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291
Adaptive Constraint Satisfaction
 WORKSHOP OF THE UK PLANNING AND SCHEDULING
, 1996
"... Many different approaches have been applied to constraint satisfaction. These range from complete backtracking algorithms to sophisticated distributed configurations. However, most research effort in the field of constraint satisfaction algorithms has concentrated on the use of a single algorithm fo ..."
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Cited by 809 (43 self)
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Many different approaches have been applied to constraint satisfaction. These range from complete backtracking algorithms to sophisticated distributed configurations. However, most research effort in the field of constraint satisfaction algorithms has concentrated on the use of a single algorithm for solving all problems. At the same time, a consensus appears to have developed to the effect that it is unlikely that any single algorithm is always the best choice for all classes of problem. In this paper we argue that an adaptive approach should play an important part in constraint satisfaction. This approach relaxes the commitment to using a single algorithm once search commences. As a result, we claim that it is possible to undertake a more focused approach to problem solving, allowing for the correction of bad algorithm choices and for capitalising on opportunities for gain by dynamically changing to more suitable candidates.
Partial Constraint Satisfaction
, 1992
"... . A constraint satisfaction problem involves finding values for variables subject to constraints on which combinations of values are allowed. In some cases it may be impossible or impractical to solve these problems completely. We may seek to partially solve the problem, in particular by satisfying ..."
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Cited by 422 (23 self)
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. A constraint satisfaction problem involves finding values for variables subject to constraints on which combinations of values are allowed. In some cases it may be impossible or impractical to solve these problems completely. We may seek to partially solve the problem, in particular by satisfying a maximal number of constraints. Standard backtracking and local consistency techniques for solving constraint satisfaction problems can be adapted to cope with, and take advantage of, the differences between partial and complete constraint satisfaction. Extensive experimentation on maximal satisfaction problems illuminates the relative and absolute effectiveness of these methods. A general model of partial constraint satisfaction is proposed. 1 Introduction Constraint satisfaction involves finding values for problem variables subject to constraints on acceptable combinations of values. Constraint satisfaction has wide application in artificial intelligence, in areas ranging from temporal r...
Hybrid Algorithms for the Constraint Satisfaction Problem
 Computational Intelligence
, 1993
"... problem (csp), namely, naive backtracking (BT), backjumping (BJ), conflictdirected backjumping ..."
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Cited by 345 (7 self)
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problem (csp), namely, naive backtracking (BT), backjumping (BJ), conflictdirected backjumping
Contradicting Conventional Wisdom in Constraint Satisfaction
, 1994
"... . Constraint satisfaction problems have wide application in artificial intelligence. They involve finding values for problem variables where the values must be consistent in that they satisfy restrictions on which combinations of values are allowed. Two standard techniques used in solving such p ..."
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Cited by 203 (12 self)
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. Constraint satisfaction problems have wide application in artificial intelligence. They involve finding values for problem variables where the values must be consistent in that they satisfy restrictions on which combinations of values are allowed. Two standard techniques used in solving such problems are backtrack search and consistency inference. Conventional wisdom in the constraint satisfaction community suggests: 1) using consistency inference as preprocessing before search to prune values from consideration reduces subsequent search effort and 2) using consistency inference during search to prune values from consideration is best done at the limited level embodied in the forward checking algorithm. We present evidence contradicting both pieces of conventional wisdom, and suggesting renewed consideration of an approach which fully maintains arc consistency during backtrack search. 1 Introduction Constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs) involve finding values for prob...
SemiringBased Constraint Satisfaction and Optimization
 JOURNAL OF THE ACM
, 1997
"... We introduce a general framework for constraint satisfaction and optimization where classical CSPs, fuzzy CSPs, weighted CSPs, partial constraint satisfaction, and others can be easily cast. The framework is based on a semiring structure, where the set of the semiring specifies the values to be asso ..."
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Cited by 159 (20 self)
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We introduce a general framework for constraint satisfaction and optimization where classical CSPs, fuzzy CSPs, weighted CSPs, partial constraint satisfaction, and others can be easily cast. The framework is based on a semiring structure, where the set of the semiring specifies the values to be associated with each tuple of values of the variable domain, and the two semiring operations (1 and 3) model constraint projection and combination respectively. Local consistency algorithms, as usually used for classical CSPs, can be exploited in this general framework as well, provided that certain conditions on the semiring operations are satisfied. We then show how this framework can be used to model both old and new constraint solving and optimization schemes, thus allowing one to both formally justify many informally taken choices in existing schemes, and to prove that local consistency techniques can be used also in newly defined schemes.
ConjunctiveQuery Containment and Constraint Satisfaction
 Journal of Computer and System Sciences
, 1998
"... Conjunctivequery containment is recognized as a fundamental problem in database query evaluation and optimization. At the same time, constraint satisfaction is recognized as a fundamental problem in artificial intelligence. What do conjunctivequery containment and constraint satisfaction have in c ..."
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Cited by 130 (13 self)
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Conjunctivequery containment is recognized as a fundamental problem in database query evaluation and optimization. At the same time, constraint satisfaction is recognized as a fundamental problem in artificial intelligence. What do conjunctivequery containment and constraint satisfaction have in common? Our main conceptual contribution in this paper is to point out that, despite their very different formulation, conjunctivequery containment and constraint satisfaction are essentially the same problem. The reason is that they can be recast as the following fundamental algebraic problem: given two finite relational structures A and B, is there a homomorphism h : A ! B? As formulated above, the homomorphism problem is uniform in the sense that both relational structures A and B are part of the input. By fixing the structure B, one obtains the following nonuniform problem: given a finite relational structure A, is there a homomorphism h : A ! B? In general, nonuniform tractability results do not uniformize. Thus, it is natural to ask: which tractable cases of nonuniform tractability results for constraint satisfaction and conjunctivequery containment do uniformize? Our main technical contribution in this paper is to show that several cases of tractable nonuniform constraint satisfaction problems do indeed uniformize. We exhibit three nonuniform tractability results that uniformize and, thus, give rise to polynomialtime solvable cases of constraint satisfaction and conjunctivequery containment.
Algorithms for the Satisfiability (SAT) Problem: A Survey
 DIMACS Series in Discrete Mathematics and Theoretical Computer Science
, 1996
"... . The satisfiability (SAT) problem is a core problem in mathematical logic and computing theory. In practice, SAT is fundamental in solving many problems in automated reasoning, computeraided design, computeraided manufacturing, machine vision, database, robotics, integrated circuit design, compute ..."
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Cited by 125 (3 self)
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. The satisfiability (SAT) problem is a core problem in mathematical logic and computing theory. In practice, SAT is fundamental in solving many problems in automated reasoning, computeraided design, computeraided manufacturing, machine vision, database, robotics, integrated circuit design, computer architecture design, and computer network design. Traditional methods treat SAT as a discrete, constrained decision problem. In recent years, many optimization methods, parallel algorithms, and practical techniques have been developed for solving SAT. In this survey, we present a general framework (an algorithm space) that integrates existing SAT algorithms into a unified perspective. We describe sequential and parallel SAT algorithms including variable splitting, resolution, local search, global optimization, mathematical programming, and practical SAT algorithms. We give performance evaluation of some existing SAT algorithms. Finally, we provide a set of practical applications of the sat...
A knowledge plane for the Internet
 In SIGCOMM
, 2003
"... One of the Internet’s greatest strengths is that it does not know or care what its applications are or what they are doing: it simply forwards data. Yet network users experience the network through the functioning and performance of applications. This divergence of perspective leads to a number of p ..."
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Cited by 123 (3 self)
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One of the Internet’s greatest strengths is that it does not know or care what its applications are or what they are doing: it simply forwards data. Yet network users experience the network through the functioning and performance of applications. This divergence of perspective leads to a number of problems. For example, a user whose local DNS service has failed may perceive the network as broken, even though from a network perspective, data continues to flow correctly. If an email server or a Web server fails, the user will say the network is broken; the network operator will say the network is fine. We need a way to make the network more aware of itself and its applications, without destroying the open and transparent data plane. To meet this need we propose the creation of an Internet knowledge plane. The knowledge plane is a distributed and decentralized construct within the network that gathers, aggregates, and manages information about network behavior and operation, and provides an integrated view to all parties (operators, users, and the network itself). The goal is to enlarge our view of what constitutes the network to match the intuition of a user, and to enhance our ability to manage the network intelligently, without disturbing the open and unknowing forwarding plane. The knowledge plane is intelligent: it can reason about the network’s behavior and act upon the results of its reasoning. It can remember and learn from past behavior. To achieve that goal, we propose to adapt and employ recent work in cognition such as the separation of algorithm, policy and goals, and new models for knowledge representation.
Theoretical and Numerical ConstraintHandling Techniques used with Evolutionary Algorithms: A Survey of the State of the Art
, 2002
"... This paper provides a comprehensive survey of the most popular constrainthandling techniques currently used with evolutionary algorithms. We review approaches that go from simple variations of a penalty function, to others, more sophisticated, that are biologically inspired on emulations of the imm ..."
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Cited by 100 (21 self)
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This paper provides a comprehensive survey of the most popular constrainthandling techniques currently used with evolutionary algorithms. We review approaches that go from simple variations of a penalty function, to others, more sophisticated, that are biologically inspired on emulations of the immune system, culture or ant colonies. Besides describing briefly each of these approaches (or groups of techniques), we provide some criticism regarding their highlights and drawbacks. A small comparative study is also conducted, in order to assess the performance of several penaltybased approaches with respect to a dominancebased technique proposed by the author, and with respect to some mathematical programming approaches. Finally, we provide some guidelines regarding how to select the most appropriate constrainthandling technique for a certain application, ad we conclude with some of the the most promising paths of future research in this area.
Semiringbased CSPs and Valued CSPs: Frameworks, Properties, and Comparison
 Constraints
, 1999
"... In this paper we describe and compare two frameworks for constraint solving where classical CSPs, fuzzy CSPs, weighted CSPs, partial constraint satisfaction, and others can be easily cast. One is based on a semiring, and the other one on a totally ordered commutative monoid. While comparing the two ..."
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Cited by 99 (27 self)
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In this paper we describe and compare two frameworks for constraint solving where classical CSPs, fuzzy CSPs, weighted CSPs, partial constraint satisfaction, and others can be easily cast. One is based on a semiring, and the other one on a totally ordered commutative monoid. While comparing the two approaches, we show how to pass from one to the other one, and we discuss when this is possible. The two frameworks have been independently introduced in [2], [3] and [35].