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Fast approximate energy minimization via graph cuts
 IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
, 2001
"... In this paper we address the problem of minimizing a large class of energy functions that occur in early vision. The major restriction is that the energy function’s smoothness term must only involve pairs of pixels. We propose two algorithms that use graph cuts to compute a local minimum even when v ..."
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Cited by 1384 (52 self)
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In this paper we address the problem of minimizing a large class of energy functions that occur in early vision. The major restriction is that the energy function’s smoothness term must only involve pairs of pixels. We propose two algorithms that use graph cuts to compute a local minimum even when very large moves are allowed. The first move we consider is an αβswap: for a pair of labels α, β, this move exchanges the labels between an arbitrary set of pixels labeled α and another arbitrary set labeled β. Our first algorithm generates a labeling such that there is no swap move that decreases the energy. The second move we consider is an αexpansion: for a label α, this move assigns an arbitrary set of pixels the label α. Our second
Laplacian Eigenmaps for Dimensionality Reduction and Data Representation
 Neural Computation
, 2003
"... Abstract One of the central problems in machine learning and pattern recognition is to develop appropriate representations for complex data. We consider the problem of constructing a representation for data lying on a low dimensional manifold embedded in a high dimensional space. Drawing on the corr ..."
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Cited by 734 (15 self)
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Abstract One of the central problems in machine learning and pattern recognition is to develop appropriate representations for complex data. We consider the problem of constructing a representation for data lying on a low dimensional manifold embedded in a high dimensional space. Drawing on the correspondence between the graph Laplacian, the Laplace Beltrami operator on the manifold, and the connections to the heat equation, we propose a geometrically motivated algorithm for representing the high dimensional data. The algorithm provides a computationally efficient approach to nonlinear dimensionality reduction that has locality preserving properties and a natural connection to clustering. Some potential applications and illustrative examples are discussed. 1 Introduction In many areas of artificial intelligence, information retrieval and data mining, one is often confronted with intrinsically low dimensional data lying in a very high dimensional space. Consider, for example, gray scale images of an object taken under fixed lighting conditions with a moving camera. Each such image would typically be represented by a brightness value at each pixel. If there were n 2
Interactive Graph Cuts for Optimal Boundary & Region Segmentation of Objects in ND Images
, 2001
"... In this paper we describe a new technique for general purpose interactive segmentation of Ndimensional images. The user marks certain pixels as “object” or “background” to provide hard constraints for segmentation. Additional soft constraints incorporate both boundary and region information. Graph ..."
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Cited by 657 (14 self)
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In this paper we describe a new technique for general purpose interactive segmentation of Ndimensional images. The user marks certain pixels as “object” or “background” to provide hard constraints for segmentation. Additional soft constraints incorporate both boundary and region information. Graph cuts are used to find the globally optimal segmentation of the Ndimensional image. The obtained solution gives the best balance of boundary and region properties among all segmentations satisfying the constraints. The topology of our segmentation is unrestricted and both “object” and “background” segments may consist of several isolatedparts. Some experimental results are presented in the context ofphotohideo editing and medical image segmentation. We also demonstrate an interesting Gestalt example. A fast implementation of our segmentation method is possible via a new mar$ow algorithm in [2].
Learning Patterns of Activity Using RealTime Tracking
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PATTERN ANALYSIS AND MACHINE INTELLIGENCE
, 2000
"... Our goal is to develop a visual monitoring system that passively observes moving objects in a site and learns patterns of activity from those observations. For extended sites, the system will require multiple cameras. Thus, key elements of the system are motion tracking, camera coordination, activit ..."
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Cited by 586 (10 self)
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Our goal is to develop a visual monitoring system that passively observes moving objects in a site and learns patterns of activity from those observations. For extended sites, the system will require multiple cameras. Thus, key elements of the system are motion tracking, camera coordination, activity classification, and event detection. In this paper, we focus on motion tracking and show how one can use observed motion to learn patterns of activity in a site. Motion
A database of human segmented natural images and its application to evaluating segmentation algorithms and measuring ecological statistics
 in Proc. 8th Int’l Conf. Computer Vision
, 2001
"... This paper presents a database containing ‘ground truth ’ segmentations produced by humans for images of a wide variety of natural scenes. We define an error measure which quantifies the consistency between segmentations of differing granularities and find that different human segmentations of the s ..."
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Cited by 569 (16 self)
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This paper presents a database containing ‘ground truth ’ segmentations produced by humans for images of a wide variety of natural scenes. We define an error measure which quantifies the consistency between segmentations of differing granularities and find that different human segmentations of the same image are highly consistent. Use of this dataset is demonstrated in two applications: (1) evaluating the performance of segmentation algorithms and (2) measuring probability distributions associated with Gestalt grouping factors as well as statistics of image region properties. 1.
Efficient GraphBased Image Segmentation
"... This paper addresses the problem of segmenting an image into regions. We define a predicate for measuring the evidence for a boundary between two regions using a graphbased representation of the image. We then develop an e#cient segmentation algorithm based on this predicate, and show that although ..."
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Cited by 531 (1 self)
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This paper addresses the problem of segmenting an image into regions. We define a predicate for measuring the evidence for a boundary between two regions using a graphbased representation of the image. We then develop an e#cient segmentation algorithm based on this predicate, and show that although this algorithm makes greedy decisions it produces segmentations that satisfy global properties. We apply the algorithm to image segmentation using two different kinds of local neighborhoods in constructing the graph, and illustrate the results with both real and synthetic images. The algorithm runs in time nearly linear in the number of graph edges and is also fast in practice. An important characteristic of the method is its ability to preserve detail in lowvariability image regions while ignoring detail in highvariability regions.
Matching words and pictures
 JOURNAL OF MACHINE LEARNING RESEARCH
, 2003
"... We present a new approach for modeling multimodal data sets, focusing on the specific case of segmented images with associated text. Learning the joint distribution of image regions and words has many applications. We consider in detail predicting words associated with whole images (autoannotation ..."
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Cited by 512 (37 self)
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We present a new approach for modeling multimodal data sets, focusing on the specific case of segmented images with associated text. Learning the joint distribution of image regions and words has many applications. We consider in detail predicting words associated with whole images (autoannotation) and corresponding to particular image regions (region naming). Autoannotation might help organize and access large collections of images. Region naming is a model of object recognition as a process of translating image regions to words, much as one might translate from one language to another. Learning the relationships between image regions and semantic correlates (words) is an interesting example of multimodal data mining, particularly because it is typically hard to apply data mining techniques to collections of images. We develop a number of models for the joint distribution of image regions and words, including several which explicitly learn the correspondence between regions and words. We study multimodal and correspondence extensions to Hofmann’s hierarchical clustering/aspect model, a translation model adapted from statistical machine translation (Brown et al.), and a multimodal extension to mixture of latent Dirichlet allocation
SemiSupervised Learning Using Gaussian Fields and Harmonic Functions
 IN ICML
, 2003
"... An approach to semisupervised learning is proposed that is based on a Gaussian random field model. Labeled and unlabeled data are represented as vertices in a weighted graph, with edge weights encoding the similarity between instances. The learning ..."
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Cited by 490 (14 self)
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An approach to semisupervised learning is proposed that is based on a Gaussian random field model. Labeled and unlabeled data are represented as vertices in a weighted graph, with edge weights encoding the similarity between instances. The learning
SemiSupervised Learning Literature Survey
, 2006
"... We review the literature on semisupervised learning, which is an area in machine learning and more generally, artificial intelligence. There has been a whole
spectrum of interesting ideas on how to learn from both labeled and unlabeled data, i.e. semisupervised learning. This document is a chapter ..."
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Cited by 447 (8 self)
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We review the literature on semisupervised learning, which is an area in machine learning and more generally, artificial intelligence. There has been a whole
spectrum of interesting ideas on how to learn from both labeled and unlabeled data, i.e. semisupervised learning. This document is a chapter excerpt from the author’s
doctoral thesis (Zhu, 2005). However the author plans to update the online version frequently to incorporate the latest development in the field. Please obtain the latest
version at http://www.cs.wisc.edu/~jerryzhu/pub/ssl_survey.pdf
Laplacian Eigenmaps and Spectral Techniques for Embedding and Clustering
 Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 14
, 2001
"... Drawing on the correspondence between the graph Laplacian, the LaplaceBeltrami operator on a manifold, and the connections to the heat equation, we propose a geometrically motivated algorithm for constructing a representation for data sampled from a low dimensional manifold embedded in a higher ..."
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Cited by 425 (7 self)
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Drawing on the correspondence between the graph Laplacian, the LaplaceBeltrami operator on a manifold, and the connections to the heat equation, we propose a geometrically motivated algorithm for constructing a representation for data sampled from a low dimensional manifold embedded in a higher dimensional space. The algorithm provides a computationally efficient approach to nonlinear dimensionality reduction that has locality preserving properties and a natural connection to clustering. Several applications are considered.