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Emergence of selfreplicating structures in a cellular automata space
 Physica D
, 1997
"... Past cellular automata models of selfreplication have always been initialized with an original copy of the structure that will replicate, and have been based on a transition function that only works for a single, specific structure. This article demonstrates for the first time that it is possible t ..."
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Cited by 30 (5 self)
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Past cellular automata models of selfreplication have always been initialized with an original copy of the structure that will replicate, and have been based on a transition function that only works for a single, specific structure. This article demonstrates for the first time that it is possible to create cellular automata models in which a selfreplicating structure emerges from an initial state having a random density and distribution of individual components. These emergent selfreplicating structures employ a fairly general rule set that can support the replication of structures of different sizes and their growth from smaller to larger ones. This rule set also allows "random " interactions of selfreplicating structures with each other and with other structures within the cellular automata space. Systematic simulations show that emergence and growth of replicants occurs often and is essentially independent of the cellular space size, initial random pattern of components, and initial density of components, over a broad range of these parameters. The number of replicants and the total number of components they incorporate generally approach quasistable values with time.
Evolvable selfreplicating molecules in an artificial chemistry
 Artificial Life
, 2002
"... This paper gives details of Squirm3, a new artificial environment based on a simple physics and chemistry that supports selfreplicating molecules somewhat similar to DNA.The selfreplicators emerge spontaneously from a random soup given the right conditions.Interactions between the replicators can ..."
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Cited by 17 (3 self)
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This paper gives details of Squirm3, a new artificial environment based on a simple physics and chemistry that supports selfreplicating molecules somewhat similar to DNA.The selfreplicators emerge spontaneously from a random soup given the right conditions.Interactions between the replicators can result in mutated versions that can outperform their parents.We show how artificial chemistries such as this one can be implemented as a cellular automaton.We concur with [9] that artificial chemistries are a good medium in which to study early evolution.
Constructing Evolutionary Systems On A Simple Deterministic Cellular Automata Space
, 1998
"... We succeeded for the first time in constructing evolutionary systems on a simple 9state 5neighbor cellular automata (CA) space by utilizing Langton's selfreproducing loop. CA are deterministic dynamical systems capable of representing extremely complex nonlinear phenomena, where time, space and s ..."
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Cited by 15 (3 self)
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We succeeded for the first time in constructing evolutionary systems on a simple 9state 5neighbor cellular automata (CA) space by utilizing Langton's selfreproducing loop. CA are deterministic dynamical systems capable of representing extremely complex nonlinear phenomena, where time, space and states of sites are all discrete. Many CA models of selfreproductive behavior of theoretical organisms have so far been energetically studied, but the evolutionary process of organisms driven by variation and natural selection has never been realized on CA space yet. In this dissertation, we added three improvements into Langton's loop, i.e., to realize a kind of death by introducing a new dissolving state `8' into the set of states of the CA, to enhance the adaptability (a degree of the variety of situations in which the structures in the CA space can operate regularly) of the selfreproductive mechanism described by the statetransition rules of the CA, and to modify the initial structure o...
SelfReplicating Worms That Increase Structural Complexity through Gene Transmission
 Artificial Life VII : Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Artificial Life
, 2000
"... A new selfreplicating cellular automata (CA) model is proposed as a latest effort toward the realization of an artificial evolutionary system on CA where structural complexity of selfreplicators can increase in some cases. I utilize the idea of `shape encoding' proposed by Morita and Imai (Morita ..."
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Cited by 8 (3 self)
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A new selfreplicating cellular automata (CA) model is proposed as a latest effort toward the realization of an artificial evolutionary system on CA where structural complexity of selfreplicators can increase in some cases. I utilize the idea of `shape encoding' proposed by Morita and Imai (Morita & Imai 1996b) and make the statetransition rules of the model allow organisms to transmit genetic information to others when colliding against each other. Simulations with random initial configuration demonstrate that it is possible that the average length of organisms and the average frequency of brancing per organism both increase, with decreasing selfreplication fidelity, and saturate at some constant level. The saturation is caused in part by the fixation of place and shape of organisms onto particular sites. This implies the necessity of introducing some fluidity of site arrangements into the model for further development of evolutionary models using CAlike artificial medi...
Selfreplicating Expressions in the Lambda Calculus
"... The study of selfreplicating structures in Computer Science has been taking place for more than half a century, motivated by the desire to understand the fundamental principles and algorithms involved in selfreplication. The bulk of the literature explores selfreplicating forms in Cellular Automa ..."
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Cited by 1 (0 self)
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The study of selfreplicating structures in Computer Science has been taking place for more than half a century, motivated by the desire to understand the fundamental principles and algorithms involved in selfreplication. The bulk of the literature explores selfreplicating forms in Cellular Automata. Though trivially selfreplicating programs have been written for dozens of languages, very little work exists that explores selfreplicating forms in programming languages. This paper reports initial investigations into selfreplicating expressions in the Lambda Calculus, the basis for functional programming languages. Mimicking results from the work on Cellular Automata, selfreplicating Lambda Calculus expressions that also allow the application of an arbitrary program to arbitrary data are presented. Standard normal order reduction, however, will not reduce the subexpression representing the program application. Two approaches of dealing with this, hybrid reduction and parallel reduction, are discussed, and have been implemented in an interpreter.
If the Milieu is Reasonable: Lessons from Nature on Creating Life
, 1997
"... This paper provides a glimpse into the questions that arise and some of their possible answers. We set out by describing the implementation of selfreplication and evolution processes in artificial media. Then, we go on to observe that while these two conditions may be ..."
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This paper provides a glimpse into the questions that arise and some of their possible answers. We set out by describing the implementation of selfreplication and evolution processes in artificial media. Then, we go on to observe that while these two conditions may be
Arithmetic Operations On SelfReplicating Cellular Automata
, 1999
"... In this paper, we present a possible implementation of arithmetic functions (notably, addition and multiplication) using selfreplicating cellular automata. The operations are performed by storing a dedicated program (sequence of states) on selfreplicating loops, and letting the loops retrieve t ..."
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In this paper, we present a possible implementation of arithmetic functions (notably, addition and multiplication) using selfreplicating cellular automata. The operations are performed by storing a dedicated program (sequence of states) on selfreplicating loops, and letting the loops retrieve the operands, exchange data among themselves, and perform the calculations according to a set of rules. To determine the rules required for addition and multiplication, we exploited an existing algorithm for computation in the cellular automata environment and adapted it to exploit the features of selfreplicating loops. This approach allowed us to study a variety of issues (synchronization, data exchange, etc.) related to the use of selfreplicating machines for complex operations.
Von Neumann's 29State Cellular Automaton: A
, 1998
"... In the early 1950s, John von Neumann designed a cellular automaton implementing a universal selfreplicating structure. More than 40 years after his death, the first hardware implementation of von Neumann's transition rule is presented. Unfortunately, this implementation only allows small systems to ..."
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In the early 1950s, John von Neumann designed a cellular automaton implementing a universal selfreplicating structure. More than 40 years after his death, the first hardware implementation of von Neumann's transition rule is presented. Unfortunately, this implementation only allows small systems to be realized, and not the complete structure, which would require 100 000200 000 cells, according to some estimations. A logic circuit which implements the transition rule and represents a single cell of the array has been developed. The applications of this implementation lie mainly in the pedagogical domain. It can be used as a demonstration tool for courses on cellular automata.
Is Selfreplication an Embedded Characteristic of Artificial/Living Matter?
"... This paper introduces a method through which, using genetic algorithms on two dimensional cellular automata, we obtain emergent phenomena of selfreplication. Three ..."
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This paper introduces a method through which, using genetic algorithms on two dimensional cellular automata, we obtain emergent phenomena of selfreplication. Three
A Novel Method for Generating Self Replicate Patterns Based on two Dimensional Cellular Automata, Twenty Five Neighborhood Model
"... Creating algorithmic approach for generating selfreplicate patterns of digital images is important and difficult task. Researchers face with many challenges in developing tiling algorithms such as providing simple and applicable algorithm to describe complex patterns. This paper used cellular autom ..."
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Creating algorithmic approach for generating selfreplicate patterns of digital images is important and difficult task. Researchers face with many challenges in developing tiling algorithms such as providing simple and applicable algorithm to describe complex patterns. This paper used cellular automata with extended moor neighborhood to generate self replicate patterns of digital images. Growth from simple motif in two dimensional cellular automata can produce self replicate patterns with complicated boundaries, characterized by a variety of growth dimensions. The proposed approach leads to accurate and scalable algorithm for generating patterns. The results of implemented algorithm demonstrate our approach with a variety of patterns.