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51
Universal coalgebra: a theory of systems
, 2000
"... In the semantics of programming, nite data types such as finite lists, have traditionally been modelled by initial algebras. Later final coalgebras were used in order to deal with in finite data types. Coalgebras, which are the dual of algebras, turned out to be suited, moreover, as models for certa ..."
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Cited by 298 (31 self)
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In the semantics of programming, nite data types such as finite lists, have traditionally been modelled by initial algebras. Later final coalgebras were used in order to deal with in finite data types. Coalgebras, which are the dual of algebras, turned out to be suited, moreover, as models for certain types of automata and more generally, for (transition and dynamical) systems. An important property of initial algebras is that they satisfy the familiar principle of induction. Such a principle was missing for coalgebras until the work of Aczel (NonWellFounded sets, CSLI Leethre Notes, Vol. 14, center for the study of Languages and information, Stanford, 1988) on a theory of nonwellfounded sets, in which he introduced a proof principle nowadays called coinduction. It was formulated in terms of bisimulation, a notion originally stemming from the world of concurrent programming languages. Using the notion of coalgebra homomorphism, the definition of bisimulation on coalgebras can be shown to be formally dual to that of congruence on algebras. Thus, the three basic notions of universal algebra: algebra, homomorphism of algebras, and congruence, turn out to correspond to coalgebra, homomorphism of coalgebras, and bisimulation, respectively. In this paper, the latter are taken
Behavioural Differential Equations: A Coinductive Calculus of Streams, Automata, and Power Series
, 2000
"... Streams, (automata and) languages, and formal power series are viewed coalgebraically. In summary, this amounts to supplying these sets with a deterministic automaton structure, which has the universal property of being final. Finality then forms the basis for both definitions and proofs by coinduct ..."
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Cited by 50 (17 self)
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Streams, (automata and) languages, and formal power series are viewed coalgebraically. In summary, this amounts to supplying these sets with a deterministic automaton structure, which has the universal property of being final. Finality then forms the basis for both definitions and proofs by coinduction, the coalgebraic counterpart of induction. Coinductive definitions take the shape of what we have called behavioural differential equations, after Brzozowski's notion of input derivative. A calculus is developed for coinductive reasoning about all of the afore mentioned structures, closely resembling (and at times generalising) calculus from classical analysis. 2000 Mathematics Subject Classification: 68Q10, 68Q55, 68Q85 1998 ACM Computing Classification System: F.1, F.3 Keywords & Phrases: Coalgebra, automaton, finality, coinduction, stream, formal language, formal power series, differential equation, input derivative, behaviour, semiring, maxplus algebra 1 Contents 1 Introductio...
Metrics for Labelled Markov Processes
, 2003
"... The notion of process equivalence of probabilistic processes is sensitive to the exact probabilities of transitions. Thus, a slight change in the transition probabilities will result in two equivalent processes being deemed no longer equivalent. This instability is due to the quantitative nature ..."
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Cited by 46 (10 self)
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The notion of process equivalence of probabilistic processes is sensitive to the exact probabilities of transitions. Thus, a slight change in the transition probabilities will result in two equivalent processes being deemed no longer equivalent. This instability is due to the quantitative nature of probabilistic processes. In a situation where the process behaviour has a quantitative aspect there should be a more robust approach to process equivalence. This paper studies a metric between labelled Markov processes. This metric has the property that processes are at zero distance if and only if they are bisimilar. The metric is inspired by earlier work on logics for characterizing bisimulation and is related, in spirit, to the Kantorovich metric.
Metrics for Labelled Markov Systems
, 2001
"... The notion of process equivalence of probabilistic processes is sensitive to the exact probabilities of transitions. Thus, a slight change in the transition probabilities will result in two equivalent processes being deemed no longer equivalent. This instability is due to the quantitative nature of ..."
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Cited by 42 (8 self)
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The notion of process equivalence of probabilistic processes is sensitive to the exact probabilities of transitions. Thus, a slight change in the transition probabilities will result in two equivalent processes being deemed no longer equivalent. This instability is due to the quantitative nature of probabilistic processes. In a situation where the process behaviour has a quantitative aspect there should be a more robust approach to process equivalence. This paper studies a metric between labelled Markov processes. This metric has the property that processes are at zero distance if and only if they are bisimilar. The metric is inspired by earlier work on logics for characterizing bisimulation and is related, in spirit, to the Hutchinson metric.
On Generalised Coinduction and Probabilistic Specification Formats: Distributive Laws in Coalgebraic Modelling
, 2004
"... ..."
A Hierarchy of Probabilistic System Types
, 2003
"... We study various notions of probabilistic bisimulation from a coalgebraic point of view, accumulating in a hierarchy of probabilistic system types. In general, a natural transformation between two Setfunctors straightforwardly gives rise to a transformation of coalgebras for the respective functors ..."
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Cited by 37 (6 self)
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We study various notions of probabilistic bisimulation from a coalgebraic point of view, accumulating in a hierarchy of probabilistic system types. In general, a natural transformation between two Setfunctors straightforwardly gives rise to a transformation of coalgebras for the respective functors. This latter transformation preserves homomorphisms and thus bisimulations. For comparison of probabilistic system types we also need reflection of bisimulation. We build the hierarchy of probabilistic systems by exploiting the new result that the transformation also reflects bisimulation in case the natural transformation is componentwise injective and the first functor preserves weak pullbacks. Additionally, we illustrate the correspondence of concrete and coalgebraic bisimulation in the case of general Segalatype systems.
An algebraic approach to the specification of stochastic systems (extended abstract
 Programming Concepts and Methods
, 1998
"... ) P. R. D'Argenio 1 , J.P. Katoen 2 , and E. Brinksma 1 1 Dept. of Computer Science. University of Twente. P.O.Box 217. 7500 AE Enschede. The Netherlands. fdargenio,brinksmag@cs.utwente.nl 2 Lehrstuhl fur Informatik VII. University of ErlangenNurnberg. Martensstrasse 3. D91058 Erlangen. ..."
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Cited by 34 (12 self)
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) P. R. D'Argenio 1 , J.P. Katoen 2 , and E. Brinksma 1 1 Dept. of Computer Science. University of Twente. P.O.Box 217. 7500 AE Enschede. The Netherlands. fdargenio,brinksmag@cs.utwente.nl 2 Lehrstuhl fur Informatik VII. University of ErlangenNurnberg. Martensstrasse 3. D91058 Erlangen. Germany. katoen@informatik.unierlangen.de Abstract We introduce a framework to study stochastic systems, i.e. systems in which the time of occurrence of activities is a general random variable. We introduce and discuss in depth a stochastic process algebra (named ) adequate to specify and analyse those systems. In order to give semantics to , we also introduce a model that is an extension of traditional automata with clocks which are basically random variables: the stochastic automata model. We show that this model and are equally expressive. Although stochastic automata are adequate to analyse systems since they are finite objects, they are still too coarse to serve as concrete semantic...
A Logical Characterization of Bisimulation for Labeled Markov Processes
, 1998
"... This paper gives a logical characterization of probabilistic bisimulation for Markov processes introduced in [BDEP97]. The thrust of that work was an extension of the notion of bisimulation to systems with continuous state spaces; for example for systems where the state space is the real numbers. In ..."
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Cited by 34 (10 self)
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This paper gives a logical characterization of probabilistic bisimulation for Markov processes introduced in [BDEP97]. The thrust of that work was an extension of the notion of bisimulation to systems with continuous state spaces; for example for systems where the state space is the real numbers. In the present paper we study the logical characterization of probabilistic bisimulation for such general systems. This study revealed some unexpected results even for discrete probabilistic systems. ffl Bisimulation can be characterized by a very weak modal logic. The most striking feature is that one has no negation or any kind of negative proposition. ffl Bisimulation can be characterized by several inequivalent logics; we report five in this paper. ffl We do not need any finite branching assumption yet there is no need of infinitary conjunction. ffl The proofs that we give are of an entirely different character than the typical proofs of these results. They use quite subtle facts abou...
Probabilistic Automata: System Types, Parallel Composition and Comparison
 In Validation of Stochastic Systems: A Guide to Current Research
, 2004
"... We survey various notions of probabilistic automata and probabilistic bisimulation, accumulating in an expressiveness hierarchy of probabilistic system types. The aim of this paper is twofold: On the one hand it provides an overview of existing types of probabilistic systems and, on the other ha ..."
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Cited by 26 (5 self)
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We survey various notions of probabilistic automata and probabilistic bisimulation, accumulating in an expressiveness hierarchy of probabilistic system types. The aim of this paper is twofold: On the one hand it provides an overview of existing types of probabilistic systems and, on the other hand, it explains the relationship between these models.
Nondeterminism and Probabilistic Choice: Obeying the Laws
 In Proc. 11th CONCUR, volume 1877 of LNCS
, 2000
"... In this paper we describe how to build semantic models that support both nondeterministic choice and probabilistic choice. Several models exist that support both of these constructs, but none that we know of satisfies all the laws one would like. Using domaintheoretic techniques, we show how models ..."
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Cited by 25 (2 self)
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In this paper we describe how to build semantic models that support both nondeterministic choice and probabilistic choice. Several models exist that support both of these constructs, but none that we know of satisfies all the laws one would like. Using domaintheoretic techniques, we show how models can be devised using the "standard model" for probabilistic choice, and then applying modified domaintheoretic models for nondeterministic choice. These models are distinguished by the fact that the expected laws for nondeterministic choice and probabilistic choice remain valid. We also describe some potential applications of our model to aspects of security.