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Cortical surfacebased analysis II: Inflation, flattening, and a surfacebased coordinate system
 NeuroImage
, 1999
"... The surface of the human cerebral cortex is a highly folded sheet with the majority of its surface area buried within folds. As such, it is a difficult domain for computational as well as visualization purposes. We have therefore designed a set of procedures for modifying the representation of the c ..."
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Cited by 263 (23 self)
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The surface of the human cerebral cortex is a highly folded sheet with the majority of its surface area buried within folds. As such, it is a difficult domain for computational as well as visualization purposes. We have therefore designed a set of procedures for modifying the representation of the cortical surface to (i) inflate it so that activity buried inside sulci may be visualized, (ii) cut and flatten an entire hemisphere, and (iii) transform a hemisphere into a simple parameterizable surface such as a sphere for the purpose of establishing a surfacebased coordinate system. � 1999 Academic Press
The Spatial Semantic Hierarchy
 Artificial Intelligence
, 2000
"... The Spatial Semantic Hierarchy is a model of knowledge of largescale space consisting of multiple interacting representations, both qualitative and quantitative. The SSH is inspired by the properties of the human cognitive map, and is intended to serve both as a model of the human cognitive map and ..."
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Cited by 239 (28 self)
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The Spatial Semantic Hierarchy is a model of knowledge of largescale space consisting of multiple interacting representations, both qualitative and quantitative. The SSH is inspired by the properties of the human cognitive map, and is intended to serve both as a model of the human cognitive map and as a method for robot exploration and mapbuilding. The multiple levels of the SSH express states of partial knowledge, and thus enable the human or robotic agent to deal robustly with uncertainty during both learning and problemsolving. The control level represents useful patterns of sensorimotor interaction with the world in the form of trajectoryfollowing and hillclimbing control laws leading to locally distinctive states. Local geometric maps in local frames of reference can be constructed at the control level to serve as observers for control laws in particular neighborhoods. The causal level abstracts continuous behavior among distinctive states into a discrete model ...
Intelligent Scissors for Image Composition
 In Computer Graphics, SIGGRAPH Proceedings
, 1995
"... We present a new, interactive tool called Intelligent Scissors which we use for image segmentation and composition. Fully automated segmentation is an unsolved problem, while manual tracing is inaccurate and laboriously unacceptable. However, Intelligent Scissors allow objects within digital images ..."
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Cited by 234 (6 self)
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We present a new, interactive tool called Intelligent Scissors which we use for image segmentation and composition. Fully automated segmentation is an unsolved problem, while manual tracing is inaccurate and laboriously unacceptable. However, Intelligent Scissors allow objects within digital images to be extracted quickly and accurately using simple gesture motions with a mouse. When the gestured mouse position comes in proximity to an object edge, a livewire boundary “snaps ” to, and wraps around the object of interest. Livewire boundary detection formulates discrete dynamic programming (DP) as a twodimensional graph searching problem. DP provides mathematically optimal boundaries while greatly reducing sensitivity to local noise or other intervening structures. Robustness is further enhanced with onthefly training which causes the boundary to adhere to the specific type of edge currently being followed, rather than simply the strongest edge in the neighborhood. Boundary cooling automatically freezes unchanging segments and automates input of additional seed points. Cooling also allows the user to be much more free with the gesture path, thereby increasing the efficiency and finesse with which boundaries can be extracted. Extracted objects can be scaled, rotated, and composited using livewire masks and spatial frequency equivalencing. Frequency equivalencing is performed by applying a Butterworth filter which matches the lowest frequency spectra to all other image components. Intelligent Scissors allow creation of convincing compositions from existing images while dramatically increasing the speed and precision with which objects can be extracted. 1.
Approximate distance oracles
 J. ACM
"... Let G = (V, E) be an undirected weighted graph with V  = n and E  = m. Let k ≥ 1 be an integer. We show that G = (V, E) can be preprocessed in O(kmn 1/k) expected time, constructing a data structure of size O(kn 1+1/k), such that any subsequent distance query can be answered, approximately, in ..."
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Cited by 210 (8 self)
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Let G = (V, E) be an undirected weighted graph with V  = n and E  = m. Let k ≥ 1 be an integer. We show that G = (V, E) can be preprocessed in O(kmn 1/k) expected time, constructing a data structure of size O(kn 1+1/k), such that any subsequent distance query can be answered, approximately, in O(k) time. The approximate distance returned is of stretch at most 2k − 1, i.e., the quotient obtained by dividing the estimated distance by the actual distance lies between 1 and 2k−1. A 1963 girth conjecture of Erdős, implies that Ω(n 1+1/k) space is needed in the worst case for any real stretch strictly smaller than 2k + 1. The space requirement of our algorithm is, therefore, essentially optimal. The most impressive feature of our data structure is its constant query time, hence the name “oracle”. Previously, data structures that used only O(n 1+1/k) space had a query time of Ω(n 1/k). Our algorithms are extremely simple and easy to implement efficiently. They also provide faster constructions of sparse spanners of weighted graphs, and improved tree covers and distance labelings of weighted or unweighted graphs. 1
Multicast Routing for Multimedia Communication
 IEEE/ACM TRANSACTIONS ON NETWORKING
, 1993
"... We present heuristics for multicast tree construction for communication that depends on: i) bounded endtoend delay along the paths from source to each destination, and ii) minimum cost of the multicast tree, where edge cost and edge delay can be independent metrics. This problem of computing such ..."
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Cited by 189 (9 self)
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We present heuristics for multicast tree construction for communication that depends on: i) bounded endtoend delay along the paths from source to each destination, and ii) minimum cost of the multicast tree, where edge cost and edge delay can be independent metrics. This problem of computing such a constrained multicast tree is NPcomplete. We show that the heuristics demonstrate good average case behavior in terms of cost, as determined through simulations on a large number of graphs.
An Overview of QualityofService Routing for the Next Generation HighSpeed Networks: Problems and Solutions
"... The upcoming Gbps highspeed networks are expected to support a wide range of communicationintensive, realtime multimedia applications. The requirement for timely delivery of digitized audiovisual information raises new challenges for the next generation integratedservice broadband networks. On ..."
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Cited by 182 (17 self)
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The upcoming Gbps highspeed networks are expected to support a wide range of communicationintensive, realtime multimedia applications. The requirement for timely delivery of digitized audiovisual information raises new challenges for the next generation integratedservice broadband networks. One of the key issues is the QualityofService (QoS) routing. It selects network routes with sufficient resources for the requested QoS parameters. The goal of routing solutions is twofold: (1) satisfying the QoS requirements for every admitted connection and (2) achieving the global efficiency in resource utilization. Many unicast/multicast QoS routing algorithms were published recently, and they work with a variety of QoS requirements and resource constraints. Overall, they can be partitioned into three broad classes: (1) source routing, (2) distributed routing and (3) hierarchical routing algorithms. In this paper we give an overview of the QoS routing problem as well as the existing solutions. We present the strengths and the weaknesses of different routing strategies and outline the challenges. We also discuss the basic algorithms in each class, classify and compare them, and point out possible future directions in the QoS routing area.
Pregel: A system for largescale graph processing
 In SIGMOD
, 2010
"... Many practical computing problems concern large graphs. Standard examples include the Web graph and various social networks. The scale of these graphs—in some cases billions of vertices, trillions of edges—poses challenges to their efficient processing. In this paper we present a computational model ..."
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Cited by 170 (0 self)
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Many practical computing problems concern large graphs. Standard examples include the Web graph and various social networks. The scale of these graphs—in some cases billions of vertices, trillions of edges—poses challenges to their efficient processing. In this paper we present a computational model suitable for this task. Programs are expressed as a sequence of iterations, in each of which a vertex can receive messages sent in the previous iteration, send messages to other vertices, and modify its own state and that of its outgoing edges or mutate graph topology. This vertexcentric approach is flexible enough to express a broad set of algorithms. The model has been designed for efficient, scalable and faulttolerant implementation on clusters of thousands of commodity computers, and its implied synchronicity makes reasoning about programs easier. Distributionrelated details are hidden behind an abstract API. The result is a framework for processing large graphs that is expressive and easy to program.
AntBased Load Balancing in Telecommunications Networks
, 1996
"... This paper describes a novel method of achieving load balancing in telecommunications networks. A simulated network models a typical distribution of calls between nodes; nodes carrying an excess of traffic can become congested, causing calls to be lost. In addition to calls, the network also support ..."
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Cited by 163 (2 self)
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This paper describes a novel method of achieving load balancing in telecommunications networks. A simulated network models a typical distribution of calls between nodes; nodes carrying an excess of traffic can become congested, causing calls to be lost. In addition to calls, the network also supports a population of simple mobile agents with behaviours modelled on the trail laying abilities of ants. The ants move across the network between randomly chosen pairs of nodes; as they move they deposit simulated pheromones as a function of their distance from their source node, and the congestion encountered on their journey. They select their path at each intermediate node according the distribution of simulated pheromones at each node. Calls between nodes are routed as a function of the pheromone distributions at each intermediate node. The performance of the network is measured by the proportion of calls which are lost. The results of using the antbased control (ABC) are compared with th...
An Atlas Framework for Scalable Mapping
 in IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation
, 2003
"... This paper describes Atlas, a hybrid metrical /topological approach to SLAM that achieves efficient mapping of largescale environments. The representation is a graph of coordinate frames, with each vertex in the graph representing a local frame, and each edge representing the transformation between ..."
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Cited by 148 (17 self)
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This paper describes Atlas, a hybrid metrical /topological approach to SLAM that achieves efficient mapping of largescale environments. The representation is a graph of coordinate frames, with each vertex in the graph representing a local frame, and each edge representing the transformation between adjacent frames. In each frame, we build a map that captures the local environment and the current robot pose along with the uncertainties of each. Each map's uncertainties are modeled with respect to its own frame. Probabilities of entities with respect to arbitrary frames are generated by following a path formed by the edges between adjacent frames, computed via Dijkstra's shortest path algorithm. Loop closing is achieved via an efficient map matching algorithm. We demonstrate the technique running in realtime in a large indoor structured environment (2.2 km path length) with multiple nested loops using laser or ultrasonic ranging sensors.
Geometric Shortest Paths and Network Optimization
 Handbook of Computational Geometry
, 1998
"... Introduction A natural and wellstudied problem in algorithmic graph theory and network optimization is that of computing a "shortest path" between two nodes, s and t, in a graph whose edges have "weights" associated with them, and we consider the "length" of a path to be the sum of the weights of t ..."
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Cited by 147 (12 self)
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Introduction A natural and wellstudied problem in algorithmic graph theory and network optimization is that of computing a "shortest path" between two nodes, s and t, in a graph whose edges have "weights" associated with them, and we consider the "length" of a path to be the sum of the weights of the edges that comprise it. Efficient algorithms are well known for this problem, as briefly summarized below. The shortest path problem takes on a new dimension when considered in a geometric domain. In contrast to graphs, where the encoding of edges is explicit, a geometric instance of a shortest path problem is usually specified by giving geometric objects that implicitly encode the graph and its edge weights. Our goal in devising efficient geometric algorithms is generally to avoid explicit construction of the entire underlying graph, since the full induced graph may be very large (even exponential in the input size, or infinite). Computing an optimal