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18
A machinechecked model for a Javalike language, virtual machine and compiler
 ACM TRANSACTIONS ON PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES AND SYSTEMS
, 2004
"... We introduce Jinja, a Javalike programming language with a formal semantics designed to exhibit core features of the Java language architecture. Jinja is a compromise between realism of the language and tractability and clarity of the formal semantics. The following aspects are formalised: a big an ..."
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Cited by 97 (8 self)
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We introduce Jinja, a Javalike programming language with a formal semantics designed to exhibit core features of the Java language architecture. Jinja is a compromise between realism of the language and tractability and clarity of the formal semantics. The following aspects are formalised: a big and a small step operational semantics for Jinja and a proof of their equivalence; a type system and a definite initialisation analysis; a type safety proof of the small step semantics; a virtual machine (JVM), its operational semantics and its type system; a type safety proof for the JVM; a bytecode verifier, i.e. data flow analyser for the JVM; a correctness proof of the bytecode verifier w.r.t. the type system; a compiler and a proof that it preserves semantics and welltypedness. The emphasis of this work is not on particular language features but on providing a unified model of the source language, the virtual machine and the compiler. The whole development has been carried out in the theorem prover Isabelle/HOL.
Inductive assertions and operational semantics
 CHARME 2003. Volume 2860 of LNCS., SpringerVerlag
, 2003
"... Abstract. This paper shows how classic inductive assertions can be used in conjunction with an operational semantics to prove partial correctness properties of programs. The method imposes only the proof obligations that would be produced by a verification condition generator but does not require th ..."
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Cited by 25 (7 self)
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Abstract. This paper shows how classic inductive assertions can be used in conjunction with an operational semantics to prove partial correctness properties of programs. The method imposes only the proof obligations that would be produced by a verification condition generator but does not require the definition of a verification condition generation. The paper focuses on iterative programs but recursive programs are briefly discussed. Assertions are attached to the program by defining a predicate on states. This predicate is then “completed ” to an alleged invariant by the definition of a partial function defined in terms of the state transition function of the operational semantics. If this alleged invariant can be proved to be an invariant under the state transition function, it follows that the assertions are true every time they are encountered in execution and thus that the postcondition is true if reached from a state satisfying the precondition. But because of the manner in which the alleged invariant is defined, the verification conditions are sufficient to prove invariance. Indeed, the “natural ” proof generates the classical verification conditions as subgoals. The invariant function may be thought of as a statebased verification condition generator for the annotated program. The method allows standard inductive assertion style proofs to be constructed directly in an operational semantics setting. The technique is demonstrated by proving the partial correctness of simple bytecode programs with respect to a preexisting operational model of the Java Virtual Machine. 1
A trustworthy monadic formalization of the armv7 instruction set architecture
 In Proc. 23rd Int. Conf˙on Interactive Theorem Proving (ITP’10), LNCS
, 2010
"... Abstract. This paper presents a new HOL4 formalization of the current ARM instruction set architecture, ARMv7. This is a modern RISC architecture with many advanced features. The formalization is detailed and extensive. Considerable tool support has been developed, with the goal of making the model ..."
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Cited by 20 (3 self)
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Abstract. This paper presents a new HOL4 formalization of the current ARM instruction set architecture, ARMv7. This is a modern RISC architecture with many advanced features. The formalization is detailed and extensive. Considerable tool support has been developed, with the goal of making the model accessible and easy to work with. The model and supporting tools are publicly available – we wish to encourage others to make use of this resource. This paper explains our monadic specification approach and gives some details of the endeavours that have been made to ensure that the sizeable model is valid and trustworthy. A novel and efficient testing approach has been developed, based on automated forward proof and communication with ARM development boards. 1
A Definitional TwoLevel Approach to Reasoning with HigherOrder Abstract Syntax
 Journal of Automated Reasoning
, 2010
"... Abstract. Combining higherorder abstract syntax and (co)induction in a logical framework is well known to be problematic. Previous work [ACM02] described the implementation of a tool called Hybrid, within Isabelle HOL, syntax, and reasoned about using tactical theorem proving and principles of (co ..."
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Cited by 14 (3 self)
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Abstract. Combining higherorder abstract syntax and (co)induction in a logical framework is well known to be problematic. Previous work [ACM02] described the implementation of a tool called Hybrid, within Isabelle HOL, syntax, and reasoned about using tactical theorem proving and principles of (co)induction. Moreover, it is definitional, which guarantees consistency within a classical type theory. The idea is to have a de Bruijn representation of syntax, while offering tools for reasoning about them at the higher level. In this paper we describe how to use it in a multilevel reasoning fashion, similar in spirit to other metalogics such as Linc and Twelf. By explicitly referencing provability in a middle layer called a specification logic, we solve the problem of reasoning by (co)induction in the presence of nonstratifiable hypothetical judgments, which allow very elegant and succinct specifications of object logic inference rules. We first demonstrate the method on a simple example, formally proving type soundness (subject reduction) for a fragment of a pure functional language, using a minimal intuitionistic logic as the specification logic. We then prove an analogous result for a continuationmachine presentation of the operational semantics of the same language, encoded this time in an ordered linear logic that serves as the specification layer. This example demonstrates the ease with which we can incorporate new specification logics, and also illustrates a significantly
Java Program Verification via a JVM Deep Embedding in ACL2
 Theorem Proving in Higher Order Logics (TPHOLS ’04
, 2004
"... In this paper, we show that one can "deepembed" the Java bytecode language, a fairly complicated language with a rich semantics, into the first order logic of ACL2 by modeling a realistic JVM. We show that with proper support from a semiautomatic theorem prover in that logic, one can reason about ..."
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Cited by 12 (3 self)
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In this paper, we show that one can "deepembed" the Java bytecode language, a fairly complicated language with a rich semantics, into the first order logic of ACL2 by modeling a realistic JVM. We show that with proper support from a semiautomatic theorem prover in that logic, one can reason about the correctness of Java programs. This reasoning can be done in a direct and intuitive way without incurring the extra burden that has often been associated with hand proofs, or proofs that make use of less automated proof assistance. We present proofs for two simple Java programs as a showcase.
Proof styles in operational semantics
 Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Formal Methods in ComputerAided Design (FMCAD 2004), volume 3312 of LNCS
, 2004
"... Abstract. We relate two wellstudied methodologies in deductive verification of operationally modeled sequential programs, namely the use of inductive invariants and clock functions. We show that the two methodologies are equivalent and one can mechanically transform a proof of a program in one meth ..."
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Cited by 8 (4 self)
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Abstract. We relate two wellstudied methodologies in deductive verification of operationally modeled sequential programs, namely the use of inductive invariants and clock functions. We show that the two methodologies are equivalent and one can mechanically transform a proof of a program in one methodology to a proof in the other. Both partial and total correctness are considered. This mechanical transformation is compositional; different parts of a program can be verified using different methodologies to achieve a complete proof of the entire program. The equivalence theorems have been mechanically checked by the ACL2 theorem prover and we implement automatic tools to carry out the transformation between the two methodologies in ACL2.
CoqJVM: An executable specification of the Java virtual machine using dependent types
 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science
, 2005
"... Abstract. We describe an executable specification of the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) within the Coq proof assistant. The principal features of the development are that it is executable, meaning that it can be tested against a real JVM to gain confidence in the correctness of the specification; and th ..."
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Cited by 3 (0 self)
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Abstract. We describe an executable specification of the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) within the Coq proof assistant. The principal features of the development are that it is executable, meaning that it can be tested against a real JVM to gain confidence in the correctness of the specification; and that it has been written with heavy use of dependent types, this is both to structure the model in a useful way, and to constrain the model to prevent spurious partiality. We describe the structure of the formalisation and the way in which we have used dependent types. 1
A mechanized program verifier
 In IFIP Working Conference on the Program Verifier Challenge
, 2005
"... Abstract. In my view, the “verification problem ” is the theorem proving problem, restricted to a computational logic. My approach is: adopt a functional programming language, build a general purpose formal reasoning engine around it, integrate it into a program and proof development environment, an ..."
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Cited by 3 (0 self)
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Abstract. In my view, the “verification problem ” is the theorem proving problem, restricted to a computational logic. My approach is: adopt a functional programming language, build a general purpose formal reasoning engine around it, integrate it into a program and proof development environment, and apply it to model and verify a wide variety of computing artifacts, usually modeled operationally within the functional programming language. Everything done in this approach is software verification since the models are runnable programs in a subset of an ANSI standard programming language (Common Lisp). But this approach is of interest to proponents of other approaches (e.g., verification of procedural programs or synthesis) because of the nature of the mathematics of computing. I summarize the progress so far using this approach, sketch the key research challenges ahead and describe my vision of the role and shape of a useful verification system. 1
Integrating CCG analysis into ACL2
 In Eighth International Workshop on Termination, August 2006. Part of FLOC ’06
"... ACL2 [6–8] is a powerful, industrial strength theorem proving system, which has been used on ..."
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Cited by 2 (2 self)
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ACL2 [6–8] is a powerful, industrial strength theorem proving system, which has been used on
A mechanical analysis of program verification strategies
 Journal of Automated Reasoning
, 2008
"... Abstract. We analyze three proof strategies commonly used in deductive verification of deterministic sequential programs formalized with operational semantics. The strategies are: (i) stepwise invariants, (ii) clock functions, and (iii) inductive assertions. We show how to formalize the strategies i ..."
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Cited by 2 (1 self)
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Abstract. We analyze three proof strategies commonly used in deductive verification of deterministic sequential programs formalized with operational semantics. The strategies are: (i) stepwise invariants, (ii) clock functions, and (iii) inductive assertions. We show how to formalize the strategies in the logic of the ACL2 theorem prover. Based on our formalization, we prove that each strategy is both sound and complete. The completeness result implies that given any proof of correctness of a sequential program one can derive a proof in each of the above strategies. The soundness and completeness theorems have been mechanically checked with ACL2.