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34
A typebased approach to program security
 In Proceedings of the 7th International Joint Conference on the Theory and Practice of Software Development
, 1997
"... Abstract. This paper presents a type system which guarantees that welltyped programs in a procedural programming language satisfy a noninterference security property. With all program inputs and outputs classified at various security levels, the property basically states that a program output, clas ..."
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Cited by 134 (4 self)
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Abstract. This paper presents a type system which guarantees that welltyped programs in a procedural programming language satisfy a noninterference security property. With all program inputs and outputs classified at various security levels, the property basically states that a program output, classified at some level, can never change as a result of modifying only inputs classified at higher levels. Intuitively, this means the program does not “leak ” sensitive data. The property is similar to a notion introduced years ago by Goguen and Meseguer to model security in multilevel computer systems [7]. We also give an algorithm for inferring and simplifying principal types, which document the security requirements of programs. 1
What Are Principal Typings and What Are They Good For?
, 1995
"... We demonstrate the pragmatic value of the principal typing property, a property more general than ML's principal type property, by studying a type system with principal typings. The type system is based on rank 2 intersection types and is closely related to ML. Its principal typing property prov ..."
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Cited by 93 (0 self)
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We demonstrate the pragmatic value of the principal typing property, a property more general than ML's principal type property, by studying a type system with principal typings. The type system is based on rank 2 intersection types and is closely related to ML. Its principal typing property provides elegant support for separate compilation, including "smartest recompilation" and incremental type inference, and for accurate type error messages. Moreover, it motivates a novel rule for typing recursive definitions that can type many examples of polymorphic recursion.
Subtyping Constrained Types
, 1996
"... A constrained type is a type that comes with a set of subtyping constraints on variables occurring in the type. Constrained type inference systems are a natural generalization of Hindley/Milner type inference to languages with subtyping. This paper develops several subtyping relations on polymorphic ..."
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Cited by 59 (2 self)
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A constrained type is a type that comes with a set of subtyping constraints on variables occurring in the type. Constrained type inference systems are a natural generalization of Hindley/Milner type inference to languages with subtyping. This paper develops several subtyping relations on polymorphic constrained types of a general form that allows recursive constraints and multiple bounds on type variables. We establish a full type abstraction property that equates a novel operational notion of subtyping with a semantic notion based on regular trees. The decidability of this notion of subtyping is open; we present a decidable approximation. Subtyping constrained types has applications to signature matching and to constrained type simplification. The relation will thus be a critical component of any programming language incorporating a constrained typing system. 1 Introduction A constrained type is a type that is additionally constrained by a set of subtyping constraints on the free ty...
TypeBased Flow Analysis: From Polymorphic Subtyping to CFLReachability.
 In Proceedings of the 28th Annual ACM SIGPLANSIGACT Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages
, 2001
"... We present a novel approach to scalable implementation of typebased flow analysis with polymorphic subtyping. Using a new presentation of polymorphic subtyping with instantiation constraints, we are able to apply contextfree language (CFL) reachability techniques to typebased flow analysis. We de ..."
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Cited by 52 (1 self)
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We present a novel approach to scalable implementation of typebased flow analysis with polymorphic subtyping. Using a new presentation of polymorphic subtyping with instantiation constraints, we are able to apply contextfree language (CFL) reachability techniques to typebased flow analysis. We develop a CFLbased algorithm for computing flow information in time O(n 3 ), where n is the size of the typed program. The algorithm substantially improves upon the best previously known algorithm for flow analysis based on polymorphic subtyping with complexity O(n 8 ). Our technique also yields the first demanddriven algorithm for polymorphic subtypebased flowcomputation. It works directly on higherorder programs with structured data of finite type (unbounded data structures are incorporated via finite approximations), supports contextsensitive, global flow summarization and includes polymorphic recursion.
Type inference with constrained types
 Fourth International Workshop on Foundations of ObjectOriented Programming (FOOL)
, 1997
"... We present a general framework HM(X) for type systems with constraints. The framework stays in the tradition of the Hindley/Milner type system. Its type system instances are sound under a standard untyped compositional semantics. We can give a generic type inference algorithm for HM(X) so that, unde ..."
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Cited by 46 (5 self)
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We present a general framework HM(X) for type systems with constraints. The framework stays in the tradition of the Hindley/Milner type system. Its type system instances are sound under a standard untyped compositional semantics. We can give a generic type inference algorithm for HM(X) so that, under sufficient conditions on X, type inference will always compute the principal type of a term. We discuss instances of the framework that deal with polymorphic records, equational theories and subtypes.
Type and effect systems
 ACM Computing Surveys
, 1999
"... Abstract. The design and implementation of a correct system can benefit from employing static techniques for ensuring that the dynamic behaviour satisfies the specification. Many programming languages incorporate types for ensuring that certain operations are only applied to data of the appropriate ..."
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Cited by 34 (0 self)
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Abstract. The design and implementation of a correct system can benefit from employing static techniques for ensuring that the dynamic behaviour satisfies the specification. Many programming languages incorporate types for ensuring that certain operations are only applied to data of the appropriate form. A natural extension of type checking techniques is to enrich the types with annotations and effects that further describe intensional aspects of the dynamic behaviour.
The Complexity of Subtype Entailment for Simple Types
 In Proceedings of the 12th Annual IEEE Symposium on Logic in Computer Science (LICS
, 1997
"... A subtyping 0 is entailed by a set of subtyping constraints C, written C j= 0 , if every valuation (mapping of type variables to ground types) that satisfies C also satisfies 0 . We study the complexity of subtype entailment for simple types over lattices of base types. We show that: ..."
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Cited by 29 (1 self)
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A subtyping 0 is entailed by a set of subtyping constraints C, written C j= 0 , if every valuation (mapping of type variables to ground types) that satisfies C also satisfies 0 . We study the complexity of subtype entailment for simple types over lattices of base types. We show that: ffl deciding C j= 0 is coNPcomplete. ffl deciding C j= ff fi for consistent, atomic C and ff; fi atomic can be done in linear time. The structural lower (coNPhardness) and upper (membership in coNP) bounds as well as the optimal algorithm for atomic entailment are new. The coNPhardness result indicates that entailment is strictly harder than satisfiability, which is known to be in PTIME for lattices of base types. The proof of coNPcompleteness gives an improved algorithm for deciding entailment and puts a precise complexitytheoretic marker on the intuitive "exponential explosion" in the algorithm. Central to our results is a novel characterization of C j= ff fi for atomic, co...
The Liberty structural specification language: a highlevel modeling language for component reuse
 in 2004 ACM SIGPLAN Conference on Programming Language Design and Implementation (PLDI'04
, 2004
"... Rapid exploration of the design space with simulation models is essential for quality hardware systems research and development. Despite striking commonalities across hardware systems, designers routinely fail to achieve high levels of reuse across models constructed in existing generalpurpose and ..."
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Cited by 26 (7 self)
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Rapid exploration of the design space with simulation models is essential for quality hardware systems research and development. Despite striking commonalities across hardware systems, designers routinely fail to achieve high levels of reuse across models constructed in existing generalpurpose and domainspecific languages. This lack of reuse adversely impacts hardware system design by slowing the rate at which ideas are evaluated. This paper presents an examination of existing languages to reveal their fundamental limitations regarding reuse in hardware modeling. With this understanding, a solution is described in the context of the design and implementation of the Liberty Structural Specification Language (LSS), the input language for a publicly available highlevel digitalhardware modeling tool called the Liberty Simulation Environment. LSS is the first language to enable lowoverhead reuse by simultaneously supporting static inference based on hardware structure and flexibility via parameterizable structure. Through LSS, this paper also introduces a new type inference algorithm and a new programming language technique, called usebased specialization, which, in a manner analogous to type inference, customizes reusable components by statically inferring structural properties that otherwise would have had to have been specified manually.
A constraintbased approach to guarded algebraic data types
 ACM Trans. Prog. Languages Systems
, 2007
"... We study HMG(X), an extension of the constraintbased type system HM(X) with deep pattern matching, polymorphic recursion, and guarded algebraic data types. Guarded algebraic data types subsume the concepts known in the literature as indexed types, guarded recursive datatype constructors, (firstcla ..."
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Cited by 24 (0 self)
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We study HMG(X), an extension of the constraintbased type system HM(X) with deep pattern matching, polymorphic recursion, and guarded algebraic data types. Guarded algebraic data types subsume the concepts known in the literature as indexed types, guarded recursive datatype constructors, (firstclass) phantom types, and equality qualified types, and are closely related to inductive types. Their characteristic property is to allow every branch of a case construct to be typechecked under different assumptions about the type variables in scope. We prove that HMG(X) is sound and that, provided recursive definitions carry a type annotation, type inference can be reduced to constraint solving. Constraint solving is decidable, at least for some instances of X, but prohibitively expensive. Effective type inference for guarded algebraic data types is left as an issue for future research.
Optimizing Lazy Functional Programs Using Flow Inference
, 1995
"... . Nonstrict higher order functional programming languages are notorious for their low run time efficiency. Optimizations based on flow analysis, which determines for each variable x in a program which expressions could have originated the value of x, can improve the situation by removing redundant ..."
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Cited by 20 (5 self)
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. Nonstrict higher order functional programming languages are notorious for their low run time efficiency. Optimizations based on flow analysis, which determines for each variable x in a program which expressions could have originated the value of x, can improve the situation by removing redundant eval and thunk operations, avoiding thunk updates, and allowing the use of unboxed representations of some data. We formulate flow analysis as an inference problem in a type system built using type inclusion constraints and an algorithm for solving these constraints is also given. 1 Introduction Polymorphically typed nonstrict higher order functional programming languages are a boon to the programmer because they provide powerful mechanisms for abstraction [11]. Equally, and for the same reasons, they are very difficult to compile to efficient code. Among the main obstacles are the frequent need to build thunks (representations for unevaluated expressions), test whether objects are thunks o...