges. We propose fully dynamic algorithms with optimal space ..."
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Cited by 24 (4 self)
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) Abstract We consider the problem of maintaining the distances and the shortest paths from a single source in either a directed or an undirected graph with positive real edge weights, handling insertions, deletions and cost updates of edges. We propose fully dynamic algorithms with optimal space requirements and query time. The cost of update operations depends on the class of the considered graph and on the number of vertices that, due to an edge modification, either change their distance from the source or change their parent in the shortest path tree. In the case of graphs with bounded genus (including planar graphs), bounded degree graphs, bounded treewidth graphs and finearplanar graphs with bounded fi, the update procedures require O(log n) amortized time per vertex update, while for general graphs with n vertices and m edges they require O( p m log n) amortized time per vertex update. The solution is based on a dynamization of Dijkstra's algorithm [6] and requires simple ...
Fast replanning for navigation in unknown terrain
 Transactions on Robotics
"... Abstract—Mobile robots often operate in domains that are only incompletely known, for example, when they have to move from given start coordinates to given goal coordinates in unknown terrain. In this case, they need to be able to replan quickly as their knowledge of the terrain changes. Stentz ’ Fo ..."
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Cited by 22 (7 self)
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Abstract—Mobile robots often operate in domains that are only incompletely known, for example, when they have to move from given start coordinates to given goal coordinates in unknown terrain. In this case, they need to be able to replan quickly as their knowledge of the terrain changes. Stentz ’ Focussed Dynamic A (D) is a heuristic search method that repeatedly determines a shortest path from the current robot coordinates to the goal coordinates while the robot moves along the path. It is able to replan faster than planning from scratch since it modifies its previous search results locally. Consequently, it has been extensively used in mobile robotics. In this article, we introduce an alternative to D that determines the same paths and thus moves the robot in the same way but is algorithmically different. D Lite is simple, can be rigorously analyzed, extendible in multiple ways, and is at least as efficient as D. We believe that our results will make Dlike replanning methods even more popular and enable robotics researchers to adapt them to additional applications. Index Terms—A, D (Dynamic A), navigation in unknown terrain, planning with the freespace assumption, replanning, search, sensorbased path planning. I.
Incremental heuristic search in artificial intelligence
 Artificial Intelligence Magazine
"... Incremental search reuses information from previous searches to find solutions to a series of similar search problems potentially faster than is possible by solving each search problem from scratch. This is important since many artificial intelligence systems have to adapt their plans continuously t ..."
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Cited by 8 (5 self)
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Incremental search reuses information from previous searches to find solutions to a series of similar search problems potentially faster than is possible by solving each search problem from scratch. This is important since many artificial intelligence systems have to adapt their plans continuously to changes in (their knowledge of) the world. In this article, we therefore give an overview of incremental search, focusing on Lifelong Planning A*, and outline some of its possible applications in artificial intelligence. Overview It is often important that searches be fast. Artificial intelligence has developed several ways of speeding up searches by trading off the search time and the cost of the resulting path. This includes using inadmissible heuristics (Pohl
Fully Dynamic Planarity Testing with Applications
"... The fully dynamic planarity testing problem consists of performing an arbitrary sequence of the following three kinds of operations on a planar graph G: (i) insert an edge if the resultant graph remains planar; (ii) delete an edge; and (iii) test whether an edge could be added to the graph without ..."
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Cited by 6 (0 self)
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The fully dynamic planarity testing problem consists of performing an arbitrary sequence of the following three kinds of operations on a planar graph G: (i) insert an edge if the resultant graph remains planar; (ii) delete an edge; and (iii) test whether an edge could be added to the graph without violating planarity. We show how to support each of the above operations in O(n2=3) time, where n is the number of vertices in the graph. The bound for tests and deletions is worstcase, while the bound for insertions is amortized. This is the first algorithm for this problem with sublinear running time, and it affirmatively answers a question posed in [11]. The same data structure has further applications in maintaining the biconnected and triconnected components of a dynamic planar graph. The time bounds are the same: O(n2=3) worstcase time per edge deletion, O(n2=3) amortized time per edge insertion, and O(n2=3) worstcase time to check whether two vertices are either biconnected or triconnected.
Maintaining a Large Matching and a Small Vertex Cover
"... We consider the problem of maintaining a large matching and a small vertex cover in a dynamically changing graph. Each update to the graph is either an edge deletion or an edge insertion. We give the first randomized data structure that simultaneously achieves a constant approximation factor and han ..."
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Cited by 4 (0 self)
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We consider the problem of maintaining a large matching and a small vertex cover in a dynamically changing graph. Each update to the graph is either an edge deletion or an edge insertion. We give the first randomized data structure that simultaneously achieves a constant approximation factor and handles a sequence of K updates in K · polylog(n) time, where n is the number of vertices in the graph. Previous data structures require a polynomial amount of computation per update.
Dynamic Approximate Vertex Cover and Maximum Matching
, 2010
"... We consider the problem of maintaining a large matching or a small vertex cover in a dynamically changing graph. Each update to the graph is either an edge deletion or an edge insertion. We give the first data structure that simultaneously achieves a constant approximation factor and handles a seque ..."
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Cited by 1 (0 self)
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We consider the problem of maintaining a large matching or a small vertex cover in a dynamically changing graph. Each update to the graph is either an edge deletion or an edge insertion. We give the first data structure that simultaneously achieves a constant approximation factor and handles a sequence of k updates in k · polylog(n) time. Previous data structures require a polynomial amount of computation per update. The starting point of our construction is a distributed algorithm of Parnas and Ron (Theor. Comput. Sci. 2007), which they designed for their sublineartime approximation algorithm for the vertex cover size. This leads us to wonder whether there are other connections between sublinear algorithms and dynamic data structures. 1
Fully Dynamic Approximate Distance Oracles for Planar Graphs via ForbiddenSet Distance Labels
"... This paper considers fully dynamic (1 + ε) distance oracles and (1 + ε) forbiddenset labeling schemes for planar graphs. For a given nvertex planar graph G with edge weights drawn from [1,M]andparameterε>0, our forbiddenset labeling scheme uses labels of length λ = O(ε −1 log 2 n log (nM) · (ε − ..."
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Cited by 1 (0 self)
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This paper considers fully dynamic (1 + ε) distance oracles and (1 + ε) forbiddenset labeling schemes for planar graphs. For a given nvertex planar graph G with edge weights drawn from [1,M]andparameterε>0, our forbiddenset labeling scheme uses labels of length λ = O(ε −1 log 2 n log (nM) · (ε −1 +logn)). Given the labels of two vertices s and t and of a set F of faulty vertices/edges, our scheme approximates the distance between s and t in G \ F with stretch (1 + ε), in O(F  2 λ)time. We then present a general method to transform (1 + ε) forbiddenset labeling schemas into a fully dynamic (1 + ε) distance oracle. Our fully dynamic (1 + ε) distanceoracle is of size O(n log n · (ε −1 +logn)) and has Õ(n1/2)query and update time, both the query and the update time are worst case. This improves on the best previously known (1+ε) dynamicdistanceoracleforplanargraphs,whichhas worst case query time Õ(n2/3)andamortizedupdatetime of Õ(n2/3). Our (1 + ε) forbiddenset labeling scheme can also be extended into a forbiddenset labeled routing scheme with stretch (1 + ε).