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ETHANE: Taking Control of the Enterprise
 In SIGCOMM Computer Comm. Rev
, 2007
"... This paper presents Ethane, a new network architecture for the enterprise. Ethane allows managers to define a single networkwide finegrain policy, and then enforces it directly. Ethane couples extremely simple flowbased Ethernet switches with a centralized controller that manages the admittance an ..."
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Cited by 133 (23 self)
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This paper presents Ethane, a new network architecture for the enterprise. Ethane allows managers to define a single networkwide finegrain policy, and then enforces it directly. Ethane couples extremely simple flowbased Ethernet switches with a centralized controller that manages the admittance and routing of flows. While radical, this design is backwardscompatible with existing hosts and switches. We have implemented Ethane in both hardware and software, supporting both wired and wireless hosts. Our operational Ethane network has supported over 300 hosts for the past four months in a large university network, and this deployment experience has significantly affected Ethane’s design. Categories and Subject Descriptors
Cuckoo hashing
 Journal of Algorithms
, 2001
"... We present a simple dictionary with worst case constant lookup time, equaling the theoretical performance of the classic dynamic perfect hashing scheme of Dietzfelbinger et al. (Dynamic perfect hashing: Upper and lower bounds. SIAM J. Comput., 23(4):738–761, 1994). The space usage is similar to that ..."
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Cited by 122 (6 self)
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We present a simple dictionary with worst case constant lookup time, equaling the theoretical performance of the classic dynamic perfect hashing scheme of Dietzfelbinger et al. (Dynamic perfect hashing: Upper and lower bounds. SIAM J. Comput., 23(4):738–761, 1994). The space usage is similar to that of binary search trees, i.e., three words per key on average. Besides being conceptually much simpler than previous dynamic dictionaries with worst case constant lookup time, our data structure is interesting in that it does not use perfect hashing, but rather a variant of open addressing where keys can be moved back in their probe sequences. An implementation inspired by our algorithm, but using weaker hash functions, is found to be quite practical. It is competitive with the best known dictionaries having an average case (but no nontrivial worst case) guarantee. Key Words: data structures, dictionaries, information retrieval, searching, hashing, experiments * Partially supported by the Future and Emerging Technologies programme of the EU
The Power of Two Random Choices: A Survey of Techniques and Results
 in Handbook of Randomized Computing
, 2000
"... ITo motivate this survey, we begin with a simple problem that demonstrates a powerful fundamental idea. Suppose that n balls are thrown into n bins, with each ball choosing a bin independently and uniformly at random. Then the maximum load, or the largest number of balls in any bin, is approximately ..."
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Cited by 98 (2 self)
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ITo motivate this survey, we begin with a simple problem that demonstrates a powerful fundamental idea. Suppose that n balls are thrown into n bins, with each ball choosing a bin independently and uniformly at random. Then the maximum load, or the largest number of balls in any bin, is approximately log n= log log n with high probability. Now suppose instead that the balls are placed sequentially, and each ball is placed in the least loaded of d 2 bins chosen independently and uniformly at random. Azar, Broder, Karlin, and Upfal showed that in this case, the maximum load is log log n= log d + (1) with high probability [ABKU99]. The important implication of this result is that even a small amount of choice can lead to drastically different results in load balancing. Indeed, having just two random choices (i.e.,...
Fast hash table lookup using extended Bloom filter: an aid to network processing
 In ACM SIGCOMM
, 2005
"... ..."
Why simple hash functions work: Exploiting the entropy in a data stream
 In Proceedings of the 19th Annual ACMSIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms
, 2008
"... Hashing is fundamental to many algorithms and data structures widely used in practice. For theoretical analysis of hashing, there have been two main approaches. First, one can assume that the hash function is truly random, mapping each data item independently and uniformly to the range. This idealiz ..."
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Cited by 33 (6 self)
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Hashing is fundamental to many algorithms and data structures widely used in practice. For theoretical analysis of hashing, there have been two main approaches. First, one can assume that the hash function is truly random, mapping each data item independently and uniformly to the range. This idealized model is unrealistic because a truly random hash function requires an exponential number of bits to describe. Alternatively, one can provide rigorous bounds on performance when explicit families of hash functions are used, such as 2universal or O(1)wise independent families. For such families, performance guarantees are often noticeably weaker than for ideal hashing. In practice, however, it is commonly observed that weak hash functions, including 2universal hash functions, perform as predicted by the idealized analysis for truly random hash functions. In this paper, we try to explain this phenomenon. We demonstrate that the strong performance of universal hash functions in practice can arise naturally from a combination of the randomness of the hash function and the data. Specifically, following the large body of literature on random sources and randomness extraction, we model the data as coming from a “block source, ” whereby
Beyond Bloom Filters: From Approximate Membership Checks to Approximate State Machines
 SIGCOMM '06
, 2006
"... Many networking applications require fast state lookups in a concurrent state machine, which tracks the state of a large number of flows simultaneously. We consider the question of how to compactly represent such concurrent state machines. To achieve compactness, we consider data structures for Appr ..."
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Cited by 31 (4 self)
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Many networking applications require fast state lookups in a concurrent state machine, which tracks the state of a large number of flows simultaneously. We consider the question of how to compactly represent such concurrent state machines. To achieve compactness, we consider data structures for Approximate Concurrent State Machines (ACSMs) that can return false positives, false negatives, or a “don’t know” response. We describe three techniques based on Bloom filters and hashing, and evaluate them using both theoretical analysis and simulation. Our analysis leads us to an extremely efficient hashingbased scheme with several parameters that can be chosen to trade off space, computation, and the impact of errors. Our hashing approach also yields a simple alternative structure with the same functionality as a counting Bloom filter that uses much less space. We show how ACSMs can be used for video congestion control. Using an ACSM, a router can implement sophisticated Active Queue Management (AQM) techniques for video traffic (without the need for standards changes to mark packets or change video formats), with a factor of four reduction in memory compared to fullstate schemes and with very little error. We also show that ACSMs show promise for realtime detection of P2P traffic.
An Improved Construction for Counting Bloom Filters
 14th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms, LNCS 4168
, 2006
"... Abstract. A counting Bloom filter (CBF) generalizes a Bloom filter data structure so as to allow membership queries on a set that can be changing dynamically via insertions and deletions. As with a Bloom filter, a CBF obtains space savings by allowing false positives. We provide a simple hashingbas ..."
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Cited by 31 (3 self)
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Abstract. A counting Bloom filter (CBF) generalizes a Bloom filter data structure so as to allow membership queries on a set that can be changing dynamically via insertions and deletions. As with a Bloom filter, a CBF obtains space savings by allowing false positives. We provide a simple hashingbased alternative based on dleft hashing called a dleft CBF (dlCBF). The dlCBF offers the same functionality as a CBF, but uses less space, generally saving a factor of two or more. We describe the construction of dlCBFs, provide an analysis, and demonstrate their effectiveness experimentally. 1
Rethinking enterprise network control
 IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking
, 2009
"... Abstract—This paper presents Ethane, a new network architecture for the enterprise. Ethane allows managers to define a single networkwide finegrain policy and then enforces it directly. Ethane couples extremely simple flowbased Ethernet switches with a centralized controller that manages the admi ..."
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Cited by 18 (5 self)
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Abstract—This paper presents Ethane, a new network architecture for the enterprise. Ethane allows managers to define a single networkwide finegrain policy and then enforces it directly. Ethane couples extremely simple flowbased Ethernet switches with a centralized controller that manages the admittance and routing of flows. While radical, this design is backwardscompatible with existing hosts and switches. We have implemented Ethane in both hardware and software, supporting both wired and wireless hosts. We also show that it is compatible with existing highfanout switches by porting it to popular commodity switching chipsets. We have deployed and managed two operational Ethane networks, one in the Stanford University Computer Science Department supporting over 300 hosts, and another within a small business of 30 hosts. Our deployment experiences have significantly affected Ethane’s design. Index Terms—Architecture, management, network, security.
Chisel: A storageefficient, collisionfree hashbased network processing architecture
 In Proceedings of The 33rd Annual International Symposium on Computer Architecture (ISCA 33
, 2006
"... Longest Prefix Matching (LPM) is a fundamental part of various network processing tasks. Previously proposed approaches for LPM result in prohibitive cost and power dissipation (TCAMs) or in large memory requirements and long lookup latencies (tries), when considering future linerates, table sizes ..."
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Cited by 17 (0 self)
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Longest Prefix Matching (LPM) is a fundamental part of various network processing tasks. Previously proposed approaches for LPM result in prohibitive cost and power dissipation (TCAMs) or in large memory requirements and long lookup latencies (tries), when considering future linerates, table sizes and key lengths (e.g., IPv6). Hashbased approaches appear to be an excellent candidate for LPM with the possibility of low power, compact storage, and O(1) latencies. However, there are two key problems that hinder their practical deployment as LPM solutions. First, naïve hash tables incur collisions and resolve them using chaining, adversely affecting worstcase lookuprate guarantees that routers must provide. Second, hash functions cannot directly operate on wildcard bits, a requirement for LPM, and current solutions require either considerably complex hardware or large storage space. In this paper we propose a novel architecture which successfully addresses for the first time, both key problems in hash based LPM — making the following contributions: (1) We architect an LPM solution based upon a recentlyproposed, collisionfree hashing scheme called Bloomier filter, by eliminating its false positives in a storage efficient way. (2) We propose a novel scheme called prefix collapsing, which provides support for wildcard bits with small additional storage and reduced hardware complexity. (3) We exploit prefix collapsing and key characteristics found in real update traces to support fast and incremental updates, a feature generally not available in collisionfree hashing schemes.