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266
Quantuminspired Evolutionary Algorithm for a Class of Combinatorial Optimization
 IEEE TRANS. EVOLUTIONARY COMPUTATION
, 2002
"... This paper proposes a novel evolutionary algorithm inspired by quantum computing, called a quantuminspired evolutionary algorithm (QEA), which is based on the concept and principles of quantum computing, such as a quantum bit and superposition of states. Like other evolutionary algorithms, QEA is a ..."
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Cited by 112 (7 self)
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This paper proposes a novel evolutionary algorithm inspired by quantum computing, called a quantuminspired evolutionary algorithm (QEA), which is based on the concept and principles of quantum computing, such as a quantum bit and superposition of states. Like other evolutionary algorithms, QEA is also characterized by the representation of the individual, the evaluation function, and the population dynamics. However, instead of binary, numeric, or symbolic representation, QEA uses a Qbit, defined as the smallest unit of information, for the probabilistic representation and a Qbit individual as a string of Qbits. A Qgate is introduced as a variation operator to drive the individuals toward better solutions. To demonstrate its effectiveness and applicability, experiments are carried out on the knapsack problem, which is a wellknown combinatorial optimization problem. The results show that QEA performs well, even with a small population, without premature convergence as compared to the conventional genetic algorithm.
Quantum information theory
, 1998
"... We survey the field of quantum information theory. In particular, we discuss the fundamentals of the field, source coding, quantum errorcorrecting codes, capacities of quantum channels, measures of entanglement, and quantum cryptography. ..."
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Cited by 102 (2 self)
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We survey the field of quantum information theory. In particular, we discuss the fundamentals of the field, source coding, quantum errorcorrecting codes, capacities of quantum channels, measures of entanglement, and quantum cryptography.
Practical Quantum Oblivious Transfer
, 1992
"... We describe a protocol for quantum oblivious transfer , utilizing faint pulses of polarized light, by which one of two mutually distrustful parties ("Alice") transmits two onebit messages in such a way that the other party ("Bob") can choose which message he gets but cannot obta ..."
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Cited by 89 (14 self)
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We describe a protocol for quantum oblivious transfer , utilizing faint pulses of polarized light, by which one of two mutually distrustful parties ("Alice") transmits two onebit messages in such a way that the other party ("Bob") can choose which message he gets but cannot obtain information about both messages (he will learn his chosen bit's value with exponentially small error probability and may gain at most exponentially little information about the value of the other bit), and Alice will be entirely ignorant of which bit he received. Neither party can cheat (ie deviate from the protocol while appearing to follow it) in such a way as to obtain more information than what is given by the description of the protocol. Our protocol is easy to modify in order to implement the AllorNothing Disclosure of one out of two string messages, and it can be used to implement bit commitment and oblivious circuit evaluation without complexitytheoretic assumptions, in a way that remains secure e...
A Quantum Bit Commitment Scheme Provably Unbreakable by both Parties
, 1993
"... Assume that a party, Alice, has a bit x in mind, to which she would like to be committed toward another party, Bob. That is, Alice wishes, through a procedure commit(x), to provide Bob with a piece of evidence that she has a bit x in mind and that she cannot change it. Meanwhile, Bob should not be ..."
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Cited by 76 (13 self)
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Assume that a party, Alice, has a bit x in mind, to which she would like to be committed toward another party, Bob. That is, Alice wishes, through a procedure commit(x), to provide Bob with a piece of evidence that she has a bit x in mind and that she cannot change it. Meanwhile, Bob should not be able to tell from that evidence what x is. At a later time, Alice can reveal, through a procedure unveil(x), the value of x and prove to Bob that the piece of evidence sent earlier really corresponded to that bit. Classical bit commitment schemes (by which Alice's piece of evidence is classical information such as a bit string) cannot be secure against unlimited computing power and none have been proven secure against algorithmic sophistication. Previous quantum bit commitment schemes (by which Alice's piece of evidence is quantum information such as a stream of polarized photons) were known to be invulnerable to unlimited computing power and algorithmic sophistication, but not to arbitrary...
On the Effectiveness of Secret Key Extraction from Wireless Signal Strength in Real Environments
, 2009
"... We evaluate the effectiveness of secret key extraction, for private communication between two wireless devices, from the received signal strength (RSS) variations on the wireless channel between the two devices. We use real world measurements of RSS in a variety of environments and settings. Our exp ..."
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Cited by 68 (1 self)
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We evaluate the effectiveness of secret key extraction, for private communication between two wireless devices, from the received signal strength (RSS) variations on the wireless channel between the two devices. We use real world measurements of RSS in a variety of environments and settings. Our experimental results show that (i) in certain environments, due to lack of variations in the wireless channel, the extracted bits have very low entropy making these bits unsuitable for a secret key, (ii) an adversary can cause predictable key generation in these static environments, and (iii) in dynamic scenarios where the two devices are mobile, and/or where there is a significant movement in the environment, high entropy bits are obtained fairly quickly. Building on the strengths of existing secret key extraction approaches, we develop an environment adaptive secret key generation scheme that uses an adaptive lossy quantizer in conjunction with Cascadebased information reconciliation [7] and privacy amplification [14]. Our measurements show that our scheme, in comparison to the existing ones that we evaluate, performs the best in terms of generating high entropy bits at a high bit rate. The secret key bit streams generated by our scheme also pass the randomness tests of the NIST test suite [21] that we conduct.
Unconditionally Secure Key Agreement and the Intrinsic Conditional Information
, 1999
"... This paper is concerned with secretkey agreement by public discussion. Assume that two parties Alice and Bob and an adversary Eve have access to independent realizations of random variables X , Y , and Z, respectively, with joint distribution PXY Z . The secret key rate S(X ; Y jjZ) has been define ..."
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Cited by 58 (7 self)
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This paper is concerned with secretkey agreement by public discussion. Assume that two parties Alice and Bob and an adversary Eve have access to independent realizations of random variables X , Y , and Z, respectively, with joint distribution PXY Z . The secret key rate S(X ; Y jjZ) has been defined as the maximal rate at which Alice and Bob can generate a secret key by communication over an insecure, but authenticated channel such that Eve's information about this key is arbitrarily small. We define a new conditional mutual information measure, the intrinsic conditional mutual information between X and Y when given Z, denoted by I(X ; Y # Z), which is an upper bound on S(X ; Y jjZ). The special scenarios are analyzed where X , Y , and Z are generated by sending a binary random variable R, for example a signal broadcast by a satellite, over independent channels, or two scenarios in which Z is generated by sending X and Y over erasure channels. In the first two scenarios it can be sho...
The Quantum Challenge to Structural Complexity Theory
, 1992
"... This is a nontechnical survey paper of recent quantummechanical discoveries that challenge generally accepted complexitytheoretic versions of the ChurchTuring thesis. In particular, building on pionering work of David Deutsch and Richard Jozsa, we construct an oracle relative to which there exi ..."
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Cited by 53 (4 self)
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This is a nontechnical survey paper of recent quantummechanical discoveries that challenge generally accepted complexitytheoretic versions of the ChurchTuring thesis. In particular, building on pionering work of David Deutsch and Richard Jozsa, we construct an oracle relative to which there exists a set that can be recognized in Quantum Polynomial Time (QP), yet any Turing machine that recognizes it would require exponential time even if allowed to be probabilistic, provided that errors are not tolerated. In particular, QP 6` ZPP relative to this oracle. Furthermore, there are cryptographic tasks that are demonstrably impossible to implement with unlimited computing power probabilistic interactive Turing machines, yet they can be implemented even in practice by quantum mechanical apparatus. 1 Deutsch's Quantum Computer In a bold paper published in the Proceedings of the Royal Society, David Deutsch put forth in 1985 the quantum computer [7] (see also [8]). Even though this may c...
Informationtheoretically secret key generation for fading wireless channels
 IEEE TRANS ON INFORMATION FORENSICS AND SECURITY
, 2010
"... The multipathrich wireless environment associated with typical wireless usage scenarios is characterized by a fading channel response that is timevarying, locationsensitive, and uniquely shared by a given transmitter–receiver pair. The complexity associated with a richly scattering environment i ..."
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Cited by 52 (2 self)
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The multipathrich wireless environment associated with typical wireless usage scenarios is characterized by a fading channel response that is timevarying, locationsensitive, and uniquely shared by a given transmitter–receiver pair. The complexity associated with a richly scattering environment implies that the shortterm fading process is inherently hard to predict and best modeled stochastically, with rapid decorrelation properties in space, time, and frequency. In this paper, we demonstrate how the channel state between a wireless transmitter and receiver can be used as the basis for building practical secret key generation protocols between two entities. We begin by presenting a scheme based on level crossings of the fading process, which is wellsuited for the Rayleigh and Rician fading models associated with a richly scattering environment. Our level crossing algorithm is simple, and incorporates a selfauthenticating mechanism to prevent adversarial manipulation of message exchanges during the protocol. Since the level crossing algorithm is best suited for fading processes that exhibit symmetry in their underlying distribution, we present a second and more powerful approach that is suited for more general channel state distributions. This second approach is motivated by observations from quantizing jointly Gaussian processes, but exploits empirical measurements to set quantization boundaries and a heuristic log likelihood ratio estimate to achieve an improved secret key generation rate. We validate both proposed protocols through experimentations using a customized 802.11a platform, and show for the typical WiFi channel that reliable secret key establishment can be accomplished at rates on the order of 10 b/s.
Quantum Key Distribution and String Oblivious Transfer on Noisy Channels, Los Alamos preprint archive quantph/9606003
 Advances in Cryptology: Proceeding of Crypto ’96, Lecture Notes in Computer Science
"... Abstract. We prove the unconditional security of a quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol on a noisy channel against the most general attack allowed by quantum physics. We use the fact that in a previous paper we have reduced the proof of the unconditionally security of this QKD protocol to a proof ..."
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Cited by 52 (8 self)
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Abstract. We prove the unconditional security of a quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol on a noisy channel against the most general attack allowed by quantum physics. We use the fact that in a previous paper we have reduced the proof of the unconditionally security of this QKD protocol to a proof that a corresponding Quantum String Oblivious Transfer (StringQOT) protocol would be unconditionally secure against Bob if implemented on top of an unconditionally secure bit commitment scheme. We prove a lemma that extends a security proof given by Yao for a (one bit) QOT protocol to this StringQOT protocol. This result and the reduction mentioned above implies the unconditional security of our QKD protocol despite our previous proof that unconditionally secure bit commitment schemes are impossible. 1
Security of Quantum Protocols against Coherent Measurements
 Proceedings of 26th Annual ACM Symposium on the Theory of Computing
, 1995
"... The goal of quantum cryptography is to design cryptographic protocols whose security depends on quantum physics and little else. A serious obstacle to security proofs is the cheaters' ability to make coherent measurements on the joint properties of large composite states. With the exception of ..."
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Cited by 51 (1 self)
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The goal of quantum cryptography is to design cryptographic protocols whose security depends on quantum physics and little else. A serious obstacle to security proofs is the cheaters' ability to make coherent measurements on the joint properties of large composite states. With the exception of commit protocols, no cryptographic primitives have been proved secure when coherent measurements are allowed. In this paper we develop some mathematical techniques for analyzing probabilistic events in Hilbert spaces, and prove the security of a canonical quantum oblivious transfer protocol against coherent measurements. 1 Introduction Work on quantum cryptography was started by Wiesner [Wi70] twentyfive years ago. Much knowledge on how to exploit quantum physics for cryptographic purposes has been gained through the work of Bennet and Brassard ([BBBW83][BB84][BBBSS92]), and later Cr'epeau ([Cr90][BC91][BBCS92][Cr94]). Furthermore, prototypes for implementing some of these This research was...