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Global Illumination using Photon Maps
, 1996
"... This paper presents a two pass global illumination method based on the concept of photon maps. It represents a significant improvement of a previously described approach both with respect to speed, accuracy and versatility. In the first pass two photon maps are created by emitting packets of energy ..."
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Cited by 215 (9 self)
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This paper presents a two pass global illumination method based on the concept of photon maps. It represents a significant improvement of a previously described approach both with respect to speed, accuracy and versatility. In the first pass two photon maps are created by emitting packets of energy (photons) from the light sources and storing these as they hit surfaces within the scene. We use one high resolution caustics photon map to render caustics that are visualized directly and one low resolution photon map that is used during the rendering step. The scene is rendered using a distribution ray tracing algorithm optimized by using the information in the photon maps. Shadow photons are used to render shadows more efficiently and the directional information in the photon map is used to generate optimized sampling directions and to limit the recursion in the distribution ray tracer by providing an estimate of the radiance on all surfaces with the exception of specular...
Animation and Rendering of Complex Water Surfaces
, 2002
"... We present a new method for the animation and rendering of photorealistic water effects. Our method is designed to produce visually plausible three dimensional effects, for example the pouring of water into a glass (see figure 1) and the breaking of an ocean wave, in a manner which can be used in a ..."
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Cited by 212 (21 self)
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We present a new method for the animation and rendering of photorealistic water effects. Our method is designed to produce visually plausible three dimensional effects, for example the pouring of water into a glass (see figure 1) and the breaking of an ocean wave, in a manner which can be used in a computer animation environment. In order to better obtain photorealism in the behavior of the simulated water surface, we introduce a new "thickened" front tracking technique to accurately represent the water surface and a new velocity extrapolation method to move the surface in a smooth, waterlike manner. The velocity extrapolation method allows us to provide a degree of control to the surface motion, e.g. to generate a windblown look or to force the water to settle quickly. To ensure that the photorealism of the simulation carries over to the final images, we have integrated our method with an advanced physically based rendering system.
Instant Radiosity
, 1997
"... We present a fundamental procedure for instant rendering from the radiance equation. Operating directly on the textured scene description, the very efficient and simple algorithm produces photorealistic images without any finite element kernel or solution discretization of the underlying integral eq ..."
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Cited by 180 (3 self)
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We present a fundamental procedure for instant rendering from the radiance equation. Operating directly on the textured scene description, the very efficient and simple algorithm produces photorealistic images without any finite element kernel or solution discretization of the underlying integral equation. Rendering rates of a few seconds are obtained by exploiting graphics hardware, the deterministic technique of the quasirandom walk for the solution of the global illumination problem, and the new method of jittered low discrepancy sampling.
Metropolis Light Transport
 Computer Graphics (SIGGRAPH '97 Proceedings
, 1997
"... We present a new Monte Carlo method for solving the light transport problem, inspired by the Metropolis sampling method in computational physics. To render an image, we generate a sequence of light transport paths by randomly mutating a single current path (e.g. adding a new vertex to the path). Eac ..."
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Cited by 150 (1 self)
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We present a new Monte Carlo method for solving the light transport problem, inspired by the Metropolis sampling method in computational physics. To render an image, we generate a sequence of light transport paths by randomly mutating a single current path (e.g. adding a new vertex to the path). Each mutation is accepted or rejected with a carefully chosen probability, to ensure that paths are sampled according to the contribution they make to the ideal image. We then estimate this image by sampling many paths, and recording their locations on the image plane. Our algorithm is unbiased, handles general geometric and scattering models, uses little storage, and can be orders of magnitude more e#cient than previous unbiased approaches. It performs especially well on problems that are usually considered di#cult, e.g. those involving bright indirect light, small geometric holes, or glossy surfaces. Furthermore, it is competitive with previous unbiased algorithms even for relatively simple ...
Optimally Combining Sampling Techniques for Monte Carlo Rendering
, 1995
"... Monte Carlo integration is a powerful technique for the evaluation of difficult integrals. Applications in rendering include distribution ray tracing, Monte Carlo path tracing, and formfactor computation for radiosity methods. In these cases variance can often be significantly reduced by drawing sa ..."
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Cited by 136 (2 self)
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Monte Carlo integration is a powerful technique for the evaluation of difficult integrals. Applications in rendering include distribution ray tracing, Monte Carlo path tracing, and formfactor computation for radiosity methods. In these cases variance can often be significantly reduced by drawing samples from several distributions, each designed to sample well some difficult aspect of the integrand. Normally this is done by explicitly partitioning the integration domain into regions that are sampled differently. We present a powerful alternative for constructing robust Monte Carlo estimators, by combining samples from several distributions in a way that is provably good. These estimators are unbiased, and can reduce variance significantly at little additional cost. We present experiments and measurements from several areas in rendering: calculation of glossy highlights from area light sources, the “final gather” pass of some radiosity algorithms, and direct solution of the rendering equation using bidirectional path tracing.
RealTime Acoustic Modeling for Distributed Virtual Environments
, 1999
"... Realistic acoustic modeling is essential for spatializing sound in distributed virtual environments where multiple networked users move around and interact visually and aurally in a shared virtual world. Unfortunately, current methods for computing accurate acoustical models are not fast enough for ..."
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Cited by 55 (10 self)
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Realistic acoustic modeling is essential for spatializing sound in distributed virtual environments where multiple networked users move around and interact visually and aurally in a shared virtual world. Unfortunately, current methods for computing accurate acoustical models are not fast enough for realtime auralization of sounds for simultaneously moving sources and receivers. In this paper, we present three new beam tracing algorithms that greatly accelerate computation of reverberation paths in a distributed virtual environment by taking advantage of the fact that sounds can only be generated or heard at the positions of "avatars" representing the users. The prioritydriven beam tracing algorithm performs a bestfirst search of a cell adjacency graph, and thus enables new termination criteria with which all early reflection paths can be found very efficiently. The bidirectional beam tracing algorithm combines sets of beams traced from pairs of avatar locations to find reverberation paths between them while requiring significantly less computation than previous unidirectional algorithms. The amortized beam tracing algorithm computes beams emanating from boxshaped regions of space containing predicted avatar locations and reuses those beams multiple times to compute reflections paths as each avatar moves inside the box. Cumulatively, these algorithms enable speedups of approximately two orders of magnitude over previous methods. They are incorporated into a timecritical multiprocessing system that allocates its computational resources dynamically in order to compute the highest priority reverberation paths between moving avatar locations in realtime with graceful degradation and adaptive refinement.
Importance Driven Path Tracing using the Photon Map
 in Eurographics Rendering Workshop
, 1995
"... : This paper presents a new importance sampling strategy for Monte Carlo ray tracing in which a rough estimate of the irradiance based on the photon map is combined with the local reflection model to construct more efficient probability density functions that can be used in an importance samplin ..."
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Cited by 54 (4 self)
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: This paper presents a new importance sampling strategy for Monte Carlo ray tracing in which a rough estimate of the irradiance based on the photon map is combined with the local reflection model to construct more efficient probability density functions that can be used in an importance sampling scheme. The algorithm gives unbiased results, handles arbitrary reflection models and it is particularly efficient in scenes with highly nonuniform indirect illumination. Initial results and comparisons with traditional importance sampling strategies indicate a reduction in the noise level of more than 70% Key Words: Global Illumination, Path Tracing, Importance Sampling, Photon Map 1 Introduction Photorealistic rendering requires accurate simulation of global illumination and much work has been done in this area in the last 10 years. The problem was actually solved in 1986 by Kajiya [6] using a method called path tracing. This method is basically a brute force Monte Carlo simulat...
Rendering Participating Media with Bidirectional Path Tracing
 In Eurographics Rendering Workshop
, 1996
"... In this paper we show how bidirectional path tracing can be extended to handle global illumination effects due to participating media. The resulting imagebased algorithm is computationally expensive but more versatile than previous solutions. It correctly handles multiple scattering in nonhomog ..."
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Cited by 49 (0 self)
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In this paper we show how bidirectional path tracing can be extended to handle global illumination effects due to participating media. The resulting imagebased algorithm is computationally expensive but more versatile than previous solutions. It correctly handles multiple scattering in nonhomogeneous, anisotropic media in complex illumination situations. We illustrate its specific advantages by means of examples.
A 5D Tree to Reduce the Variance of Monte Carlo Ray Tracing
"... In this paper we present a 5D tree structure to cache illumination information gained during Monte Carlo ray tracing. The structure is elegant and simple to use. It is adaptive and makes abstraction of the complexity of the input scene automatically. We then show how the information in this stru ..."
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Cited by 45 (2 self)
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In this paper we present a 5D tree structure to cache illumination information gained during Monte Carlo ray tracing. The structure is elegant and simple to use. It is adaptive and makes abstraction of the complexity of the input scene automatically. We then show how the information in this structure can be used to reduce the variance of the Monte Carlo process. Unlike earlier approaches the techniques presented here do not introduce a bias in the results.
Progressive photon mapping
 ACM Transactions on Graphics (SIGGRAPH Asia Proceedings
, 2008
"... Figure 1: Tools with a flashlight. The scene is illuminated by caustics from the flashlight, which cause SDS paths on the flashlight and highly glossy reflections of caustics on the bolts and plier. The flashlight and the plier are out of focus. Using the same rendering time, our method (right) robu ..."
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Cited by 37 (5 self)
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Figure 1: Tools with a flashlight. The scene is illuminated by caustics from the flashlight, which cause SDS paths on the flashlight and highly glossy reflections of caustics on the bolts and plier. The flashlight and the plier are out of focus. Using the same rendering time, our method (right) robustly renders the combination of the complex illumination setting and the distributed ray tracing effects where progressive photon mapping is inefficient (left). This paper presents a simple extension of progressive photon mapping for simulating global illumination with effects such as depthoffield, motion blur, and glossy reflections. Progressive photon mapping is a robust global illumination algorithm that can handle complex illumination settings including speculardiffusespecular paths. The algorithm can compute the correct radiance value at a point in the limit. However, progressive photon mapping is not effective at rendering distributed ray tracing effects, such as depthoffield, that requires multiple pixel samples in order to compute the correct average radiance value over a region. In this paper, we introduce a new formulation of progressive photon mapping, called stochastic progressive photon mapping, which makes it possible to compute the correct average radiance value for a region. The key idea is to use shared photon statistics within the region rather than isolated photon statistics at a point. The algorithm is easy to implement, and our results demonstrate how it efficiently handles scenes with distributed ray tracing effects, while maintaining the robustness of progressive photon mapping in scenes with complex lighting.