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**1 - 7**of**7**### Gödel on Intuition and on Hilbert’s finitism

"... There are some puzzles about Gödel’s published and unpublished remarks concerning finitism that have led some commentators to believe that his conception of it was unstable, that he oscillated back and forth between different accounts of it. I want to discuss these puzzles and argue that, on the con ..."

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There are some puzzles about Gödel’s published and unpublished remarks concerning finitism that have led some commentators to believe that his conception of it was unstable, that he oscillated back and forth between different accounts of it. I want to discuss these puzzles and argue that, on the contrary, Gödel’s writings represent a smooth evolution, with just one rather small double-reversal, of his view of finitism. He used the term “finit ” (in German) or “finitary ” or “finitistic ” primarily to refer to Hilbert’s conception of finitary mathematics. On two occasions (only, as far as I know), the lecture notes for his lecture at Zilsel’s [Gödel, 1938a] and the lecture notes for a lecture at Yale [Gödel, *1941], he used it in a way that he knew—in the second case, explicitly—went beyond what Hilbert meant. Early in his career, he believed that finitism (in Hilbert’s sense) is openended, in the sense that no correct formal system can be known to formalize all finitist proofs and, in particular, all possible finitist proofs of consistency of first-order number theory, P A; but starting in the Dialectica paper

### Copeland and Proudfoot on Computability

"... Abstract: Many philosophers contend that Turing’s work provides a conceptual analysis of numerical computability. In (Rescorla, 2007), I dissented. I argued that the problem of deviant notations stymies existing attempts at conceptual analysis. Copeland and Proudfoot respond to my critique. I argue ..."

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Abstract: Many philosophers contend that Turing’s work provides a conceptual analysis of numerical computability. In (Rescorla, 2007), I dissented. I argued that the problem of deviant notations stymies existing attempts at conceptual analysis. Copeland and Proudfoot respond to my critique. I argue that their putative solution does not succeed. We are still awaiting a genuine conceptual analysis.

### Philosophy and Model Theory Plurals, Predicates, and Paradox Research Seminar Autumn 2011

, 2011

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### RECURSION IN COGNITION: A COMPUTATIONAL INVESTIGATION INTO THE REPRESENTATION AND PROCESSING OF LANGUAGE

"... ADVERTIMENT. L'accés als continguts d'aquesta tesi doctoral i la seva utilització ha de respectar els drets de la persona autora. Pot ser utilitzada per a consulta o estudi personal, així com en activitats o materials d'investigació i docència en els termes establerts a l'art. 32 ..."

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ADVERTIMENT. L'accés als continguts d'aquesta tesi doctoral i la seva utilització ha de respectar els drets de la persona autora. Pot ser utilitzada per a consulta o estudi personal, així com en activitats o materials d'investigació i docència en els termes establerts a l'art. 32 del Text Refós de la Llei de Propietat Intel·lectual (RDL 1/1996). Per altres utilitzacions es requereix l'autorització prèvia i expressa de la persona autora. En qualsevol cas, en la utilització dels seus continguts caldrà indicar de forma clara el nom i cognoms de la persona autora i el títol de la tesi doctoral. No s'autoritza la seva reproducció o altres formes d'explotació efectuades amb finalitats de lucre ni la seva comunicació pública des d'un lloc aliè al servei TDX. Tampoc s'autoritza la presentació del seu contingut en una finestra o marc aliè a TDX (framing). Aquesta reserva de drets afecta tant als continguts de la tesi com als seus resums i índexs. ADVERTENCIA. El acceso a los contenidos de esta tesis doctoral y su utilización debe respetar los derechos de la persona autora. Puede ser utilizada para consulta o estudio personal, así como en actividades o materiales de investigación y docencia en los términos establecidos en el art. 32 del Texto Refundido de la Ley de Propiedad Intelectual (RDL 1/1996). Para otros usos se requiere la autorización previa y expresa de la persona autora. En cualquier caso, en la utilización de sus contenidos se deberá indicar de forma clara el nombre y apellidos de la persona autora y el título de la tesis doctoral. No se

### Microsoft

"... Infons are statements viewed as containers of information (rather then representations of truth values). The logic of infons turns out to be a conservative extension of logic known as constructive or intuitionistic. Distributed Knowledge Authorization Language uses additional unary connectives “p sa ..."

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Infons are statements viewed as containers of information (rather then representations of truth values). The logic of infons turns out to be a conservative extension of logic known as constructive or intuitionistic. Distributed Knowledge Authorization Language uses additional unary connectives “p said ” and “p implied ” where p ranges over principals. Here we investigate infon logic and a narrow but useful primal fragment of it. In both cases, we develop model theory and analyze the derivability problem: Does the given query follow from the given hypotheses? Our more involved technical results are on primal infon logic. We construct an algorithm for the multiple derivability problem: Which of the given queries follow from the given hypotheses? Given a bound on the quotation depth of the hypotheses, the algorithm runs in linear time. We quickly discuss the significance of this result for access control.

### WHAT IS AN ALGORITHM? (REVISED)

"... Abstract. We put the title problem and Church’s thesis into a proper perspective, and we address some common misconceptions about Turing’s analysis of computation. In addition, we comment on two approaches to the title problem, one well known among philosophers and another well known among logicians ..."

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Abstract. We put the title problem and Church’s thesis into a proper perspective, and we address some common misconceptions about Turing’s analysis of computation. In addition, we comment on two approaches to the title problem, one well known among philosophers and another well known among logicians.

### Semantics-to-syntax analyses of algorithms

"... The real question at issue is “What are the possible processes which can be carried out in computing a number?” Turing Give me a fulcrum, and I shall move the world. Archimedes Abstract. Alan Turing pioneered semantics-to-syntax analysis of algo-rithms. It is a kind of analysis where you start with ..."

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The real question at issue is “What are the possible processes which can be carried out in computing a number?” Turing Give me a fulcrum, and I shall move the world. Archimedes Abstract. Alan Turing pioneered semantics-to-syntax analysis of algo-rithms. It is a kind of analysis where you start with a large semantically defined species of algorithms, and you finish up with a syntactic artifact, typically a computation model, that characterizes the species. The task of analyzing a large species of algorithms seems daunting if not impossi-ble. As in quicksand, one needs a rescue point, a fulcrum. In computation analysis, a fulcrum is a particular viewpoint on computation that clari-fies and simplifies things to the point that analysis become possible. We review from that point of view Turing’s analysis of human-executable computation, Kolmogorov’s analysis of sequential bit-level computation, Gandy’s analysis of a species of machine computation, and our own anal-ysis of sequential computation.