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42
Universal coalgebra: a theory of systems
, 2000
"... In the semantics of programming, nite data types such as finite lists, have traditionally been modelled by initial algebras. Later final coalgebras were used in order to deal with in finite data types. Coalgebras, which are the dual of algebras, turned out to be suited, moreover, as models for certa ..."
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Cited by 388 (43 self)
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In the semantics of programming, nite data types such as finite lists, have traditionally been modelled by initial algebras. Later final coalgebras were used in order to deal with in finite data types. Coalgebras, which are the dual of algebras, turned out to be suited, moreover, as models for certain types of automata and more generally, for (transition and dynamical) systems. An important property of initial algebras is that they satisfy the familiar principle of induction. Such a principle was missing for coalgebras until the work of Aczel (NonWellFounded sets, CSLI Leethre Notes, Vol. 14, center for the study of Languages and information, Stanford, 1988) on a theory of nonwellfounded sets, in which he introduced a proof principle nowadays called coinduction. It was formulated in terms of bisimulation, a notion originally stemming from the world of concurrent programming languages. Using the notion of coalgebra homomorphism, the definition of bisimulation on coalgebras can be shown to be formally dual to that of congruence on algebras. Thus, the three basic notions of universal algebra: algebra, homomorphism of algebras, and congruence, turn out to correspond to coalgebra, homomorphism of coalgebras, and bisimulation, respectively. In this paper, the latter are taken
Relational Properties of Domains
 Information and Computation
, 1996
"... New tools are presented for reasoning about properties of recursively defined domains. We work within a general, categorytheoretic framework for various notions of `relation' on domains and for actions of domain constructors on relations. Freyd's analysis of recursive types in terms of a ..."
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Cited by 102 (5 self)
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New tools are presented for reasoning about properties of recursively defined domains. We work within a general, categorytheoretic framework for various notions of `relation' on domains and for actions of domain constructors on relations. Freyd's analysis of recursive types in terms of a property of mixed initiality/finality is transferred to a corresponding property of invariant relations. The existence of invariant relations is proved under completeness assumptions about the notion of relation. We show how this leads to simpler proofs of the computational adequacy of denotational semantics for functional programming languages with userdeclared datatypes. We show how the initiality/finality property of invariant relations can be specialized to yield an induction principle for admissible subsets of recursively defined domains, generalizing the principle of structural induction for inductively defined sets. We also show how the initiality /finality property gives rise to the coinduct...
Structural Induction and Coinduction in a Fibrational Setting
 Information and Computation
, 1997
"... . We present a categorical logic formulation of induction and coinduction principles for reasoning about inductively and coinductively defined types. Our main results provide sufficient criteria for the validity of such principles: in the presence of comprehension, the induction principle for in ..."
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Cited by 81 (16 self)
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. We present a categorical logic formulation of induction and coinduction principles for reasoning about inductively and coinductively defined types. Our main results provide sufficient criteria for the validity of such principles: in the presence of comprehension, the induction principle for initial algebras is admissible, and dually, in the presence of quotient types, the coinduction principle for terminal coalgebras is admissible. After giving an alternative formulation of induction in terms of binary relations, we combine both principles and obtain a mixed induction/coinduction principle which allows us to reason about minimal solutions X = oe(X) where X may occur both positively and negatively in the type constructor oe. We further strengthen these logical principles to deal with contexts and prove that such strengthening is valid when the (abstract) logic we consider is contextually/functionally complete. All the main results follow from a basic result about adjunc...
Coinductive Axiomatization of Recursive Type Equality and Subtyping
, 1998
"... e present new sound and complete axiomatizations of type equality and subtype inequality for a firstorder type language with regular recursive types. The rules are motivated by coinductive characterizations of type containment and type equality via simulation and bisimulation, respectively. The mai ..."
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Cited by 70 (2 self)
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e present new sound and complete axiomatizations of type equality and subtype inequality for a firstorder type language with regular recursive types. The rules are motivated by coinductive characterizations of type containment and type equality via simulation and bisimulation, respectively. The main novelty of the axiomatization is the fixpoint rule (or coinduction principle), which has the form A; P ` P A ` P (Fix) where P is either a type equality = 0 or type containment 0 and the proof of the premise must be contractive in a formal sense. In particular, a proof of A; P ` P using the assumption axiom is not contractive. The fixpoint rule embodies a finitary coinduction principle and thus allows us to capture a coinductive relation in the fundamentally inductive framework of inference systems. The new axiomatizations are more concise than previous axiomatizations, particularly so for type containment since no separate axiomatization of type equality is required, as in A...
Initial Algebra and Final Coalgebra Semantics for Concurrency
, 1994
"... The aim of this paper is to relate initial algebra semantics and final coalgebra semantics. It is shown how these two approaches to the semantics of programming languages are each others dual, and some conditions are given under which they coincide. More precisely, it is shown how to derive initial ..."
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Cited by 56 (9 self)
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The aim of this paper is to relate initial algebra semantics and final coalgebra semantics. It is shown how these two approaches to the semantics of programming languages are each others dual, and some conditions are given under which they coincide. More precisely, it is shown how to derive initial semantics from final semantics, using the initiality and finality to ensure their equality. Moreover, many facts about congruences (on algebras) and (generalized) bisimulations (on coalgebras) are shown to be dual as well.
On the Foundations of Final Semantics: NonStandard Sets, Metric Spaces, Partial Orders
 PROCEEDINGS OF THE REX WORKSHOP ON SEMANTICS: FOUNDATIONS AND APPLICATIONS, VOLUME 666 OF LECTURE NOTES IN COMPUTER SCIENCE
, 1998
"... Canonical solutions of domain equations are shown to be final coalgebras, not only in a category of nonstandard sets (as already known), but also in categories of metric spaces and partial orders. Coalgebras are simple categorical structures generalizing the notion of postfixed point. They are ..."
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Cited by 48 (10 self)
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Canonical solutions of domain equations are shown to be final coalgebras, not only in a category of nonstandard sets (as already known), but also in categories of metric spaces and partial orders. Coalgebras are simple categorical structures generalizing the notion of postfixed point. They are also used here for giving a new comprehensive presentation of the (still) nonstandard theory of nonwellfounded sets (as nonstandard sets are usually called). This paper is meant to provide a basis to a more general project aiming at a full exploitation of the finality of the domains in the semantics of programming languages  concurrent ones among them. Such a final semantics enjoys uniformity and generality. For instance, semantic observational equivalences like bisimulation can be derived as instances of a single `coalgebraic' definition (introduced elsewhere), which is parametric of the functor appearing in the domain equation. Some properties of this general form of equivalence are also studied in this paper.
Mechanizing Coinduction and Corecursion in Higherorder Logic
 Journal of Logic and Computation
, 1997
"... A theory of recursive and corecursive definitions has been developed in higherorder logic (HOL) and mechanized using Isabelle. Least fixedpoints express inductive data types such as strict lists; greatest fixedpoints express coinductive data types, such as lazy lists. Wellfounded recursion expresse ..."
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Cited by 48 (6 self)
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A theory of recursive and corecursive definitions has been developed in higherorder logic (HOL) and mechanized using Isabelle. Least fixedpoints express inductive data types such as strict lists; greatest fixedpoints express coinductive data types, such as lazy lists. Wellfounded recursion expresses recursive functions over inductive data types; corecursion expresses functions that yield elements of coinductive data types. The theory rests on a traditional formalization of infinite trees. The theory is intended for use in specification and verification. It supports reasoning about a wide range of computable functions, but it does not formalize their operational semantics and can express noncomputable functions also. The theory is illustrated using finite and infinite lists. Corecursion expresses functions over infinite lists; coinduction reasons about such functions. Key words. Isabelle, higherorder logic, coinduction, corecursion Copyright c fl 1996 by Lawrence C. Paulson Content...
Presheaf Models for Concurrency
, 1999
"... In this dissertation we investigate presheaf models for concurrent computation. Our aim is to provide a systematic treatment of bisimulation for a wide range of concurrent process calculi. Bisimilarity is defined abstractly in terms of open maps as in the work of Joyal, Nielsen and Winskel. Their wo ..."
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Cited by 45 (19 self)
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In this dissertation we investigate presheaf models for concurrent computation. Our aim is to provide a systematic treatment of bisimulation for a wide range of concurrent process calculi. Bisimilarity is defined abstractly in terms of open maps as in the work of Joyal, Nielsen and Winskel. Their work inspired this thesis by suggesting that presheaf categories could provide abstract models for concurrency with a builtin notion of bisimulation. We show how
A Coinduction Principle for Recursive Data Types Based on Bisimulation
, 1996
"... This paper provides foundations for a reasoning principle (coinduction) for establishing the equality of potentially infinite elements of selfreferencing (or circular) data types. As it is wellknown, such data types not only form the core of the denotational approach to the semantics of programmin ..."
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Cited by 37 (3 self)
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This paper provides foundations for a reasoning principle (coinduction) for establishing the equality of potentially infinite elements of selfreferencing (or circular) data types. As it is wellknown, such data types not only form the core of the denotational approach to the semantics of programming languages [SS71], but also arise explicitly as recursive data types in functional programming languages like Standard ML [MTH90] or Haskell [HPJW92]. In the latter context, the coinduction principle provides a powerful technique for establishing the equality of programs with values in recursive data types (see examples herein and in [Pit94]).