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The Average Distance in a Random Graph with Given Expected Degrees
"... Random graph theory is used to examine the “smallworld phenomenon”– any two strangers are connected through a short chain of mutual acquaintances. We will show that for certain families of random graphs with given expected degrees, the average distance is almost surely of order log n / log ˜ d whe ..."
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Cited by 203 (13 self)
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Random graph theory is used to examine the “smallworld phenomenon”– any two strangers are connected through a short chain of mutual acquaintances. We will show that for certain families of random graphs with given expected degrees, the average distance is almost surely of order log n / log ˜ d where ˜ d is the weighted average of the sum of squares of the expected degrees. Of particular interest are power law random graphs in which the number of vertices of degree k is proportional to 1/k β for some fixed exponent β. For the case of β> 3, we prove that the average distance of the power law graphs is almost surely of order log n / log ˜ d. However, many Internet, social, and citation networks are power law graphs with exponents in the range 2 < β < 3 for which the power law random graphs have average distance almost surely of order log log n, but have diameter of order log n (provided having some mild constraints for the average distance and maximum degree). In particular, these graphs contain a dense subgraph, that we call the core, having n c / log log n vertices. Almost all vertices are within distance log log n of the core although there are vertices at distance log n from the core.
Statistical properties of community structure in large social and information networks
"... A large body of work has been devoted to identifying community structure in networks. A community is often though of as a set of nodes that has more connections between its members than to the remainder of the network. In this paper, we characterize as a function of size the statistical and structur ..."
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Cited by 134 (10 self)
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A large body of work has been devoted to identifying community structure in networks. A community is often though of as a set of nodes that has more connections between its members than to the remainder of the network. In this paper, we characterize as a function of size the statistical and structural properties of such sets of nodes. We define the network community profile plot, which characterizes the “best ” possible community—according to the conductance measure—over a wide range of size scales, and we study over 70 large sparse realworld networks taken from a wide range of application domains. Our results suggest a significantly more refined picture of community structure in large realworld networks than has been appreciated previously. Our most striking finding is that in nearly every network dataset we examined, we observe tight but almost trivial communities at very small scales, and at larger size scales, the best possible communities gradually “blend in ” with the rest of the network and thus become less “communitylike.” This behavior is not explained, even at a qualitative level, by any of the commonlyused network generation models. Moreover, this behavior is exactly the opposite of what one would expect based on experience with and intuition from expander graphs, from graphs that are wellembeddable in a lowdimensional structure, and from small social networks that have served as testbeds of community detection algorithms. We have found, however, that a generative model, in which new edges are added via an iterative “forest fire” burning process, is able to produce graphs exhibiting a network community structure similar to our observations.
Community structure in large networks: Natural cluster sizes and the absence of large welldefined clusters
, 2008
"... A large body of work has been devoted to defining and identifying clusters or communities in social and information networks, i.e., in graphs in which the nodes represent underlying social entities and the edges represent some sort of interaction between pairs of nodes. Most such research begins wit ..."
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Cited by 85 (7 self)
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A large body of work has been devoted to defining and identifying clusters or communities in social and information networks, i.e., in graphs in which the nodes represent underlying social entities and the edges represent some sort of interaction between pairs of nodes. Most such research begins with the premise that a community or a cluster should be thought of as a set of nodes that has more and/or better connections between its members than to the remainder of the network. In this paper, we explore from a novel perspective several questions related to identifying meaningful communities in large social and information networks, and we come to several striking conclusions. Rather than defining a procedure to extract sets of nodes from a graph and then attempt to interpret these sets as a “real ” communities, we employ approximation algorithms for the graph partitioning problem to characterize as a function of size the statistical and structural properties of partitions of graphs that could plausibly be interpreted as communities. In particular, we define the network community profile plot, which characterizes the “best ” possible community—according to the conductance measure—over a wide range of size scales. We study over 100 large realworld networks, ranging from traditional and online social networks, to technological and information networks and
On Cubical Graphs
 JOURNAL OF COMBINATORIAL THEORY (B) 18, 86 % (1975)
, 1975
"... It is frequently of interest to represent a given graph G as a subgraph of a graph H which has some special structure. A particularly useful class of graphs in which to embed G is the class of ndimensional cubes. This has found applications, for example, in coding theory, data transmission, and lin ..."
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Cited by 70 (6 self)
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It is frequently of interest to represent a given graph G as a subgraph of a graph H which has some special structure. A particularly useful class of graphs in which to embed G is the class of ndimensional cubes. This has found applications, for example, in coding theory, data transmission, and linguistics. In this note, we study the structure of those graphs 6, called cubical graphs (not to be confused with cubic graphs, those graphs for which all vertices have degree 3), which can be embedded into an ndimensional cube. A basic technique used is the investigation of graphs which are critically nonembeddable, i.e., which can not be embedded but all of whose subgrapbs can be embedded.
Sic Transit Gloria Telae: Towards an Understanding of the Web's Decay
 In Proceedings of the 13th conference on World Wide Web
, 2004
"... The rapid growth of the web has been noted and tracked extensively. Recent studies have however documented the dual phenomenon: web pages have small half lives, and thus the web exhibits rapid death as well. Consequently, page creators are faced with an increasingly burdensome task of keeping links ..."
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Cited by 55 (0 self)
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The rapid growth of the web has been noted and tracked extensively. Recent studies have however documented the dual phenomenon: web pages have small half lives, and thus the web exhibits rapid death as well. Consequently, page creators are faced with an increasingly burdensome task of keeping links uptodate, and many are falling behind. In addition to just individual pages, collections of pages or even entire neighborhoods of the web exhibit significant decay, rendering them less e#ective as information resources. Such neighborhoods are identified only by frustrated searchers, seeking a way out of these stale neighborhoods, back to more uptodate sections of the web; measuring the decay of a page purely on the basis of dead links on the page is too naive to reflect this frustration. In this paper we formalize a strong notion of a decay measure and present algorithms for computing it e#ciently. We explore this measure by presenting a number of validations, and use it to identify interesting artifacts on today's web. We then describe a number of applications of such a measure to search engines, web page maintainers, ontologists, and individual users.
The Markov Chain Simulation Method for Generating Connected Power Law Random Graphs
 In Proc. 5th Workshop on Algorithm Engineering and Experiments (ALENEX). SIAM
, 2003
"... Graph models for realworld complex networks such as the Internet, the WWW and biological networks are necessary for analytic and simulationbased studies of network protocols, algorithms, engineering and evolution. To date, all available data for such networks suggest heavy tailed statistics, most ..."
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Cited by 34 (7 self)
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Graph models for realworld complex networks such as the Internet, the WWW and biological networks are necessary for analytic and simulationbased studies of network protocols, algorithms, engineering and evolution. To date, all available data for such networks suggest heavy tailed statistics, most notably on the degrees of the underlying graphs. A practical way to generate network topologies that meet the observed data is the following degreedriven approach: First predict the degrees of the graph by extrapolation from the available data, and then construct a graph meeting the degree sequence and additional constraints, such as connectivity and randomness. Within the networking community, this is currently accepted as the most successful approach for modeling the interdomain topology of the Internet.
privacy in social networks
 ICDE 2008 Poster
"... We consider a privacy threat to a social network in which the goal of an attacker is to obtain knowledge of a significant fraction of the links in the network. We formalize the typical social network interface and the information about links that it provides to its users in terms of lookahead. We co ..."
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Cited by 25 (2 self)
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We consider a privacy threat to a social network in which the goal of an attacker is to obtain knowledge of a significant fraction of the links in the network. We formalize the typical social network interface and the information about links that it provides to its users in terms of lookahead. We consider a particular threat where an attacker subverts user accounts to get information about local neighborhoods in the network and pieces them together in order to get a global picture. We analyze, both experimentally and theoretically, the number of user accounts an attacker would need to subvert for a successful attack, as a function of his strategy for choosing users whose accounts to subvert and a function of lookahead provided by the network. We conclude that such an attack is feasible in practice, and thus any social network that wishes to protect the link privacy of its users should take great care in choosing the lookahead of its interface, limiting it to 1 or 2, whenever possible.
Dynamics of Large Networks
, 2008
"... A basic premise behind the study of large networks is that interaction leads to complex collective behavior. In our work we found very interesting and counterintuitive patterns for time evolving networks, which change some of the basic assumptions that were made in the past. We then develop models ..."
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Cited by 23 (0 self)
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A basic premise behind the study of large networks is that interaction leads to complex collective behavior. In our work we found very interesting and counterintuitive patterns for time evolving networks, which change some of the basic assumptions that were made in the past. We then develop models that explain processes which govern the network evolution, fit such models to real networks, and use them to generate realistic graphs or give formal explanations about their properties. In addition, our work has a wide range of applications: it can help us spot anomalous graphs and outliers, forecast future graph structure and run simulations of network evolution. Another important aspect of our research is the study of “local ” patterns and structures of propagation in networks. We aim to identify building blocks of the networks and find the patterns of influence that these blocks have on information or virus propagation over the network. Our recent work included the study of the spread of influence in a large persontoperson