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UMAC: Fast and Secure Message Authentication
, 1999
"... Abstract. We describe a message authentication algorithm, UMAC, which can authenticate messages (in software, on contemporary machines) roughly an order of magnitude faster than current practice (e.g., HMACSHA1), and about twice as fast as times previously reported for the universal hashfunction f ..."
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Cited by 111 (14 self)
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Abstract. We describe a message authentication algorithm, UMAC, which can authenticate messages (in software, on contemporary machines) roughly an order of magnitude faster than current practice (e.g., HMACSHA1), and about twice as fast as times previously reported for the universal hashfunction family MMH. To achieve such speeds, UMAC uses a new universal hashfunction family, NH, and a design which allows effective exploitation of SIMD parallelism. The “cryptographic ” work of UMAC is done using standard primitives of the user’s choice, such as a block cipher or cryptographic hash function; no new heuristic primitives are developed here. Instead, the security of UMAC is rigorously proven, in the sense of giving exact and quantitatively strong results which demonstrate an inability to forge UMACauthenticated messages assuming an inability to break the underlying cryptographic primitive. Unlike conventional, inherently serial MACs, UMAC is parallelizable, and will have everfaster implementation speeds as machines offer up increasing amounts of parallelism. We envision UMAC as a practical algorithm for nextgeneration message authentication. 1
Bucket Hashing and its Application to Fast Message Authentication
, 1995
"... We introduce a new technique for constructing a family of universal hash functions. ..."
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Cited by 51 (4 self)
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We introduce a new technique for constructing a family of universal hash functions.
FloatingPoint Arithmetic And Message Authentication
, 2000
"... There is a wellknown class of message authentication systems guaranteeing that attackers will have a negligible chance of successfully forging a message. This paper shows how one of these systems can hash messages at extremely high speed  much more quickly than previous systems at the same securi ..."
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Cited by 28 (8 self)
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There is a wellknown class of message authentication systems guaranteeing that attackers will have a negligible chance of successfully forging a message. This paper shows how one of these systems can hash messages at extremely high speed  much more quickly than previous systems at the same security level  using IEEE floatingpoint arithmetic. This paper also presents a survey of the literature in a unified mathematical framework.
Software performance of universal hash functions
 In Advances in Cryptology — EUROCRYPT ’99
, 1999
"... Abstract. This paper compares the parameters sizes and software performance of several recent constructions for universal hash functions: bucket hashing, polynomial hashing, Toeplitz hashing, division hashing, evaluation hashing, and MMH hashing. An objective comparison between these widely varying ..."
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Cited by 26 (0 self)
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Abstract. This paper compares the parameters sizes and software performance of several recent constructions for universal hash functions: bucket hashing, polynomial hashing, Toeplitz hashing, division hashing, evaluation hashing, and MMH hashing. An objective comparison between these widely varying approaches is achieved by defining constructions that offer a comparable security level. It is also demonstrated how the security of these constructions compares favorably to existing MAC algorithms, the security of which is less understood. 1
Square Hash: Fast Message Authentication via Optimized Universal Hash Functions
 In Proc. CRYPTO 99, Lecture Notes in Computer Science
, 1999
"... This paper introduces two new ideas in the construction of fast universal hash functions geared towards the task of message authentication. ..."
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Cited by 21 (6 self)
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This paper introduces two new ideas in the construction of fast universal hash functions geared towards the task of message authentication.
Divide and Concatenate: A Scalable Hardware Architecture for Universal MAC
 in 12 th ACM International Symp. on FieldProgrammable Gate Arrays (FPGA2004
, 2003
"... We present a cryptographic architecture optimization technique called divideandconcatenate based on two observations: (i) the area of a multiplier and associated data path decreases exponentially and their speeds increase linearly as their operand size is reduced. (ii) in hash functions, message a ..."
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Cited by 1 (0 self)
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We present a cryptographic architecture optimization technique called divideandconcatenate based on two observations: (i) the area of a multiplier and associated data path decreases exponentially and their speeds increase linearly as their operand size is reduced. (ii) in hash functions, message authentication codes and related cryptographic algorithms, two functions are equivalent if they have the same collision probability property. In the proposed approach we divide a 2wbit data path (with collision probability 2 ) into two wbit data paths (each with collision probability 2 ) and concatenate their results to construct an equivalent 2wbit data path (with a collision probability 2 ). We applied this technique on NH hash, a universal hash function that uses multiplications and additions. When compared to the 100% overhead associated with duplicating a straightforward 32bit pipelined NH hash data path, the divideandconcatenate approach yields a 94% increase in throughput with only 40% hardware overhead. The NH hash associated message authentication code UMAC architecture with collision probability 2 that uses four equivalent 8bit divideandconcatenate NH hash data paths yields a throughput of 79.2 Gbps with only 3840 FPGA slices when implemented on a Xilinx XC2VP77 Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). 1. Motivation In the past, most cryptographic algorithms have been developed to run fast on generalpurpose processors. More recently, dedicated cryptographic hardware is being developed and deployed to match the >10 Gbps wire speed requirements. In this paper we will investigate scalable hardware architectures for cryptographic algorithms.
Authentication in Quantum Key Distribution: Security Proof and Universal Hash Functions
"... Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) is a secret key agreement technique that consists of two parts: quantum transmission and measurement on a quantum channel, and classical postprocessing on a public communication channel. It enjoys provable unconditional security provided that the public communication ..."
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Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) is a secret key agreement technique that consists of two parts: quantum transmission and measurement on a quantum channel, and classical postprocessing on a public communication channel. It enjoys provable unconditional security provided that the public communication channel is immutable. Otherwise, QKD is vulnerable to a maninthemiddle attack. Immutable public communication channels, however, do not exist in practice. So we need to use authentication that implements the properties of an immutable channel as well as possible. One scheme that serves this purpose well is the WegmanCarter authentication (WCA), which is built upon Almost Strongly Universal2 (ASU2) hashing. This scheme uses a new key in each authentication attempt to select a hash function from an ASU2 family, which is then used to generate the authentication tag for a message. The main focus of this dissertation is on authentication in the context of QKD. We study ASU2 hash functions, security of QKD that employs a computationally secure authentication, and also security of authentication with a partially known key. Specifically,