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58
Efficient BackProp
, 1998
"... . The convergence of backpropagation learning is analyzed so as to explain common phenomenon observed by practitioners. Many undesirable behaviors of backprop can be avoided with tricks that are rarely exposed in serious technical publications. This paper gives some of those tricks, and offers expl ..."
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Cited by 125 (24 self)
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. The convergence of backpropagation learning is analyzed so as to explain common phenomenon observed by practitioners. Many undesirable behaviors of backprop can be avoided with tricks that are rarely exposed in serious technical publications. This paper gives some of those tricks, and offers explanations of why they work. Many authors have suggested that secondorder optimization methods are advantageous for neural net training. It is shown that most "classical" secondorder methods are impractical for large neural networks. A few methods are proposed that do not have these limitations. 1 Introduction Backpropagation is a very popular neural network learning algorithm because it is conceptually simple, computationally efficient, and because it often works. However, getting it to work well, and sometimes to work at all, can seem more of an art than a science. Designing and training a network using backprop requires making many seemingly arbitrary choices such as the number ...
Neural network exploration using optimal experiment design
 Neural Networks
, 1994
"... We consider the question "How should one act when the only goal is to learn as much as possible?" Building on the theoretical results of Fedorov [1972] and MacKay [1992], we apply techniques from Optimal Experiment Design (OED) to guide the query/action selection of a neural network learner. We de ..."
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Cited by 124 (2 self)
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We consider the question "How should one act when the only goal is to learn as much as possible?" Building on the theoretical results of Fedorov [1972] and MacKay [1992], we apply techniques from Optimal Experiment Design (OED) to guide the query/action selection of a neural network learner. We demonstrate that these techniques allow the learner to minimize its generalization error by exploring its domain efficiently and completely.We conclude that, while not a panacea, OEDbased query/action has muchto offer, especially in domains where its high computational costs can be tolerated.
Accelerated training of conditional random fields with stochastic gradient methods
 In ICML
, 2006
"... We apply Stochastic MetaDescent (SMD), a stochastic gradient optimization method with gain vector adaptation, to the training of Conditional Random Fields (CRFs). On several large data sets, the resulting optimizer converges to the same quality of solution over an order of magnitude faster than lim ..."
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Cited by 95 (4 self)
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We apply Stochastic MetaDescent (SMD), a stochastic gradient optimization method with gain vector adaptation, to the training of Conditional Random Fields (CRFs). On several large data sets, the resulting optimizer converges to the same quality of solution over an order of magnitude faster than limitedmemory BFGS, the leading method reported to date. We report results for both exact and inexact inference techniques. 1.
Efficient weight learning for Markov logic networks
 In Proceedings of the Eleventh European Conference on Principles and Practice of Knowledge Discovery in Databases
, 2007
"... Abstract. Markov logic networks (MLNs) combine Markov networks and firstorder logic, and are a powerful and increasingly popular representation for statistical relational learning. The stateoftheart method for discriminative learning of MLN weights is the voted perceptron algorithm, which is ess ..."
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Cited by 59 (7 self)
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Abstract. Markov logic networks (MLNs) combine Markov networks and firstorder logic, and are a powerful and increasingly popular representation for statistical relational learning. The stateoftheart method for discriminative learning of MLN weights is the voted perceptron algorithm, which is essentially gradient descent with an MPE approximation to the expected sufficient statistics (true clause counts). Unfortunately, these can vary widely between clauses, causing the learning problem to be highly illconditioned, and making gradient descent very slow. In this paper, we explore several alternatives, from perweight learning rates to secondorder methods. In particular, we focus on two approaches that avoid computing the partition function: diagonal Newton and scaled conjugate gradient. In experiments on standard SRL datasets, we obtain orderofmagnitude speedups, or more accurate models given comparable learning times. 1
Local Gain Adaptation in Stochastic Gradient Descent
 In Proc. Intl. Conf. Artificial Neural Networks
, 1999
"... Gain adaptation algorithms for neural networks typically adjust learning rates by monitoring the correlation between successive gradients. Here we discuss the limitations of this approach, and develop an alternative by extending Sutton's work on linear systems to the general, nonlinear case. The res ..."
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Cited by 57 (12 self)
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Gain adaptation algorithms for neural networks typically adjust learning rates by monitoring the correlation between successive gradients. Here we discuss the limitations of this approach, and develop an alternative by extending Sutton's work on linear systems to the general, nonlinear case. The resulting online algorithms are computationally little more expensive than other acceleration techniques, do not assume statistical independence between successive training patterns, and do not require an arbitrary smoothing parameter. In our benchmark experiments, they consistently outperform other acceleration methods, and show remarkable robustness when faced with noni. i.d. sampling of the input space.
Fast Curvature MatrixVector Products for SecondOrder Gradient Descent
 Neural Computation
, 2002
"... We propose a generic method for iteratively approximating various secondorder gradient steps  Newton, GaussNewton, LevenbergMarquardt, and natural gradient  in linear time per iteration, using special curvature matrixvector products that can be computed in O(n). Two recent acceleration techn ..."
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Cited by 38 (14 self)
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We propose a generic method for iteratively approximating various secondorder gradient steps  Newton, GaussNewton, LevenbergMarquardt, and natural gradient  in linear time per iteration, using special curvature matrixvector products that can be computed in O(n). Two recent acceleration techniques for online learning, matrix momentum and stochastic metadescent (SMD), in fact implement this approach. Since both were originally derived by very different routes, this o ers fresh insight into their operation, resulting in further improvements to SMD.
Computing Second Derivatives in FeedForward Networks: a Review
 IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks
, 1994
"... . The calculation of second derivatives is required by recent training and analyses techniques of connectionist networks, such as the elimination of superfluous weights, and the estimation of confidence intervals both for weights and network outputs. We here review and develop exact and approximate ..."
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Cited by 27 (4 self)
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. The calculation of second derivatives is required by recent training and analyses techniques of connectionist networks, such as the elimination of superfluous weights, and the estimation of confidence intervals both for weights and network outputs. We here review and develop exact and approximate algorithms for calculating second derivatives. For networks with jwj weights, simply writing the full matrix of second derivatives requires O(jwj 2 ) operations. For networks of radial basis units or sigmoid units, exact calculation of the necessary intermediate terms requires of the order of 2h + 2 backward/forwardpropagation passes where h is the number of hidden units in the network. We also review and compare three approximations (ignoring some components of the second derivative, numerical differentiation, and scoring). Our algorithms apply to arbitrary activation functions, networks, and error functions (for instance, with connections that skip layers, or radial basis functions, or ...
Ensemble learning in Bayesian neural networks
 Neural Networks and Machine Learning
, 1998
"... Bayesian treatments of learning in neural networks are typically based either on a local Gaussian approximation to a mode of the posterior weight distribution, or on Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations. A third approach, called ensemble learning, was introduced by Hinton and van Camp (1993). It aim ..."
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Cited by 23 (5 self)
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Bayesian treatments of learning in neural networks are typically based either on a local Gaussian approximation to a mode of the posterior weight distribution, or on Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations. A third approach, called ensemble learning, was introduced by Hinton and van Camp (1993). It aims to approximate the posterior distribution by minimizing the KullbackLeibler divergence between the true posterior and a parametric approximating distribution. The original derivation of a deterministic algorithm relied on the use of a Gaussian approximating distribution with a diagonal covariance matrix and hence was unable to capture the posterior correlations between parameters. In this chapter we show how the ensemble learning approach can be extended to fullcovariance Gaussian distributions while remaining computationally tractable. We also extend the framework to deal with hyperparameters, leading to a simple reestimation procedure. One of the benefits of our approach is that it yields a strict lower bound on the marginal likelihood, in contrast to other approximate procedures. 1
Deep learning via Hessianfree optimization
"... We develop a 2 ndorder optimization method based on the “Hessianfree ” approach, and apply it to training deep autoencoders. Without using pretraining, we obtain results superior to those reported by Hinton & Salakhutdinov (2006) on the same tasks they considered. Our method is practical, easy t ..."
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Cited by 23 (4 self)
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We develop a 2 ndorder optimization method based on the “Hessianfree ” approach, and apply it to training deep autoencoders. Without using pretraining, we obtain results superior to those reported by Hinton & Salakhutdinov (2006) on the same tasks they considered. Our method is practical, easy to use, scales nicely to very large datasets, and isn’t limited in applicability to autoencoders, or any specific model class. We also discuss the issue of “pathological curvature ” as a possible explanation for the difficulty of deeplearning and how 2 ndorder optimization, and our method in particular, effectively deals with it. 1.