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Combinatorial Principles Weaker than Ramsey's Theorem for Pairs
"... We investigate the complexity of various combinatorial theorems about linear and partial orders, from the points of view of computability theory and reverse mathematics. We focus in particular on the principles ADS (Ascending or Descending Sequence), which states that every infinite linear order ha ..."
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Cited by 50 (9 self)
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We investigate the complexity of various combinatorial theorems about linear and partial orders, from the points of view of computability theory and reverse mathematics. We focus in particular on the principles ADS (Ascending or Descending Sequence), which states that every infinite linear order has either an infinite descending sequence or an infinite ascending sequence, and CAC (ChainAntiChain), which states that every infinite partial order has either an infinite chain or an infinite antichain. It is wellknown that Ramsey's Theorem for pairs (RT
Uniform almost everywhere domination
 Journal of Symbolic Logic
, 2006
"... ABSTRACT. We explore the interaction between Lebesgue measure and dominating functions. We show, via both a priority construction and a forcing construction, that there is a function of incomplete degree that dominates almost all degrees. This answers a question of Dobrinen and Simpson, who showed t ..."
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Cited by 34 (1 self)
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ABSTRACT. We explore the interaction between Lebesgue measure and dominating functions. We show, via both a priority construction and a forcing construction, that there is a function of incomplete degree that dominates almost all degrees. This answers a question of Dobrinen and Simpson, who showed that such functions are related to the prooftheoretic strength of the regularity of Lebesgue measure for G δ sets. Our constructions essentially settle the reverse mathematical classification of this principle. 1.
An extension of the recursively enumerable Turing degrees
 Journal of the London Mathematical Society
, 2006
"... Consider the countable semilattice RT consisting of the recursively enumerable Turing degrees. Although RT is known to be structurally rich, a major source of frustration is that no specific, natural degrees in RT have been discovered, except the bottom and top degrees, 0 and 0 ′. In order to overco ..."
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Cited by 26 (15 self)
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Consider the countable semilattice RT consisting of the recursively enumerable Turing degrees. Although RT is known to be structurally rich, a major source of frustration is that no specific, natural degrees in RT have been discovered, except the bottom and top degrees, 0 and 0 ′. In order to overcome this difficulty, we embed RT into a larger degree structure which is better behaved. Namely, consider the countable distributive lattice Pw consisting of the weak degrees (also known as Muchnik degrees) of mass problems associated with nonempty Π 0 1 subsets of 2ω. It is known that Pw contains a bottom degree 0 and a top degree 1 and is structurally rich. Moreover, Pw contains many specific, natural degrees other than 0 and 1. In particular, we show that in Pw one has 0 < d < r1 < inf(r2, 1) < 1. Here, d is the weak degree of the diagonally nonrecursive functions, and rn is the weak degree of the nrandom reals. It is known that r1 can be characterized as the maximum weak degree ofaΠ 0 1 subset of 2ω of positive measure. We now show that inf(r2, 1) can be characterized as the maximum weak degree of a Π 0 1 subset of 2ω, the Turing upward closure of which is of positive measure. We exhibit a natural embedding of RT into Pw which is onetoone, preserves the semilattice structure of RT, carries 0 to 0, and carries 0 ′ to 1. Identifying RT with its image in Pw, we show that all of the degrees in RT except 0 and 1 are incomparable with the specific degrees d, r1, and inf(r2, 1) inPw. 1.
Some fundamental issues concerning degrees of unsolvability
 In [6], 2005. Preprint
, 2007
"... Recall that RT is the upper semilattice of recursively enumerable Turing degrees. We consider two fundamental, classical, unresolved issues concerning RT. The first issue is to find a specific, natural, recursively enumerable Turing degree a ∈ RT which is> 0 and < 0 ′. The second issue is to f ..."
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Cited by 10 (7 self)
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Recall that RT is the upper semilattice of recursively enumerable Turing degrees. We consider two fundamental, classical, unresolved issues concerning RT. The first issue is to find a specific, natural, recursively enumerable Turing degree a ∈ RT which is> 0 and < 0 ′. The second issue is to find a “smallness property ” of an infinite, corecursively enumerable set A ⊆ ω which ensures that the Turing degree deg T (A) = a ∈ RT is> 0 and < 0 ′. In order to address these issues, we embed RT into a slightly larger degree structure, Pw, which is much better behaved. Namely, Pw is the lattice of weak degrees of mass problems associated with nonempty Π 0 1 subsets of 2 ω. We define a specific, natural embedding of RT into Pw, and we present some recent and new research results.
OPEN QUESTIONS IN REVERSE MATHEMATICS
, 2010
"... The objective of this paper is to provide a source of open questions in reverse mathematics and to point to areas where there could be interesting developments. The questions I discuss are mostly known and come from somewhere in the literature. My objective was to compile them in one place and discu ..."
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Cited by 8 (0 self)
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The objective of this paper is to provide a source of open questions in reverse mathematics and to point to areas where there could be interesting developments. The questions I discuss are mostly known and come from somewhere in the literature. My objective was to compile them in one place and discuss them in the context of related work. The list is definitely not comprehensive, and my
Separation and weak König’s lemma
 Journal of Symbolic Logic
, 1999
"... investigating the strength of set existence axioms needed for separable Banach space theory. We show that the separation theorem foropenconvexsetsisequivalenttoWKL0 over RCA0. Weshow that the separation theorem for separably closed convex sets is equivalent to ACA0 over RCA0. Our strategy for provin ..."
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Cited by 6 (2 self)
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investigating the strength of set existence axioms needed for separable Banach space theory. We show that the separation theorem foropenconvexsetsisequivalenttoWKL0 over RCA0. Weshow that the separation theorem for separably closed convex sets is equivalent to ACA0 over RCA0. Our strategy for proving these geometrical Hahn–Banach theorems is to reduce to the finitedimensional case by means of a compactness argument. 1.
Comparing DNR and WWKL
 Pennsylvania State University
, 2004
"... Abstract. In Reverse Mathematics, the axiom system DNR, asserting the existence of diagonally nonrecursive functions, is strictly weaker than WWKL0 (weak weak König’s Lemma). §1. Introduction. Reverse mathematics is a branch of proof theory which involves proving the equivalence of mathematical the ..."
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Abstract. In Reverse Mathematics, the axiom system DNR, asserting the existence of diagonally nonrecursive functions, is strictly weaker than WWKL0 (weak weak König’s Lemma). §1. Introduction. Reverse mathematics is a branch of proof theory which involves proving the equivalence of mathematical theorems with certain collections of axioms over a weaker base theory. In the form adopted by Harvey Friedman (see, e.g., [3]) and Stephen G. Simpson, expounded in the monograph [9] and numerous papers, it involves formulating “countable mathematics ” in
On notions of computability theoretic reduction between Π12 principles
, 2015
"... Several notions of computability theoretic reducibility between Π12 principles have been studied. This paper contributes to the program of analyzing the behavior of versions of Ramsey’s Theorem and related principles under these notions. Among other results, we show that for each n> 3, there is ..."
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Cited by 4 (3 self)
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Several notions of computability theoretic reducibility between Π12 principles have been studied. This paper contributes to the program of analyzing the behavior of versions of Ramsey’s Theorem and related principles under these notions. Among other results, we show that for each n> 3, there is an instance of RTn2 all of whose solutions have PA degree over ∅(n−2), and use this to show that König’s Lemma lies strictly between RT22 and RT 3 2 under one of these notions. We also answer two questions raised by Dorais, Dzhafarov, Hirst, Mileti, and Shafer [ta] on comparing versions of Ramsey’s Theorem and of the Thin Set Theorem with the same exponent but different numbers of colors. Still on the topic of the effect of the number of colors on the computable aspects of Ramsey theoretic properties, we show that for each m> 2, there is an (m + 1)coloring c of N such
Slicing the Truth: On the Computability Theoretic and Reverse Mathematical Analysis of . . .
 INSTITUTE FOR MATHEMATICAL SCIENCES, NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF SINGAPORE, WORLD SCIENTIFIC
"... In this expository article, we discuss two closely related approaches to studying the relative strength of mathematical principles: computable mathematics and reverse mathematics. Drawing our examples from combinatorics and model theory, we explore a variety of phenomena and techniques in these area ..."
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Cited by 3 (1 self)
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In this expository article, we discuss two closely related approaches to studying the relative strength of mathematical principles: computable mathematics and reverse mathematics. Drawing our examples from combinatorics and model theory, we explore a variety of phenomena and techniques in these areas. We begin with variations on König’s Lemma, and give an introduction to reverse mathematics and related parts of computability theory. We then focus on Ramsey’s Theorem as a case study in the computability theoretic and reverse mathematical analysis of combinatorial principles. We study Ramsey’s Theorem for Pairs (RT22) in detail, focusing on fundamental tools such as stability, cohesiveness, and Mathias forcing; and on combinatorial and model theoretic consequences of RT22. We also discuss the important theme of conservativity results. In the final section, we explore several topics that reveal various aspects of computable mathematics and reverse mathematics. An appendix contains a proof of Liu’s recent result that RT22 does not imply Weak König’s Lemma. There are exercises and open questions throughout the article.
Fundamental notions of analysis in subsystems of secondorder arithmetic
 Ann. Pure Appl. Logic
, 2006
"... This Article is brought to you for free and open access by the Dietrich College of Humanities and Social Sciences at Research Showcase @ CMU. It has ..."
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Cited by 2 (1 self)
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This Article is brought to you for free and open access by the Dietrich College of Humanities and Social Sciences at Research Showcase @ CMU. It has