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109
Data Clustering: A Review
 ACM COMPUTING SURVEYS
, 1999
"... Clustering is the unsupervised classification of patterns (observations, data items, or feature vectors) into groups (clusters). The clustering problem has been addressed in many contexts and by researchers in many disciplines; this reflects its broad appeal and usefulness as one of the steps in exp ..."
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Cited by 1892 (14 self)
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Clustering is the unsupervised classification of patterns (observations, data items, or feature vectors) into groups (clusters). The clustering problem has been addressed in many contexts and by researchers in many disciplines; this reflects its broad appeal and usefulness as one of the steps in exploratory data analysis. However, clustering is a difficult problem combinatorially, and differences in assumptions and contexts in different communities has made the transfer of useful generic concepts and methodologies slow to occur. This paper presents an overview of pattern clustering methods from a statistical pattern recognition perspective, with a goal of providing useful advice and references to fundamental concepts accessible to the broad community of clustering practitioners. We present a taxonomy of clustering techniques, and identify crosscutting themes and recent advances. We also describe some important applications of clustering algorithms such as image segmentation, object recognition, and information retrieval.
Statistical pattern recognition: A review
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PATTERN ANALYSIS AND MACHINE INTELLIGENCE
, 2000
"... The primary goal of pattern recognition is supervised or unsupervised classification. Among the various frameworks in which pattern recognition has been traditionally formulated, the statistical approach has been most intensively studied and used in practice. More recently, neural network techniques ..."
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Cited by 1000 (31 self)
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The primary goal of pattern recognition is supervised or unsupervised classification. Among the various frameworks in which pattern recognition has been traditionally formulated, the statistical approach has been most intensively studied and used in practice. More recently, neural network techniques and methods imported from statistical learning theory have bean receiving increasing attention. The design of a recognition system requires careful attention to the following issues: definition of pattern classes, sensing environment, pattern representation, feature extraction and selection, cluster analysis, classifier design and learning, selection of training and test samples, and performance evaluation. In spite of almost 50 years of research and development in this field, the general problem of recognizing complex patterns with arbitrary orientation, location, and scale remains unsolved. New and emerging applications, such as data mining, web searching, retrieval of multimedia data, face recognition, and cursive handwriting recognition, require robust and efficient pattern recognition techniques. The objective of this review paper is to summarize and compare some of the wellknown methods used in various stages of a pattern recognition system and identify research topics and applications which are at the forefront of this exciting and challenging field.
Extensions to the kMeans Algorithm for Clustering Large Data Sets with Categorical Values
, 1998
"... The kmeans algorithm is well known for its efficiency in clustering large data sets. However, working only on numeric values prohibits it from being used to cluster real world data containing categorical values. In this paper we present two algorithms which extend the kmeans algorithm to categoric ..."
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Cited by 252 (3 self)
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The kmeans algorithm is well known for its efficiency in clustering large data sets. However, working only on numeric values prohibits it from being used to cluster real world data containing categorical values. In this paper we present two algorithms which extend the kmeans algorithm to categorical domains and domains with mixed numeric and categorical values. The kmodes algorithm uses a simple matching dissimilarity measure to deal with categorical objects, replaces the means of clusters with modes, and uses a frequencybased method to update modes in the clustering process to minimise the clustering cost function. With these extensions the kmodes algorithm enables the clustering of categorical data in a fashion similar to kmeans. The kprototypes algorithm, through the definition of a combined dissimilarity measure, further integrates the kmeans and kmodes algorithms to allow for clustering objects described by mixed numeric and categorical attributes. We use the well known soybean disease and credit approval data sets to demonstrate the clustering performance of the two algorithms. Our experiments on two real world data sets with half a million objects each show that the two algorithms are efficient when clustering large data sets, which is critical to data mining applications.
Iterative Optimization and Simplification of Hierarchical Clusterings
 Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research
, 1995
"... Clustering is often used for discovering structure in data. Clustering systems differ in the objective function used to evaluate clustering quality and the control strategy used to search the space of clusterings. Ideally, the search strategy should consistently construct clusterings of high qual ..."
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Cited by 120 (3 self)
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Clustering is often used for discovering structure in data. Clustering systems differ in the objective function used to evaluate clustering quality and the control strategy used to search the space of clusterings. Ideally, the search strategy should consistently construct clusterings of high quality, but be computationally inexpensive as well. In general, we cannot have it both ways, but we can partition the search so that a system inexpensively constructs a `tentative' clustering for initial examination, followed by iterative optimization, which continues to search in background for improved clusterings. Given this motivation, we evaluate an inexpensive strategy for creating initial clusterings, coupled with several control strategies for iterative optimization, each of which repeatedly modifies an initial clustering in search of a better one. One of these methods appears novel as an iterative optimization strategy in clustering contexts. Once a clustering has been construct...
A Fast Clustering Algorithm to Cluster Very Large Categorical Data Sets in Data Mining
"... Partitioning a large set of objects into homogeneous clusters is a fundamental operation in data mining. The kmeans algorithm is best suited for implementing this operation because of its efficiency in clustering large data sets. However, working only on numeric values limits its use in data mining ..."
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Cited by 115 (2 self)
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Partitioning a large set of objects into homogeneous clusters is a fundamental operation in data mining. The kmeans algorithm is best suited for implementing this operation because of its efficiency in clustering large data sets. However, working only on numeric values limits its use in data mining because data sets in data mining often contain categorical values. In this paper we present an algorithm, called kmodes, to extend the kmeans paradigm to categorical domains. We introduce new dissimilarity measures to deal with categorical objects, replace means of clusters with modes, and use a frequency based method to update modes in the clustering process to minimise the clustering cost function. Tested with the well known soybean disease data set the algorithm has demonstrated a very good classification performance. Experiments on a very large health insurance data set consisting of half a million records and 34 categorical attributes show that the algorithm is scalable in terms of both the number of clusters and the number of records.
Fast and Intuitive Clustering of Web Documents
 In Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining
, 1997
"... Conventional document retrieval systems (e.g., Alta Vista) return long lists of ranked documents in response to user queries. Recently, document clustering has been put forth as an alternative method of organizing retrieval results (Cutting et al. 1992). A person browsing the clusters can discover ..."
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Cited by 113 (2 self)
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Conventional document retrieval systems (e.g., Alta Vista) return long lists of ranked documents in response to user queries. Recently, document clustering has been put forth as an alternative method of organizing retrieval results (Cutting et al. 1992). A person browsing the clusters can discover patterns that could be overlooked in the traditional presentation. This paper describes two novel clustering methods that intersect the documents in a cluster to determine the set of words (or phrases) shared by all the documents in the cluster. We report on experiments that evaluate these intersectionbased clustering methods on collections of snippets returned from Web search engines. First, we show that wordintersection clustering produces superior clusters and does so faster than standard techniques. Second, we show that our O(n log n) time phraseintersection clustering method produces comparable clusters and does so more than two orders of magnitude faster than all methods tested. I...
Clustering ensembles: Models of consensus and weak partitions
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PATTERN ANALYSIS AND MACHINE INTELLIGENCE
, 2005
"... Clustering ensembles have emerged as a powerful method for improving both the robustness as well as the stability of unsupervised classification solutions. However, finding a consensus clustering from multiple partitions is a difficult problem that can be approached from graphbased, combinatorial ..."
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Cited by 85 (3 self)
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Clustering ensembles have emerged as a powerful method for improving both the robustness as well as the stability of unsupervised classification solutions. However, finding a consensus clustering from multiple partitions is a difficult problem that can be approached from graphbased, combinatorial or statistical perspectives. This study extends previous research on clustering ensembles in several respects. First, we introduce a unified representation for multiple clusterings and formulate the corresponding categorical clustering problem. Second, we propose a probabilistic model of consensus using a finite mixture of multinomial distributions in a space of clusterings. A combined partition is found as a solution to the corresponding maximum likelihood problem using the EM algorithm. Third, we define a new consensus function that is related to the classical intraclass variance criterion using the generalized mutual information definition. Finally, we demonstrate the efficacy of combining partitions generated by weak clustering algorithms that use data projections and random data splits. A simple explanatory model is offered for the behavior of combinations of such weak clustering components. Combination accuracy is analyzed as a function of several parameters that control the power and resolution of component partitions as well as the number of partitions. We also analyze clustering ensembles with incomplete information and the effect of missing cluster labels on the quality of overall consensus. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods on several realworld datasets.
An Image Database Browser that Learns From User Interaction
, 1996
"... Digital libraries of images and video are rapidly growing in size and availability. To avoid the expense and limitations of text, there is considerable interest in navigation by perceptual and other automatically extractable attributes. Unfortunately, the relevance of an attribute for a query is not ..."
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Cited by 84 (2 self)
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Digital libraries of images and video are rapidly growing in size and availability. To avoid the expense and limitations of text, there is considerable interest in navigation by perceptual and other automatically extractable attributes. Unfortunately, the relevance of an attribute for a query is not always obvious. Queries which go beyond explicit color, shape, and positional cues must incorporate multiple features in complex ways. This dissertation uses machine learning to automatically select and combine features to satisfy a query, based on positive and negative examples from the user. The learning algorithm does not just learn during the course of one session: it learns continuously, across sessions. The learner improves its learning ability by dynamically modifying its inductive bias, based on experience over multiple sessions. Experiments demonstrate the ability to assist image classification, segmentation, and annotation (labeling of image regions). The common theme of this work...
Dynamic Generation and Refinement of Concept Hierarchies for Knowledge Discovery in Databases
 IN PROC. AAAI'94 WORKSHOP ON KNOWLEDGE DISCOVERY IN DATABASES (KDD'94
, 1994
"... Concept hierarchies organize data and concepts in hierarchical forms or in certain partial order, which helps expressing knowledge and data relationships in databases in concise, high level terms, and thus, plays an important role in knowledge discovery processes. Concept hierarchies could be prov ..."
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Cited by 78 (13 self)
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Concept hierarchies organize data and concepts in hierarchical forms or in certain partial order, which helps expressing knowledge and data relationships in databases in concise, high level terms, and thus, plays an important role in knowledge discovery processes. Concept hierarchies could be provided by knowledge engineers, domain experts or users, or embedded in some data relations. However, it is sometimes desirable to automatically generate some concept hierarchies or adjust some given hierarchies for particular learning tasks. In this paper, the issues of dynamic generation and refinement of concept hierarchies are studied. The study leads to some algorithms for automatic generation of concept hierarchies for numerical attributes based on data distributions and for dynamic refinement of a given or generated concept hierarchy based on a learning request, the relevant set of data and database statistics. These algorithms have been implemented in the DBkearn knowledge discovery system and tested against large relational databases. The experimental results show that the algorithms are efficient and effective for knowledge discovery in large databases.