Results 1  10
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21
The Helmholtz Machine
, 1995
"... Discovering the structure inherent in a set of patterns is a fundamental aim of statistical inference or learning. One fruitful approach is to build a parameterized stochastic generative model, independent draws from which are likely to produce the patterns. For all but the simplest generative model ..."
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Cited by 195 (21 self)
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Discovering the structure inherent in a set of patterns is a fundamental aim of statistical inference or learning. One fruitful approach is to build a parameterized stochastic generative model, independent draws from which are likely to produce the patterns. For all but the simplest generative models, each pattern can be generated in exponentially many ways. It is thus intractable to adjust the parameters to maximize the probability of the observed patterns. We describe a way of finessing this combinatorial explosion by maximizing an easily computed lower bound on the probability of the observations. Our method can be viewed as a form of hierarchical selfsupervised learning that may relate to the function of bottomup and topdown cortical processing pathways.
Mean Field Theory for Sigmoid Belief Networks
 Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research
, 1996
"... We develop a mean field theory for sigmoid belief networks based on ideas from statistical mechanics. ..."
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Cited by 123 (12 self)
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We develop a mean field theory for sigmoid belief networks based on ideas from statistical mechanics.
Dynamic Model of Visual Recognition Predicts Neural Response Properties in the Visual Cortex
 Neural Computation
, 1995
"... this paper, we describe a hierarchical network model of visual recognition that explains these experimental observations by using a form of the extended Kalman filter as given by the Minimum Description Length (MDL) principle. The model dynamically combines inputdriven bottomup signals with expec ..."
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Cited by 87 (21 self)
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this paper, we describe a hierarchical network model of visual recognition that explains these experimental observations by using a form of the extended Kalman filter as given by the Minimum Description Length (MDL) principle. The model dynamically combines inputdriven bottomup signals with expectationdriven topdown signals to predict current recognition state. Synaptic weights in the model are adapted in a Hebbian manner according to a learning rule also derived from the MDL principle. The resulting prediction/learning scheme can be viewed as implementing a form of the ExpectationMaximization (EM) algorithm. The architecture of the model posits an active computational role for the reciprocal connections between adjoining visual cortical areas in determining neural response properties. In particular, the model demonstrates the possible role of feedback from higher cortical areas in mediating neurophysiological effects due to stimuli from beyond the classical receptive field. Si
Bayesian modeling of human concept learning
 In
, 1999
"... I consider the problem of learning concepts from small numbers of positive examples, a feat which humans perform routinely but which computers are rarely capable of. Bridging machine learning and cognitive science perspectives, I present both theoretical analysis and an empirical study with human su ..."
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Cited by 61 (12 self)
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I consider the problem of learning concepts from small numbers of positive examples, a feat which humans perform routinely but which computers are rarely capable of. Bridging machine learning and cognitive science perspectives, I present both theoretical analysis and an empirical study with human subjects for the simple task of learning concepts corresponding to axisaligned rectangles in a multidimensional feature space. Existing learning models, when applied to this task, cannot explain how subjects generalize from only a few examples of the concept. I propose a principled Bayesian model based on the assumption that the examples are a random sample from the concept to be learned. The model gives precise fits to human behavior on this simple task and provides qualitative insights into more complex, realistic cases of concept learning. 1
Ensemble learning for independent component analysis
 in Advances in Independent Component Analysis
, 2000
"... i Abstract This thesis is concerned with the problem of Blind Source Separation. Specifically we considerthe Independent Component Analysis (ICA) model in which a set of observations are modelled by xt = Ast: (1) where A is an unknown mixing matrix and st is a vector of hidden source components atti ..."
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Cited by 50 (2 self)
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i Abstract This thesis is concerned with the problem of Blind Source Separation. Specifically we considerthe Independent Component Analysis (ICA) model in which a set of observations are modelled by xt = Ast: (1) where A is an unknown mixing matrix and st is a vector of hidden source components attime t. The ICA problem is to find the sources given only a set of observations. In chapter 1, the blind source separation problem is introduced. In chapter 2 the methodof Ensemble Learning is explained. Chapter 3 applies Ensemble Learning to the ICA model and chapter 4 assesses the use of Ensemble Learning for model selection.Chapters 57 apply the Ensemble Learning ICA algorithm to data sets from physics (a medical imaging data set consisting of images of a tooth), biology (data sets from cDNAmicroarrays) and astrophysics (Planck image separation and galaxy spectra separation).
Computing Upper and Lower Bounds on Likelihoods in Intractable Networks
, 1996
"... We present techniques for computing upper and lower bounds on the likelihoods of partial instantiations of variables in sigmoid and noisyOR networks. The bounds determine confidence intervals for the desired likelihoods and become useful when the size of the network (or clique size) precludes exa ..."
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Cited by 41 (9 self)
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We present techniques for computing upper and lower bounds on the likelihoods of partial instantiations of variables in sigmoid and noisyOR networks. The bounds determine confidence intervals for the desired likelihoods and become useful when the size of the network (or clique size) precludes exact computations.
A Bayesian Framework for Concept Learning
 DEPARTMENT OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE, EDINBURGH UNIVERSITY
, 1999
"... Human concept learning presents a version of the classic problem of induction, which is made particularly difficult by the combination of two requirements: the need to learn from a rich (i.e. nested and overlapping) vocabulary of possible concepts and the need to be able to generalize concepts reaso ..."
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Cited by 21 (3 self)
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Human concept learning presents a version of the classic problem of induction, which is made particularly difficult by the combination of two requirements: the need to learn from a rich (i.e. nested and overlapping) vocabulary of possible concepts and the need to be able to generalize concepts reasonably from only a few positive examples. I begin this thesis by considering a simple number concept game as a concrete illustration of this ability. On this task, human learners can with reasonable confidence lock in on one out of a billion billion billion logically possible concepts, after seeing only four positive examples of the concept, and can generalize informatively after seeing just a single example. Neither of the two classic approaches to inductive inference  hypothesis testing in a constrained space of possible rules and computing similarity to the observed examples  can provide a complete picture of how people generalize concepts in even this simple setting. This thesis prop...
A hierarchical model of binocular rivalry
 Neural Comput
, 1998
"... Binocular rivalry is the alternating percept that can result when the two eyes see different scenes. Recent psychophysical evidence supports the notion that some aspects of binocular rivalry bear functional similarities to other bistable percepts. We build a model based on the hypothesis (Logotheti ..."
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Cited by 18 (0 self)
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Binocular rivalry is the alternating percept that can result when the two eyes see different scenes. Recent psychophysical evidence supports the notion that some aspects of binocular rivalry bear functional similarities to other bistable percepts. We build a model based on the hypothesis (Logothetis &
Variational learning in nonlinear Gaussian belief networks
 Neural Computation
, 1999
"... We view perceptual tasks such as vision and speech recognition as inference problems where the goal is to estimate the posterior distribution over latent variables (e.g., depth in stereo vision) given the sensory input. The recent flurry of research in independent component analysis exemplifies the ..."
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Cited by 17 (6 self)
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We view perceptual tasks such as vision and speech recognition as inference problems where the goal is to estimate the posterior distribution over latent variables (e.g., depth in stereo vision) given the sensory input. The recent flurry of research in independent component analysis exemplifies the importance of inferring the continuousvalued latent variables of input data. The latent variables found by this method are linearly related to the input, but perception requires nonlinear inferences such as classification and depth estimation. In this paper, we present a unifying framework for stochastic neural networks with nonlinear latent variables. Nonlinear units are obtained by passing the outputs of linear Gaussian units through various nonlinearities. We present a general variational method that maximizes a lower bound on the likelihood of a training set and give results on two visual feature extraction problems. We also show how the variational method can be used for pattern classification and compare the performance of these nonlinear networks with other methods on the problem of handwritten digit recognition. 1
Advances in Algorithms for Inference and Learning in Complex Probability Models for Vision
 IEEE Trans. PAMI
, 2002
"... Computer vision is currently one of the most exciting areas of artificial intelligence research, largely because it has recently become possible to record, store and process large amounts of visual data. While impressive achievements have been made in pattern classification problems such as handw ..."
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Cited by 11 (5 self)
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Computer vision is currently one of the most exciting areas of artificial intelligence research, largely because it has recently become possible to record, store and process large amounts of visual data. While impressive achievements have been made in pattern classification problems such as handwritten character recognition and face detection, it is even more exciting that researchers may be on the verge of introducing computer vision systems that perform scene analysis, decomposing a video into its constituent objects, lighting conditions, motion patterns, and so on. Two of the main challenges in computer vision are finding efficient models of the physics of visual scenes and finding efficient algorithms for inference and learning in these models. In this paper, we advocate the use of graphbased generative probability models and their associated inference and learning algorithms for computer vision and scene analysis. We review exact techniques and various approximate, computationally efficient techniques, including iterative conditional modes, the expectation maximization algorithm, the mean field method, variational techniques, structured variational techniques, Gibbs sampling, the sumproduct algorithm and "loopy" belief propagation. We describe how each technique can be applied to an illustrative example of inference and learning in models of multiple, occluding objects, and compare the performances of the techniques.