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81
A Survey of Automated Timetabling
, 1999
"... The timetabling problem consists in scheduling a sequence of lectures between teachers and students in a prefixed period of time (typically a week), satisfying a set of constraints of various types. A large number of variants of the timetabling problem have been proposed in the literature, which d ..."
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Cited by 183 (15 self)
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The timetabling problem consists in scheduling a sequence of lectures between teachers and students in a prefixed period of time (typically a week), satisfying a set of constraints of various types. A large number of variants of the timetabling problem have been proposed in the literature, which differ from each other based on the type of institution involved (university or school) and the type of constraints. This problem, that has been traditionally considered in the operational research field, has recently been tackled with techniques belonging also to Artificial Intelligence (e.g., genetic algorithms, tabu search, and constraint satisfaction). In this paper, we survey the various formulations of the problem, and the techniques and algorithms used for its solution.
A Parallel Genetic Algorithm for Solving the School Timetabling Problem
 Division of Information Technology, C.S.I.R.O
, 1991
"... Genetic algorithms (GA) have been applied to a number of optimisation problems with some success The algorithms mimic the process of natural selection, with the effect of creating a number of potentially optimal solutions to some complex search problem. One of the major disadvantages of genetic algo ..."
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Cited by 65 (0 self)
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Genetic algorithms (GA) have been applied to a number of optimisation problems with some success The algorithms mimic the process of natural selection, with the effect of creating a number of potentially optimal solutions to some complex search problem. One of the major disadvantages of genetic algorithms is that they are very slow. In this paper we discuss the application of a GA to the school timetabling problem, and show how the execution time can be reduced by using a commercial shared memory multiprocessor. The paper reports some results from the sequential execution of the algorithm as well as the speedup attained from the parallel solution. 1. GENETIC ALGORITHMS Genetic algorithms (GA) mimic the process of natural selection and can be used as a technique for solving complex optimisation problems which have very large search spaces1,2,3,4,5. Unlike many heuristic schemes which only have one suboptimal solution at any time, GAs maintain many individual solutions in the form of a population. Individuals (parents) are chosen from the population and are then mated to form a new
Tabu Search Techniques for Large HighSchool Timetabling Problems
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SYSTEMS, MAN, AND CYBERNETICS
, 1996
"... The highschool timetabling problem regards the weekly scheduling for all the lectures of a high school. The problem consists in assigning lectures to periods in such a way that no teacher (or class) is involved in more than one lecture at a time, and other side constraints are satisfied. The pro ..."
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Cited by 61 (8 self)
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The highschool timetabling problem regards the weekly scheduling for all the lectures of a high school. The problem consists in assigning lectures to periods in such a way that no teacher (or class) is involved in more than one lecture at a time, and other side constraints are satisfied. The problem is NPcomplete and is usually tackled using heuristic methods. This paper describes a solution algorithm (and its implementation) based on tabu search. The algorithm interleaves different types of moves and makes use of an adaptive relaxation of the hard constraints. The implementation of the algorithm has been successfully experimented in some large high schools with various kinds of side constraints.
A comparison of annealing techniques for academic course scheduling
 Lecture Notes in Computer Science
, 1998
"... Abstract. In this study we have tackled the NPhard problem of academic class scheduling (or timetabling) at the university level. We have investigated a variety of approaches based on simulated annealing, including meanfield annealing, simulated annealing with three different cooling schedules, an ..."
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Cited by 45 (0 self)
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Abstract. In this study we have tackled the NPhard problem of academic class scheduling (or timetabling) at the university level. We have investigated a variety of approaches based on simulated annealing, including meanfield annealing, simulated annealing with three different cooling schedules, and the use of a rulebased preprocessor to provide a good initial solution for annealing. The best results were obtained using simulated annealing with adaptive cooling and reheating as a function of cost, and a rulebased preprocessor. This approach enabled us to obtain valid schedules for the timetabling problem for a large university, using a complex cost function that includes student preferences. None of the other methods were able to provide a complete valid schedule. 1
Simulated Annealing Cooling Schedules for the School Timetabling Problem
, 1997
"... This paper describes the use of simulated annealing (SA) for solving the school timetabling problem and compares the performance of six different SA cooling schedules: the basic geometric cooling schedule, a scheme which uses two cooling rates, and four schemes which allow reheating as well as cooli ..."
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Cited by 32 (0 self)
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This paper describes the use of simulated annealing (SA) for solving the school timetabling problem and compares the performance of six different SA cooling schedules: the basic geometric cooling schedule, a scheme which uses two cooling rates, and four schemes which allow reheating as well as cooling. The first two of these reheating schemes are variants of the basic geometric cooling schedule. The third and fourth reheating schemes incorporate a method to compute the temperature that is used as the reheating point. Extensive computational results, which are performed and described, show that the fourth reheating scheme produces consistently better quality solutions in less time than the solutions produced by the other schemes.
Genetic Algorithms in Timetabling and Scheduling
, 1994
"... This thesis investigates the use of genetic algorithms (GAs) for solving a range of timetabling and scheduling problems. Such problems are very hard in general, and GAs offer a useful and successful alternative to existing techniques. A framework is presented for GAs to solve modular timetabling pro ..."
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Cited by 26 (0 self)
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This thesis investigates the use of genetic algorithms (GAs) for solving a range of timetabling and scheduling problems. Such problems are very hard in general, and GAs offer a useful and successful alternative to existing techniques. A framework is presented for GAs to solve modular timetabling problems in educational institutions. The approach involves three components: declaring problemspecific constraints, constructing a problemspecific evaluation function and using a problemindependent GA to attempt to solve the problem. Successful results are demonstrated and a general analysis of the reliability and robustness of the approach is conducted. The basic approach can readily handle a wide variety of general timetabling problem constraints, and is therefore likely to be of great practical usefulness (indeed, an earlier version is already in use). The approach relies for its success on the use of specially designed mutation operators which greatly improve upon the performance of a GA...
Distributed Choice Function Hyperheuristics for Timetabling and Scheduling
 Practice and Theory of Automated Timetabling V, Springer Lecture notes in Computer Science. Volume 3616. (2005) 51–67
, 2004
"... This paper reports on ongoing research in the design of choice function hyperheuristics, the modelling of generalpurpose low level heuristics, and the exploitation of parallel computing platforms for hyperheuristics ..."
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Cited by 24 (1 self)
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This paper reports on ongoing research in the design of choice function hyperheuristics, the modelling of generalpurpose low level heuristics, and the exploitation of parallel computing platforms for hyperheuristics
A Genetic Algorithm Solving a Weekly CourseTimetabling Problem
, 1995
"... In this paper we describe a heavily constrained university timetabling problem, and our genetic algorithm based approach to solve it. A problemspecific chromosome representation and knowledgeaugmented genetic operators have been developed; these operators `intelligently' avoid building il ..."
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Cited by 21 (0 self)
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In this paper we describe a heavily constrained university timetabling problem, and our genetic algorithm based approach to solve it. A problemspecific chromosome representation and knowledgeaugmented genetic operators have been developed; these operators `intelligently' avoid building illegal timetables. The prototype timetabling system which is presented has been implemented in C and PROLOG, and includes an interactive graphical user interface. Tests with real data from our university were performed and yield promising results.
A TimePredefined Approach to Course Timetabling
, 2003
"... A common weakness of local search metaheuristics, such as Simulated Annealing, in solving combinatorial optimisation problems, is the necessity of setting a certain number of parameters. This tends to make significantly increase the total amount of time required to solve the problem and often requir ..."
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Cited by 21 (7 self)
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A common weakness of local search metaheuristics, such as Simulated Annealing, in solving combinatorial optimisation problems, is the necessity of setting a certain number of parameters. This tends to make significantly increase the total amount of time required to solve the problem and often requires a high level of experience from the user. This paper is motivated by the goal of overcoming this drawback by employing "parameterfree" techniques in the context of automatically solving course timetabling problems.
Parallel simulated annealing for the vehicle routing problem with time windows
 10th Euromicro Workshop on Parallel, Distributed and Networkbased Processing, Canary Islands–Spain
, 2002
"... A parallel simulated annealing algorithm to solve the vehicle routing problem with time windows is presented. The objective is to find the best possible solutions to some wellknown instances of the problem by using parallelism. The empirical evidence indicate that parallel simulated annealing can be ..."
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Cited by 21 (0 self)
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A parallel simulated annealing algorithm to solve the vehicle routing problem with time windows is presented. The objective is to find the best possible solutions to some wellknown instances of the problem by using parallelism. The empirical evidence indicate that parallel simulated annealing can be applied with success to bicriterion optimization problems. Key words. Parallel simulated annealing, message passing model of parallel computation, vehicle routing problem with time windows, bicriterion optimization 1