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117
BIRCH: an efficient data clustering method for very large databases
 In Proc. of the ACM SIGMOD Intl. Conference on Management of Data (SIGMOD
, 1996
"... Finding useful patterns in large datasets has attracted considerable interest recently, and one of the most widely st,udied problems in this area is the identification of clusters, or deusel y populated regions, in a multidir nensional clataset. Prior work does not adequately address the problem of ..."
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Cited by 529 (2 self)
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Finding useful patterns in large datasets has attracted considerable interest recently, and one of the most widely st,udied problems in this area is the identification of clusters, or deusel y populated regions, in a multidir nensional clataset. Prior work does not adequately address the problem of large datasets and minimization of 1/0 costs. This paper presents a data clustering method named Bfll (;”H (Balanced Iterative Reducing and Clustering using Hierarchies), and demonstrates that it is especially suitable for very large databases. BIRCH incrementally and clynamicall y clusters incoming multidimensional metric data points to try to produce the best quality clustering with the available resources (i. e., available memory and time constraints). BIRCH can typically find a goocl clustering with a single scan of the data, and improve the quality further with a few aclditioual scans. BIRCH is also the first clustering algorithm proposerl in the database area to handle “noise) ’ (data points that are not part of the underlying pattern) effectively. We evaluate BIRCH’S time/space efficiency, data input order sensitivity, and clustering quality through several experiments. We also present a performance comparisons of BIR (;’H versus CLARA NS, a clustering method proposed recently for large datasets, and S11OW that BIRCH is consistently 1
Data Mining: An Overview from Database Perspective
 IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
, 1996
"... Mining information and knowledge from large databases has been recognized by many researchers as a key research topic in database systems and machine learning, and by many industrial companies as an important area with an opportunity of major revenues. Researchers in many different fields have sh ..."
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Cited by 481 (26 self)
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Mining information and knowledge from large databases has been recognized by many researchers as a key research topic in database systems and machine learning, and by many industrial companies as an important area with an opportunity of major revenues. Researchers in many different fields have shown great interest in data mining. Several emerging applications in information providing services, such as data warehousing and online services over the Internet, also call for various data mining techniques to better understand user behavior, to improve the service provided, and to increase the business opportunities. In response to such a demand, this article is to provide a survey, from a database researcher's point of view, on the data mining techniques developed recently. A classification of the available data mining techniques is provided and a comparative study of such techniques is presented.
Survey of clustering data mining techniques
, 2002
"... Accrue Software, Inc. Clustering is a division of data into groups of similar objects. Representing the data by fewer clusters necessarily loses certain fine details, but achieves simplification. It models data by its clusters. Data modeling puts clustering in a historical perspective rooted in math ..."
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Cited by 351 (0 self)
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Accrue Software, Inc. Clustering is a division of data into groups of similar objects. Representing the data by fewer clusters necessarily loses certain fine details, but achieves simplification. It models data by its clusters. Data modeling puts clustering in a historical perspective rooted in mathematics, statistics, and numerical analysis. From a machine learning perspective clusters correspond to hidden patterns, the search for clusters is unsupervised learning, and the resulting system represents a data concept. From a practical perspective clustering plays an outstanding role in data mining applications such as scientific data exploration, information retrieval and text mining, spatial database applications, Web analysis, CRM, marketing, medical diagnostics, computational biology, and many others. Clustering is the subject of active research in several fields such as statistics, pattern recognition, and machine learning. This survey focuses on clustering in data mining. Data mining adds to clustering the complications of very large datasets with very many attributes of different types. This imposes unique
Approximation Algorithms for Projective Clustering
 Proceedings of the ACM SIGMOD International Conference on Management of data, Philadelphia
, 2000
"... We consider the following two instances of the projective clustering problem: Given a set S of n points in R d and an integer k ? 0; cover S by k hyperstrips (resp. hypercylinders) so that the maximum width of a hyperstrip (resp., the maximum diameter of a hypercylinder) is minimized. Let w ..."
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Cited by 286 (21 self)
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We consider the following two instances of the projective clustering problem: Given a set S of n points in R d and an integer k ? 0; cover S by k hyperstrips (resp. hypercylinders) so that the maximum width of a hyperstrip (resp., the maximum diameter of a hypercylinder) is minimized. Let w be the smallest value so that S can be covered by k hyperstrips (resp. hypercylinders), each of width (resp. diameter) at most w : In the plane, the two problems are equivalent. It is NPHard to compute k planar strips of width even at most Cw ; for any constant C ? 0 [50]. This paper contains four main results related to projective clustering: (i) For d = 2, we present a randomized algorithm that computes O(k log k) strips of width at most 6w that cover S. Its expected running time is O(nk 2 log 4 n) if k 2 log k n; it also works for larger values of k, but then the expected running time is O(n 2=3 k 8=3 log 4 n). We also propose another algorithm that computes a c...
Topdown induction of clustering trees
 In 15th Int’l Conf. on Machine Learning
, 1998
"... An approach to clustering is presented that adapts the basic topdown induction of decision trees method towards clustering. To this aim, it employs the principles of instance based learning. The resulting methodology is implemented in the TIC (Top down Induction of Clustering trees) system for firs ..."
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Cited by 142 (28 self)
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An approach to clustering is presented that adapts the basic topdown induction of decision trees method towards clustering. To this aim, it employs the principles of instance based learning. The resulting methodology is implemented in the TIC (Top down Induction of Clustering trees) system for first order clustering. The TIC system employs the first order logical decision tree representation of the inductive logic programming system Tilde. Various experiments with TIC are presented, in both propositional and relational domains. 1
Decision Tree Induction Based on Efficient Tree Restructuring
 Machine Learning
, 1996
"... . The ability to restructure a decision tree efficiently enables a variety of approaches to decision tree induction that would otherwise be prohibitively expensive. Two such approaches are described here, one being incremental tree induction (ITI), and the other being nonincremental tree induction ..."
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Cited by 134 (5 self)
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. The ability to restructure a decision tree efficiently enables a variety of approaches to decision tree induction that would otherwise be prohibitively expensive. Two such approaches are described here, one being incremental tree induction (ITI), and the other being nonincremental tree induction using a measure of tree quality instead of test quality (DMTI). These approaches and several variants offer new computational and classifier characteristics that lend themselves to particular applications. Keywords: decision tree, incremental induction, direct metric, binary test, example incorporation, missing value, tree transposition, installed test, virtual pruning, update cost. 1. Introduction Decision tree induction offers a highly practical method for generalizing from examples whose class membership is known. The most common approach to inducing a decision tree is to partition the labelled examples recursively until a stopping criterion is met. The partition is defined by selectin...
Feature selection for unsupervised learning
 Journal of Machine Learning Research
, 2004
"... In this paper, we identify two issues involved in developing an automated feature subset selection algorithm for unlabeled data: the need for finding the number of clusters in conjunction with feature selection, and the need for normalizing the bias of feature selection criteria with respect to dime ..."
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Cited by 129 (4 self)
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In this paper, we identify two issues involved in developing an automated feature subset selection algorithm for unlabeled data: the need for finding the number of clusters in conjunction with feature selection, and the need for normalizing the bias of feature selection criteria with respect to dimension. We explore the feature selection problem and these issues through FSSEM (Feature Subset Selection using ExpectationMaximization (EM) clustering) and through two different performance criteria for evaluating candidate feature subsets: scatter separability and maximum likelihood. We present proofs on the dimensionality biases of these feature criteria, and present a crossprojection normalization scheme that can be applied to any criterion to ameliorate these biases. Our experiments show the need for feature selection, the need for addressing these two issues, and the effectiveness of our proposed solutions.
An Empirical Comparison of Four Initialization Methods for the KMeans Algorithm
, 1999
"... In this paper, we aim to compare empirically four initialization methods for the KMeans algorithm: random, Forgy, MacQueen and Kaufman. Although this algorithm is known for its robustness, it is widely reported in literature that its performance depends upon two key points: initial clustering an ..."
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Cited by 120 (0 self)
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In this paper, we aim to compare empirically four initialization methods for the KMeans algorithm: random, Forgy, MacQueen and Kaufman. Although this algorithm is known for its robustness, it is widely reported in literature that its performance depends upon two key points: initial clustering and instance order. We conduct a series of experiments to draw up (in terms of mean, maximum, minimum and standard deviation) the probability distribution of the squareerror values of the final clusters returned by the KMeans algorithm independently on any initial clustering and on any instance order when each of the four initialization methods is used. The results of our experiments illustrate that the random and the Kaufman initialization methods outperform the rest of the compared methods as they make the KMeans more effective and more independent on initial clustering and on instance order. In addition, we compare the convergence speed of the KMeans algorithm when using each o...
Empirical and theoretical comparisons of selected criterion functions for document clustering
 Machine Learning
"... Abstract. This paper evaluates the performance of different criterion functions in the context of partitional clustering algorithms for document datasets. Our study involves a total of seven different criterion functions, three of which are introduced in this paper and four that have been proposed i ..."
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Cited by 100 (7 self)
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Abstract. This paper evaluates the performance of different criterion functions in the context of partitional clustering algorithms for document datasets. Our study involves a total of seven different criterion functions, three of which are introduced in this paper and four that have been proposed in the past. We present a comprehensive experimental evaluation involving 15 different datasets, as well as an analysis of the characteristics of the various criterion functions and their effect on the clusters they produce. Our experimental results show that there are a set of criterion functions that consistently outperform the rest, and that some of the newly proposed criterion functions lead to the best overall results. Our theoretical analysis shows that the relative performance of the criterion functions depends on (i) the degree to which they can correctly operate when the clusters are of different tightness, and (ii) the degree to which they can lead to reasonably balanced clusters. Keywords:
Clustering Based On Association Rule Hypergraphs
"... Clustering in data mining is a discovery process that groups a set of data such that the intracluster similarity is maximized and the intercluster similarity is minimized. These discovered clusters are used to explain the characteristics of the data distribution. In this paper we propose a new metho ..."
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Cited by 93 (17 self)
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Clustering in data mining is a discovery process that groups a set of data such that the intracluster similarity is maximized and the intercluster similarity is minimized. These discovered clusters are used to explain the characteristics of the data distribution. In this paper we propose a new methodology for clustering related items using association rules, and clustering related transactions using clusters of items. Our approach is linearly scalable with respect to the number of transactions. The frequent itemsets used to derive association rules are also used to group items into a hypergraph edge, and a hypergraph partitioning algorithm is used to find the clusters. Our experiments indicate that clustering using association rule hypergraphs holds great promise in several application domains. Our experiments with stockmarket data and congressional voting data show that this clustering scheme is able to successfully group items that belong to the same group. Clustering of items can ...