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46
Unbalanced Feistel Networks and BlockCipher Design
 Fast Software Encryption, 3rd International Workshop Proceedings
, 1996
"... We examine a generalization of the concept of Feistel networks, which we call Unbalanced Feistel Networks (UFNs). Like conventional Feistel networks, UFNs consist of a series of rounds in which one part of the block operates on the rest of the block. However, in a UFN the two parts need not be of eq ..."
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Cited by 72 (5 self)
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We examine a generalization of the concept of Feistel networks, which we call Unbalanced Feistel Networks (UFNs). Like conventional Feistel networks, UFNs consist of a series of rounds in which one part of the block operates on the rest of the block. However, in a UFN the two parts need not be of equal size. Removing this limitation on Feistel networks has interesting implications for designing ciphers secure against linear and differential attacks. We describe UFNs and a terminology for discussing their properties, present and analyze some UFN constructions, and make some initial observations about their security. It is notable that almost all the proposed ciphers that are based on Feistel networks follow the same design construction: half the bits operate on the other half. There is no inherent reason that this should be so; as we will demonstrate, it is possible to design Feistel networks across a much wider, richer design space. In this paper, we examine the nature of the...
Twofish: A 128Bit Block Cipher
 in First Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Conference
, 1998
"... Twofish is a 128bit block cipher that accepts a variablelength key up to 256 bits. The cipher is a 16round Feistel network with a bijective F function made up of four keydependent 8by8bit Sboxes, a fixed 4by4 maximum distance separable matrix over GF(2 8 ), a pseudoHadamard transform, bit ..."
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Cited by 66 (8 self)
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Twofish is a 128bit block cipher that accepts a variablelength key up to 256 bits. The cipher is a 16round Feistel network with a bijective F function made up of four keydependent 8by8bit Sboxes, a fixed 4by4 maximum distance separable matrix over GF(2 8 ), a pseudoHadamard transform, bitwise rotations, and a carefully designed key schedule. A fully optimized implementation of Twofish encrypts on a Pentium Pro at 17.8 clock cycles per byte, and an 8bit smart card implementation encrypts at 1660 clock cycles per byte. Twofish can be implemented in hardware in 14000 gates. The design of both the round function and the key schedule permits a wide variety of tradeoffs between speed, software size, key setup time, gate count, and memory. We have extensively cryptanalyzed Twofish; our best attack breaks 5 rounds with 2 22.5 chosen plaintexts and 2 51 effort.
Chaos and Cryptography: Block Encryption Ciphers Based on Chaotic Maps
 IEEE Transactions on Circuits and SystemsI: Fundamental Theory and Applications
, 2001
"... Abstract—This paper is devoted to the analysis of the impact of chaosbased techniques on block encryption ciphers. We present several chaos based ciphers. Using the wellknown principles in the cryptanalysis we show that these ciphers do not behave worse than the standard ones, opening in this way ..."
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Cited by 62 (1 self)
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Abstract—This paper is devoted to the analysis of the impact of chaosbased techniques on block encryption ciphers. We present several chaos based ciphers. Using the wellknown principles in the cryptanalysis we show that these ciphers do not behave worse than the standard ones, opening in this way a novel approach to the design of block encryption ciphers. Index Terms—Block encryption ciphers, chaos, cryptography, Sboxes. I.
How Far Can We Go Beyond Linear Cryptanalysis?
 ADVANCES IN CRYPTOLOGY  ASIACRYPT’04, VOLUME 3329 OF LNCS
, 2004
"... Several generalizations of linear cryptanalysis have been proposed in the past, as well as very similar attacks in a statistical point of view. In this paper, we define a rigorous general statistical framework which allows to interpret most of these attacks in a simple and unified way. Then, we exp ..."
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Cited by 49 (10 self)
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Several generalizations of linear cryptanalysis have been proposed in the past, as well as very similar attacks in a statistical point of view. In this paper, we define a rigorous general statistical framework which allows to interpret most of these attacks in a simple and unified way. Then, we explicitely construct optimal distinguishers, we evaluate their performance, and we prove that a block cipher immune to classical linear cryptanalysis possesses some resistance to a wide class of generalized versions, but not all. Finally, we derive tools which are necessary to set up more elaborate extensions of linear cryptanalysis, and to generalize the notions of bias, characteristic, and pilingup lemma.
NonLinear Approximations in Linear Cryptanalysis
 Advances in Cryptology, Proceedings Eurocrypt'96, LNCS 1070
, 1996
"... Abstract. By considering the role of nonlinear approximations in linear cryptanalysis we obtain a generalization of Matsui’s linear cryptanalytic techniques. This approach allows the cryptanalyst greater flexibility in mounting a linear cryptanalytic attack and we demonstrate the effectiveness of o ..."
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Cited by 28 (0 self)
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Abstract. By considering the role of nonlinear approximations in linear cryptanalysis we obtain a generalization of Matsui’s linear cryptanalytic techniques. This approach allows the cryptanalyst greater flexibility in mounting a linear cryptanalytic attack and we demonstrate the effectiveness of our nonlinear techniques with some simple attacks on LOKI91. These attacks potentially allow for the recovery of seven additional bits of key information with less than 1/4 of the plaintext that is required using current linear cryptanalytic methods. 1
Constructing symmetric ciphers using the CAST design procedure
 DESIGNS, CODES, AND CRYPTOGRAPHY
, 1997
"... This paper describes the CAST design procedure for constructing a family of DESlike SubstitutionPermutation Network (SPN) cryptosystems which appear to have good resistance to differential cryptanalysis, linear cryptanalysis, and relatedkey cryptanalysis, along with a number of other desirable ..."
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Cited by 27 (1 self)
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This paper describes the CAST design procedure for constructing a family of DESlike SubstitutionPermutation Network (SPN) cryptosystems which appear to have good resistance to differential cryptanalysis, linear cryptanalysis, and relatedkey cryptanalysis, along with a number of other desirable cryptographic properties. Details of the design choices in the procedure are given, including those regarding the component substitution boxes (sboxes), the overall framework, the key schedule, and the round function. An example CAST cipher, an output of this design procedure, is presented as an aid to understanding the concepts and to encourage detailed analysis by the cryptologic community.
A Keyschedule Weakness in SAFER K64
 Advances in Cryptology, Proceedings Crypto'95, LNCS 963
, 1995
"... . In this paper we analyse SAFER K64 and show a weakness in the key schedule. It has the effect that for almost every key K, there exists at least one different key K , such that for many plaintexts the outputs after 6 rounds of encryption are equal. The output transformation causes the cipherte ..."
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Cited by 23 (9 self)
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. In this paper we analyse SAFER K64 and show a weakness in the key schedule. It has the effect that for almost every key K, there exists at least one different key K , such that for many plaintexts the outputs after 6 rounds of encryption are equal. The output transformation causes the ciphertexts to differ in one of the 8 bytes. Also, the same types of keys encrypt even more pairs of plaintexts different in one byte to ciphertexts different only in the same byte. This enables us to do a relatedkey chosen plaintext attack on SAFER K64, which finds 8 bits of the key requiring from 2 44 to about 2 47 chosen plaintexts. While our observations may have no greater impact on the security of SAFER K64 when used for encryption in practice, it greatly reduces the security of the algorithm when used in hashing modes, which is illustrated. We give collisions for the wellknown secure hash modes using a block cipher. Also we give a suggestion of how to improve the key schedule, such th...
New method for upper bounding the maximum average linear hull probability for SPNs
 Advances in Cryptology— EUROCRYPT 2001, LNCS 2045
, 2001
"... Abstract. We present a new algorithm for upper bounding the maximum average linear hull probability for SPNs, a value required to determine provable security against linear cryptanalysis. The best previous result (Hong et al. [9]) applies only when the linear transformation branch number (B) is M or ..."
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Abstract. We present a new algorithm for upper bounding the maximum average linear hull probability for SPNs, a value required to determine provable security against linear cryptanalysis. The best previous result (Hong et al. [9]) applies only when the linear transformation branch number (B) is M or (M + 1) (maximal case), where M is the number of sboxes per round. In contrast, our upper bound can be computed for any value of B. Moreover, the new upper bound is a function of the number of rounds (other upper bounds known to the authors are not). When B = M, our upper bound is consistently superior to [9]. When B = (M + 1), our upper bound does not appear to improve on [9]. On application to Rijndael (128bit block size, 10 rounds), we obtain the upper bound UB = 2 −75, corresponding to a lower bound on the data 8 complexity of UB = 278 (for 96.7 % success rate). Note that this does not demonstrate the existence of a such an attack, but is, to our knowledge, the first such lower bound.
Truncated Differentials of SAFER
, 1996
"... . In this paper we do differential cryptanalysis of SAFER. We consider "truncated differentials" and apply them in an attack on 5round SAFER, which finds the secret key in time much faster than by exhaustive search. 1 Introduction In [6] a new encryption algorithm, SAFER K64, hereafter d ..."
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Cited by 21 (9 self)
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. In this paper we do differential cryptanalysis of SAFER. We consider "truncated differentials" and apply them in an attack on 5round SAFER, which finds the secret key in time much faster than by exhaustive search. 1 Introduction In [6] a new encryption algorithm, SAFER K64, hereafter denoted SAFER, was proposed. Both the block and the key size is 64. The algorithm is an iterated cipher, such that encryption is done by iteratively applying the same function to the plaintext in a number of rounds. The suggested number of rounds is minimum 6 and maximum 10 [6, 7]. Finally an output transformation is applied to produce the ciphertext. Strong evidence has been given that the scheme is secure against differential cryptanalysis after 5 rounds [7] and against linear cryptanalysis after 2 rounds [2]. In [9] it was shown that by replacing the Sboxes in SAFER by random permutations, about 6% of the resulting ciphers can be broken faster than by exhaustive search. In [4] a weakness in the key...
DifferentialLinear Weak Key Classes of IDEA
 Advances in Cryptology  EUROCRYPT '98 Proceedings
, 1998
"... pmhQmaths.uq.edu.au Abstract. Large weak key classes of IDEA are found for which membership is tested with a differentiallinear test while encrypting with a single key. In particular, one in every 2' ' keys for 8.5round IDEA is weak. A relatedkey differentiallinear attack on 4round I ..."
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pmhQmaths.uq.edu.au Abstract. Large weak key classes of IDEA are found for which membership is tested with a differentiallinear test while encrypting with a single key. In particular, one in every 2' ' keys for 8.5round IDEA is weak. A relatedkey differentiallinear attack on 4round IDEA is presented which is successful for all keys. Large weak key classes are found for 4.5 to 6.5round and 8round IDEA for which membership of these classes is tested using similar relatedkey differentiallinear tests.