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PVS: Combining Specification, Proof Checking, and Model Checking
, 1996
"... rem Proving and Typechecking The PVS specification language is based on classical, simply typed higherorder logic, but the type system has been augmented with subtypes and dependent types. Though typechecking is undecidable for the PVS type system, the PVS typechecker automatically checks for simp ..."
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Cited by 206 (4 self)
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rem Proving and Typechecking The PVS specification language is based on classical, simply typed higherorder logic, but the type system has been augmented with subtypes and dependent types. Though typechecking is undecidable for the PVS type system, the PVS typechecker automatically checks for simple type correctness and generates proof obligations corresponding to predicate subtypes. These proof obligations can be discharged through the use of the PVS proof checker. PVS also has parametric theories so that it is possible to capture, say, the notion of sorting with respect to arbitrary sizes, types, and ordering relations. By exploiting subtyping, dependent typing, and parametric theories, researchers at NASA Langley Research Center and SRI have developed a very general bitvector library. Paul Miner at NASA ? The development of PVS was funded by SRI International through IR&D funds. Various applications and customizations have been funded by NSF Grant CCR9300
The Security of Static Typing with Dynamic Linking
 In Fourth ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security
, 1997
"... Dynamic linking is a requirement for portable executable content. Executable content cannot know, ahead of time, where it is going to be executed, nor know the proper operating system interface. This imposes a requirement for dynamic linking. At the same time, we would like languages supporting exec ..."
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Cited by 60 (1 self)
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Dynamic linking is a requirement for portable executable content. Executable content cannot know, ahead of time, where it is going to be executed, nor know the proper operating system interface. This imposes a requirement for dynamic linking. At the same time, we would like languages supporting executable content to be statically typable, for increased efficiency and security. Static typing and dynamic linking interact in a securityrelevant way. This interaction is the subject of this paper. One solution is modeled in PVS, and formally proven to be safe.
A Mechanically Checked Proof of the Correctness of the Kernel of the AMD5K86 FloatingPoint Division Algorithm
 IEEE Transactions on Computers
, 1996
"... We describe a mechanically checked proof of the correctness of the kernel of the floating point division algorithm used on the AMD5K 86 microprocessor. The kernel is a nonrestoring division algorithm that computes the floating point quotient of two double extended precision floating point numbers, ..."
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Cited by 30 (11 self)
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We describe a mechanically checked proof of the correctness of the kernel of the floating point division algorithm used on the AMD5K 86 microprocessor. The kernel is a nonrestoring division algorithm that computes the floating point quotient of two double extended precision floating point numbers, p and d (d 6= 0), with respect to a rounding mode, mode. The algorithm is defined in terms of floating point addition and multiplication. First, two NewtonRaphson iterations are used to compute a floating point approximation of the reciprocal of d. The result is used to compute four floating point quotient digits in the 24,,17 format (24 bits of precision and 17 bit exponents) which are then summed using appropriate rounding modes. We prove that if p and d are 64,,15 (possibly denormal) floating point numbers, d 6= 0 and mode specifies one of six rounding procedures and a desired precision 0 ! n 64, then the output of the algorithm is p=d rounded according to mode. We prove that every int...
Acceptance of Formal Methods: Lessons from Hardware Design
, 1996
"... Despite years of research, the overall impact of formal methods on mainstream software design has been disappointing. By contrast, formal methods are beginning to make real inroads in commercial hardware design. This penetration is the result of sustained progress in automated hardware verification ..."
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Cited by 17 (0 self)
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Despite years of research, the overall impact of formal methods on mainstream software design has been disappointing. By contrast, formal methods are beginning to make real inroads in commercial hardware design. This penetration is the result of sustained progress in automated hardware verification methods, an increasing accumulation of success stories from using formal techniques, and a growing consensus among hardware designers that traditional validation techniques are not keeping up with the increasing complexity of designs. For example, validation of a new microprocessor design typically requires as much manpower as the design itself, and the size of validation teams continues to grow. This manpower is employed in writing test cases for simulations that run for months on acres of highpowered workstations. In particular, the notorious FDIV bug in the Intel Pentium processor [13], has galvanized verification efforts, not because it was the first or most serious bug in a processor design, but because it was easily repeatable and because the cost was quantified (at over $400 million). Hence, hardware design companies are increasingly looking to new techniques, including formal verification, to supplement and sometimes replace conventional validation methods. Indeed, many companies, including industry leaders such as AT&T, Cadence, HewlettPackard, IBM, Intel, LSI Logic, Motorola, Rockwell, Texas Instruments, and Silicon Graphics have created formal verification groups to help with ongoing designs. In many cases, these groups began by demonstrating the effectiveness of formal verification by finding subtle design errors that were overlooked by months of simulation.
Formal Verification of the VAMP Floating Point Unit
 In CHARME 2001, volume 2144 of LNCS
, 2001
"... We report on the formal verification of the floating point unit used in the VAMP processor. The FPU is fully IEEE compliant, and supports denormals and exceptions in hardware. The supported operations are addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, comparison, and conversions. The hardware is v ..."
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Cited by 12 (6 self)
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We report on the formal verification of the floating point unit used in the VAMP processor. The FPU is fully IEEE compliant, and supports denormals and exceptions in hardware. The supported operations are addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, comparison, and conversions. The hardware is verified on the gate level against a formal description of the IEEE standard by means of the theorem prover PVS.
Formal Verification of Dynamic Properties in an Aerospace Application
"... . Formal verification of computerbased engineering systems is only meaningful if the mathematical models used are derived systematically, recording the assumptions made at each modelling stage. In this paper we give an exposition of research efforts in cooperation with aerospace industries in Swede ..."
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Cited by 6 (1 self)
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. Formal verification of computerbased engineering systems is only meaningful if the mathematical models used are derived systematically, recording the assumptions made at each modelling stage. In this paper we give an exposition of research efforts in cooperation with aerospace industries in Sweden. We emphasize the need for modelling techniques and languages covering the whole spectrum from informal engineering documents, to hybrid mathematical models. In this modelling process we give as much weight to the physical environment as to the controlling software. In particular, we report on our experience using switched bond graphs for the modelling of hardware components in hybrid systems. We present the basic ideas underlying bond graphs and illustrate the approach by modelling an aircraft landing gear system. This system consists of actuating hydromechanic and electromechanic hardware, as well as controlling components implemented in software and electronics. We present a detailed an...
Rewriting, decision procedures and lemma speculation for automated hardware verification
 Proc. 10th Intl. Conf. Theorem Proving in Higher Order Logics, LNCS 1275
, 1997
"... The use of a rewritebased, induction theorem prover, Rewrite Rule Laboratory (RRL) [13] is discussed for verifying arithmetic circuits at the gate level. It ..."
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Cited by 4 (3 self)
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The use of a rewritebased, induction theorem prover, Rewrite Rule Laboratory (RRL) [13] is discussed for verifying arithmetic circuits at the gate level. It
Studies in Mechanical Verification of Mathematical Proofs
, 1999
"... infinitely_many_p ri mes_exist = ([fac_divides:{x,yel Nat}(ap2 LessEqN OneN x)>(ap2 LessEqN x y)>divides x (fac y)]([infinitely_bounded_prim es _exist:{x:el Nat}Ex(el ..."
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Cited by 1 (0 self)
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infinitely_many_p ri mes_exist = ([fac_divides:{x,yel Nat}(ap2 LessEqN OneN x)>(ap2 LessEqN x y)>divides x (fac y)]([infinitely_bounded_prim es _exist:{x:el Nat}Ex(el