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105
Towards an Algebraic Semantics for the Object Paradigm
 In Hartmut Ehrig and Fernando Orejas, editors, Proceedings, Tenth Workshop on Abstract Data Types
, 1994
"... This paper surveys our current state of knowledge (and ignorance) on the use of hidden sorted algebra as a foundation for the object paradigm. Our main goal is to support equational reasoning about properties of concurrent systems of objects, because of its simple and ecient mechanisation. We sho ..."
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Cited by 90 (35 self)
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This paper surveys our current state of knowledge (and ignorance) on the use of hidden sorted algebra as a foundation for the object paradigm. Our main goal is to support equational reasoning about properties of concurrent systems of objects, because of its simple and ecient mechanisation. We show how equational speci cations can describe objects, inheritance and modules; our treatment of the latter topic emphasises the importance of reuse, and the r^ole of the socalled Satisfaction Condition. We then consider how to prove things about objects, how to unify the object and logic paradigms by using logical variables that range over objects, and how to connect objects into concurrent systems.
Logical Support for Modularisation
 LOGICAL ENVIRONMENTS
, 1993
"... Modularisation is important for managing the complex structures that arise in large theorem proving problems, and in large software and/or hardware development projects. This paper studies some properties of logical systems that support the definition, combination, parameterisation and reuse of ..."
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Cited by 90 (29 self)
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Modularisation is important for managing the complex structures that arise in large theorem proving problems, and in large software and/or hardware development projects. This paper studies some properties of logical systems that support the definition, combination, parameterisation and reuse of modules. Our results show some new connections among: (1) the preservation of various kinds of conservative extension under pushouts; (2) various distributive laws for information hiding over sums; and (3) (Craig style) interpolation properties. In addition, we study differences between syntactic and semantic formulations of conservative extension properties, and of distributive laws. A model theoretic property that we call exactness plays an important role in some results. This paper explores the interplay between syntax and semantics, and thus lies in the tradition of abstract model theory. We represent logical systems as institutions. An important technical foundation is a new ...
A manifesto for model merging
 In Int’l Wkshp on Global Integrated Model Mgmt
, 2006
"... If a modeling task is distributed, it will frequently be necessary to merge models developed by different team members. Existing approaches to model merging make assumptions about the types of model to be merged, and the nature of the relationship between them. This makes it hard to compare approach ..."
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Cited by 38 (17 self)
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If a modeling task is distributed, it will frequently be necessary to merge models developed by different team members. Existing approaches to model merging make assumptions about the types of model to be merged, and the nature of the relationship between them. This makes it hard to compare approaches. In this paper, we present a manifesto for research on model merging. We propose a framework for comparing different approaches to merging, by treating merge as an algebraic operator over models and model relationships. We specify the algebraic properties of an idealized merge operator, as well as related operators such as match, diff, split, and slice. We then show how our framework can be used to compare existing approaches by applying it to two of our own research projects on model merging. We show how this analysis permits a detailed comparison of approaches, reveals the key features of each, and identifies weaknesses that require further research. Most importantly, the framework emphasizes the need to make explicit all assumptions about the relationships between models, and indeed to treat model relationships as first class objects.
View merging in the presence of incompleteness and inconsistency
 Requir. Eng
, 2006
"... View merging, also called view integration, is a key problem in conceptual modeling. Large models are often constructed and accessed by manipulating individual views, but it is important to be able to consolidate a set of views to gain a unified perspective, to understand interactions between views, ..."
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Cited by 34 (10 self)
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View merging, also called view integration, is a key problem in conceptual modeling. Large models are often constructed and accessed by manipulating individual views, but it is important to be able to consolidate a set of views to gain a unified perspective, to understand interactions between views, or to perform various types of analysis. View merging is complicated by incompleteness and inconsistency: Stakeholders often have varying degrees of confidence about their statements. Their views capture different but overlapping aspects of a problem, and may have discrepancies over the terminology being used, the concepts being modeled, or how these concepts should be structured. Once views are merged, it is important to be able to trace the elements of the merged view back to their sources and to the merge assumptions related to them. In this paper, we present a framework for merging incomplete and inconsistent graphbased views. We introduce a formalism, called annotated graphs, with a builtin annotation scheme for modeling incompleteness and inconsistency. We show how structurepreserving maps can be employed to express the relationships between disparate views modeled as annotated graphs, and provide a general algorithm for merging views with arbitrary interconnections. We provide a systematic way to generate and represent the traceability information required for tracing the merged view elements back to their sources, and to the merge assumptions giving rise to the elements.
Sharing Actions and Attributes in Modal Action Logic
 Theoretical Aspects of Computer Software
, 1991
"... Distributed systems may be specified in Structured Modal Action Logic by decomposing them into agents which interact by sharing attributes (memory) as well as actions. In the formalism we describe, specification texts denote theories, and theories denote the set of semantic structures which satisfy ..."
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Cited by 34 (5 self)
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Distributed systems may be specified in Structured Modal Action Logic by decomposing them into agents which interact by sharing attributes (memory) as well as actions. In the formalism we describe, specification texts denote theories, and theories denote the set of semantic structures which satisfy them. The semantic structures are Kripke models, as is usual for modal logic. The "possible worlds" in a Kripke model are the states of the agent, and there is a separate relation on the set of states for each action term. Agents potentially share actions as well as attributes in a way controlled by locality annotations in the specification texts. These become locality axioms in the logical theories the texts denote. These locality axioms provide a refined way of circumscribing the effects of actions. Safety and liveness conditions are expressed (implicitly) by deontic axioms, which impose obligations and deny permissions on actions. We show that "deontic defaults" exist so that the specifi...
Process and Term Tile Logic
, 1998
"... In a similar way as 2categories can be regarded as a special case of double categories, rewriting logic (in the unconditional case) can be embedded into the more general tile logic, where also sideeffects and rewriting synchronization are considered. Since rewriting logic is the semantic basis o ..."
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Cited by 34 (25 self)
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In a similar way as 2categories can be regarded as a special case of double categories, rewriting logic (in the unconditional case) can be embedded into the more general tile logic, where also sideeffects and rewriting synchronization are considered. Since rewriting logic is the semantic basis of several language implementation efforts, it is useful to map tile logic back into rewriting logic in a conservative way, to obtain executable specifications of tile systems. We extend the results of earlier work by two of the authors, focusing on some interesting cases where the mathematical structures representing configurations (i.e., states) and effects (i.e., observable actions) are very similar, in the sense that they have in common some auxiliary structure (e.g., for tupling, projecting, etc.). In particular, we give in full detail the descriptions of two such cases where (net) processlike and usual term structures are employed. Corresponding to these two cases, we introduce two ca...
An ImplementationOriented Semantics for Module Composition
, 1997
"... This paper describes an approach to module composition by executing "module expressions" to build systems out of component modules; the paper also gives a novel semantics intended to aid implementers. The semantics is based on set theoretic notions of tuple set, partial signature, and inst ..."
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Cited by 34 (14 self)
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This paper describes an approach to module composition by executing "module expressions" to build systems out of component modules; the paper also gives a novel semantics intended to aid implementers. The semantics is based on set theoretic notions of tuple set, partial signature, and institution, thus avoiding more difficult mathematics theory. Language features include information hiding, both vertical and horizontal composition, and views for binding modules to interfaces. Vertical composition refers to the hierarchical structuring of a system into layers, while horizontal composition refers to the structure of a given layer. Modules may involve information hiding, and views may involve behavioral satisfaction of a theory by a module. Several "Laws of Software Composition" are given, which show how the various module composition operations relate. Taken together, this gives foundations for an algebraic approach to software engineering. 1.1 Introduction The approach to module compos...
Contextual petri nets, asymmetric event structures and processes
 Information and Computation
, 2001
"... We present an event structure semantics for contextual nets, an extension of P/T Petri nets where transitions can check for the presence of tokens without consuming them (readonly operations). A basic rôle is played by asymmetric event structures, a generalization of Winskel’s prime event structure ..."
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Cited by 32 (13 self)
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We present an event structure semantics for contextual nets, an extension of P/T Petri nets where transitions can check for the presence of tokens without consuming them (readonly operations). A basic rôle is played by asymmetric event structures, a generalization of Winskel’s prime event structures where symmetric conflict is replaced by a relation modelling asymmetric conflict or weak causality, used to represent a new kind of dependency between events arising in contextual nets. Extending Winskel’s seminal work on safe nets, the truly concurrent event based semantics of contextual nets is given at categorical level via a chain of coreflections
Categorical Semantics Of Parallel Program Design
, 1997
"... We formalise, using Category Theory, modularisation techniques for parallel and distributed systems based on the notion of superposition, showing that parallel program design obeys the "universal laws" formulated by J.Goguen for General Systems Theory, as well as other algebraic propertie ..."
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Cited by 30 (10 self)
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We formalise, using Category Theory, modularisation techniques for parallel and distributed systems based on the notion of superposition, showing that parallel program design obeys the "universal laws" formulated by J.Goguen for General Systems Theory, as well as other algebraic properties of modularity formulated for Specification Theory. The resulting categorical formalisation unifies the different notions of superposition that have been proposed in the literature and clarifies their algebraic properties with respect to modularisation. It also suggests ways of extending or revising existing languages in order to provide higher levels of reusability, modularity and incrementality in system design. 1 Introduction The role of Category Theory in supporting the definition of 'scientific laws' of system modularisation and composition has been recognised since the early 70s when J.Goguen proposed the use of categorical techniques in General Systems Theory for unifying a variety of notion...
Analysis of inconsistency in graphbased viewpoints
 In ASE
, 2003
"... Eliciting the requirements for a proposed system typically involves different stakeholders with different expertise, responsibilities, and perspectives. Viewpointsbased approaches have been proposed as a way to manage incomplete and inconsistent models gathered from multiple sources. In this paper, ..."
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Cited by 29 (11 self)
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Eliciting the requirements for a proposed system typically involves different stakeholders with different expertise, responsibilities, and perspectives. Viewpointsbased approaches have been proposed as a way to manage incomplete and inconsistent models gathered from multiple sources. In this paper, we propose a categorytheoretic framework for the analysis of fuzzy viewpoints. Informally, a fuzzy viewpoint is a graph in which the elements of a lattice are used to specify the amount of knowledge available about the details of nodes and edges. By defining an appropriate notion of morphism between fuzzy viewpoints, we construct categories of fuzzy viewpoints and prove that these categories are (finitely) cocomplete. We then show how colimits can be employed to merge the viewpoints and detect the inconsistencies that arise independent of any particular choice of viewpoint semantics. We illustrate an application of the framework through a casestudy showing how fuzzy viewpoints can serve as a requirements elicitation tool in reactive systems. 1