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118
Inverse entailment and Progol
, 1995
"... This paper firstly provides a reappraisal of the development of techniques for inverting deduction, secondly introduces ModeDirected Inverse Entailment (MDIE) as a generalisation and enhancement of previous approaches and thirdly describes an implementation of MDIE in the Progol system. Progol ..."
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Cited by 631 (59 self)
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This paper firstly provides a reappraisal of the development of techniques for inverting deduction, secondly introduces ModeDirected Inverse Entailment (MDIE) as a generalisation and enhancement of previous approaches and thirdly describes an implementation of MDIE in the Progol system. Progol is implemented in C and available by anonymous ftp. The reassessment of previous techniques in terms of inverse entailment leads to new results for learning from positive data and inverting implication between pairs of clauses.
Clausal Discovery
 Machine Learning
, 1996
"... The clausal discovery engine Claudien is presented. Claudien is an inductive logic programming engine that fits in the knowledge discovery in databases and data mining paradigm as it discovers regularities that are valid in data. As such Claudien performs a novel induction task, which is called char ..."
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Cited by 184 (33 self)
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The clausal discovery engine Claudien is presented. Claudien is an inductive logic programming engine that fits in the knowledge discovery in databases and data mining paradigm as it discovers regularities that are valid in data. As such Claudien performs a novel induction task, which is called characteristic induction from closed observations, and which is related to existing formalizations of induction in logic. In characterising induction from closed observations, the regularities are represented by clausal theories, and the data using Herbrand interpretations. Claudien also employs a novel declarative bias mechanism to define the set of clauses that may appear in a hypothesis. Keywords : Inductive Logic Programming, Knowledge Discovery in Databases, Data Mining, Learning, Induction, Semantics for Induction, Logic of Induction, Parallel Learning. 1 Introduction Despite the fact that the areas of knowledge discovery in databases [Fayyad et al., 1995] and inductive logic programmin...
Marginalized kernels between labeled graphs
 Proceedings of the Twentieth International Conference on Machine Learning
, 2003
"... A new kernel function between two labeled graphs is presented. Feature vectors are defined as the counts of label paths produced by random walks on graphs. The kernel computation finally boils down to obtaining the stationary state of a discretetime linear system, thus is efficiently performed by s ..."
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Cited by 144 (14 self)
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A new kernel function between two labeled graphs is presented. Feature vectors are defined as the counts of label paths produced by random walks on graphs. The kernel computation finally boils down to obtaining the stationary state of a discretetime linear system, thus is efficiently performed by solving simultaneous linear equations. Our kernel is based on an infinite dimensional feature space, so it is fundamentally different from other string or tree kernels based on dynamic programming. We will present promising empirical results in classification of chemical compounds. 1 1.
MultiInstance Kernels
 In Proc. 19th International Conf. on Machine Learning
, 2002
"... Learning from structured data is becoming increasingly important. However, most prior work on kernel methods has focused on learning from attributevalue data. Only recently, research started investigating kernels for structured data. This paper considers kernels for multiinstance problems  a cla ..."
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Cited by 112 (3 self)
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Learning from structured data is becoming increasingly important. However, most prior work on kernel methods has focused on learning from attributevalue data. Only recently, research started investigating kernels for structured data. This paper considers kernels for multiinstance problems  a class of concepts on individuals represented by sets. The main result of this paper is a kernel on multiinstance data that can be shown to separate positive and negative sets under natural assumptions. This kernel compares favorably with state of the art multiinstance learning algorithms in an empirical study. Finally, we give some concluding remarks and propose future work that might further improve the results.
Topdown induction of clustering trees
 In 15th Int’l Conf. on Machine Learning
, 1998
"... An approach to clustering is presented that adapts the basic topdown induction of decision trees method towards clustering. To this aim, it employs the principles of instance based learning. The resulting methodology is implemented in the TIC (Top down Induction of Clustering trees) system for firs ..."
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Cited by 99 (22 self)
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An approach to clustering is presented that adapts the basic topdown induction of decision trees method towards clustering. To this aim, it employs the principles of instance based learning. The resulting methodology is implemented in the TIC (Top down Induction of Clustering trees) system for first order clustering. The TIC system employs the first order logical decision tree representation of the inductive logic programming system Tilde. Various experiments with TIC are presented, in both propositional and relational domains. 1
Relational Learning Techniques for Natural Language Information Extraction
, 1998
"... The recent growth of online information available in the form of natural language documents creates a greater need for computing systems with the ability to process those documents to simplify access to the information. One type of processing appropriate for many tasks is information extraction, a t ..."
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Cited by 78 (4 self)
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The recent growth of online information available in the form of natural language documents creates a greater need for computing systems with the ability to process those documents to simplify access to the information. One type of processing appropriate for many tasks is information extraction, a type of text skimming that retrieves specific types of information from text. Although information extraction systems have existed for two decades, these systems have generally been built by hand and contain domain specific information, making them difficult to port to other domains. A few researchers have begun to apply machine learning to information extraction tasks, but most of this work has involved applying learning to pieces of a much larger system. This paper presents a novel rule representation specific to natural language and a learning system, Rapier, which learns information extraction rules. Rapier takes pairs of documents and filled templates indicating the information to be ext...
Feature construction with Inductive Logic Programming: a study of quantitative predictions of chemical activity aided by structural attributes
 Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery
, 1996
"... Recently, computer programs developed within the field of Inductive Logic Programming have received some attention for their ability to construct restricted firstorder logic solutions using problemspecific background knowledge. Prominent applications of such programs have been concerned with d ..."
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Cited by 63 (9 self)
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Recently, computer programs developed within the field of Inductive Logic Programming have received some attention for their ability to construct restricted firstorder logic solutions using problemspecific background knowledge. Prominent applications of such programs have been concerned with determining "structureactivity" relationships in the areas of molecular biology and chemistry. Typically the task here is to predict the "activity" of a compound, like toxicity, from its chemical structure.
A Perspective on Inductive Logic Programming
"... . The stateoftheart in inductive logic programming is surveyed by analyzing the approach taken by this field over the past 8 years. The analysis investigates the roles of 1) logic programming and machine learning, of 2) theory, techniques and applications, of 3) various technical problems address ..."
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Cited by 55 (8 self)
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. The stateoftheart in inductive logic programming is surveyed by analyzing the approach taken by this field over the past 8 years. The analysis investigates the roles of 1) logic programming and machine learning, of 2) theory, techniques and applications, of 3) various technical problems addressed within inductive logic programming. 1 Introduction The term inductive logic programming was first coined by Stephen Muggleton in 1990 [1]. Inductive logic programming is concerned with the study of inductive machine learning within the representations offered by computational logic. Since 1991, annual international workshops have been organized [28]. This paper is an attempt to analyze the developments within this field. Particular attention is devoted to the relation between inductive logic programming and its neighboring fields such as machine learning, computational logic and data mining, and to the role that theory, techniques and implementations, and applications play. The analysis...
Biochemical knowledge discovery using Inductive Logic Programming
, 1998
"... Machine Learning algorithms are being increasingly used for knowledge discovery tasks. Approaches can be broadly divided by distinguishing discovery of procedural from that of declarative knowledge. Client requirements determine which of these is appropriate. This paper discusses an experimental ..."
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Cited by 47 (6 self)
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Machine Learning algorithms are being increasingly used for knowledge discovery tasks. Approaches can be broadly divided by distinguishing discovery of procedural from that of declarative knowledge. Client requirements determine which of these is appropriate. This paper discusses an experimental application of machine learning in an area related to drug design. The bottleneck here is in finding appropriate constraints to reduce the large number of candidate molecules to be synthesisedand tested. Such constraints canbe viewed as declarative specifications of the structural elements necessary for high medicinal activity and low toxicity. The firstorder representation used within Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) provides an appropriate description language for such constraints. Within this application area knowledge accreditation requires not only a demonstration of predictive accuracy but also, and crucially, a certification of novel insight into the structural chemistry. Thi...
Scaling up inductive logic programming by learning from interpretations. Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery
 Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery
, 1999
"... Abstract. When comparing inductive logic programming (ILP) and attributevalue learning techniques, there is a tradeoff between expressive power and efficiency. Inductive logic programming techniques are typically more expressive but also less efficient. Therefore, the data sets handled by current ..."
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Cited by 41 (14 self)
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Abstract. When comparing inductive logic programming (ILP) and attributevalue learning techniques, there is a tradeoff between expressive power and efficiency. Inductive logic programming techniques are typically more expressive but also less efficient. Therefore, the data sets handled by current inductive logic programming systems are small according to general standards within the data mining community. The main source of inefficiency lies in the assumption that several examples may be related to each other, so they cannot be handled independently. Within the learning from interpretations framework for inductive logic programming this assumption is unnecessary, which allows to scale up existing ILP algorithms. In this paper we explain this learning setting in the context of relational databases. We relate the setting to propositional data mining and to the classical ILP setting, and show that learning from interpretations corresponds to learning from multiple relations and thus extends the expressiveness of propositional learning, while maintaining its efficiency to a large extent (which is not the case in the classical ILP setting). As a case study, we present two alternative implementations of the ILP system Tilde (Topdown Induction of Logical DEcision trees): Tildeclassic, which loads all data in main memory, and TildeLDS, which loads the examples one by one. We experimentally compare the implementations, showing TildeLDS can handle large data sets (in the order of 100,000 examples or 100 MB) and indeed scales up linearly in the number of examples.