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29
Systematic simulation using sensitivity analysis
 IN HSCC
, 2007
"... In this paper we propose a new technique for verification by simulation of continuous and hybrid dynamical systems with uncertain initial conditions. We provide an algorithmic methodology that can, in most cases, verify that the system avoids a set of bad states by conducting a finite number of sim ..."
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Cited by 28 (4 self)
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In this paper we propose a new technique for verification by simulation of continuous and hybrid dynamical systems with uncertain initial conditions. We provide an algorithmic methodology that can, in most cases, verify that the system avoids a set of bad states by conducting a finite number of simulation runs starting from a finite subset of the set of possible initial conditions. The novelty of our approach consists in the use of sensitivity analysis, developed and implemented in the context of numerical integration, to efficiently characterize the coverage of sampling trajectories.
Symbolic Analysis for Improving Simulation Coverage of Simulink/Stateflow Models
"... Aimed at verifying safety properties and improving simulation coverage for hybrid systems models of embedded control software, we propose a technique that combines numerical simulation and symbolic methods for computing statesets. We consider systems with linear dynamics described in the commercial ..."
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Cited by 20 (3 self)
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Aimed at verifying safety properties and improving simulation coverage for hybrid systems models of embedded control software, we propose a technique that combines numerical simulation and symbolic methods for computing statesets. We consider systems with linear dynamics described in the commercial modeling tool Simulink/Stateflow. Given an initial state x, and a discretetime simulation trajectory, our method computes a set of initial states that are guaranteed to be equivalent to x, where two initial states are considered to be equivalent if the resulting simulation trajectories contain the same discrete components at each step of the simulation. We illustrate the benefits of our method on two case studies. One case study is a benchmark proposed in the literature for hybrid systems verification and another is a Simulink demo model from Mathworks.
Recent progress in continuous and hybrid reachability analysis
 In Proc. IEEE International Symposium on ComputerAided Control Systems Design. IEEE Computer
, 2006
"... Abstract — Setbased reachability analysis computes all possible states a system may attain, and in this sense provides knowledge about the system with a completeness, or coverage, that a finite number of simulation runs can not deliver. Due to its inherent complexity, the application of reachabilit ..."
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Cited by 16 (1 self)
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Abstract — Setbased reachability analysis computes all possible states a system may attain, and in this sense provides knowledge about the system with a completeness, or coverage, that a finite number of simulation runs can not deliver. Due to its inherent complexity, the application of reachability analysis has been limited so far to simple systems, both in the continuous and the hybrid domain. In this paper we present recent advances that, in combination, significantly improve this applicability, and allow us to find better balance between computational cost and accuracy. The presentation covers, in a unified manner, a variety of methods handling increasingly complex types of continuous dynamics (constant derivative, linear, nonlinear). The improvements include new geometrical objects for representing sets, new approximation schemes, and more flexible combinations of graphsearch algorithm and partition refinement. We report briefly some preliminary experiments that have enabled the analysis of systems previously beyond reach. I.
Temporal Logic Verification Using Simulation
 In Proc. FORMATS’06
, 2006
"... Abstract. In this paper, we consider a novel approach to the temporal logic verification problem of continuous dynamical systems. Our methodology has the distinctive feature that enables the verification of the temporal properties of a continuous system by verifying only a finite number of its (simu ..."
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Cited by 13 (6 self)
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Abstract. In this paper, we consider a novel approach to the temporal logic verification problem of continuous dynamical systems. Our methodology has the distinctive feature that enables the verification of the temporal properties of a continuous system by verifying only a finite number of its (simulated) trajectories. The proposed framework comprises two main ideas. First, we take advantage of the fact that in metric spaces we can quantify how close are two different states. Based on that, we define robust, multivalued semantics for MTL (and LTL) formulas. These capture not only the usual Boolean satisfiability of the formula, but also topological information regarding the distance from unsatisfiability. Second, we use the recently developed notion of bisimulation functions to infer the behavior of a set of trajectories that lie in the neighborhood of the simulated one. If the latter set of trajectories is bounded by the tube of robustness, then we can infer that all the trajectories in the neighborhood of the simulated one satisfy the same temporal specification as the simulated trajectory. The interesting and promising feature of our approach is that the more robust the system is with respect to the temporal logic specification, the less is the number of simulations that are required in order to verify the system. 1
Samplingbased falsification and verification of controllers for continuous dynamic systems
 Workshop on Algorithmic Foundations of Robotics VII
, 2006
"... Summary. In this paper, we present a samplingbased verification algorithm for continuous dynamic systems with uncertainty due to unmodeled disturbance inputs, unknown parameters, or initial conditions. The algorithm attempts to find inputs (and resulting trajectories) that falsify the specification ..."
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Cited by 11 (4 self)
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Summary. In this paper, we present a samplingbased verification algorithm for continuous dynamic systems with uncertainty due to unmodeled disturbance inputs, unknown parameters, or initial conditions. The algorithm attempts to find inputs (and resulting trajectories) that falsify the specifications of the system thus providing examples of bad inputs to the system. The system is said to be verified if the algorithm cannot find falsifying inputs. The main contribution of the paper is the analysis of the effects of discretization of the state and input spaces that are inherent to samplingbased techniques. We derive conditions that guarantee resolution completeness. These provide sufficient, although conservative, conditions for verifying Lipschitz continuous (but possibly non smooth) dynamic systems without known analytical solutions. We analyze the effects of transformations of the input and state space on these conditions. The main results of this paper are illustrated with several simple examples. 1
Generating and Analyzing Symbolic Traces of Simulink/Stateflow Models
"... Abstract. We present a methodology and a toolkit for improving simulation coverage of Simulink/Stateflow models of hybrid systems using symbolic analysis of simulation traces. We propose a novel instrumentation scheme that allows the simulation engine of Simulink/Stateflow to output, along with the ..."
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Cited by 10 (2 self)
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Abstract. We present a methodology and a toolkit for improving simulation coverage of Simulink/Stateflow models of hybrid systems using symbolic analysis of simulation traces. We propose a novel instrumentation scheme that allows the simulation engine of Simulink/Stateflow to output, along with the concrete simulation trace, the symbolic transformers needed for our analysis. Given a simulation trace, along with the symbolic transformers, our analysis computes a set of initial states that would lead to traces with the same sequence of discrete components at each step of the simulation. Such an analysis relies critically on the use of convex polyhedra to represent sets of states. However, the exponential complexity of the polyhedral operations implies that the performance of the analysis would degrade rapidly with the increasing size of the model and the simulation traces. We propose a new representation, called the bounded vertex representation, which allows us to perform underapproximate computations while fixing the complexity of the representation a priori. Using this representation we achieve a tradeoff between the complexity of the symbolic computation and the quality of the underapproximation. We demonstrate the benefits of our approach over existing simulation and verification methods with case studies. 1
Analog/MixedSignal Circuit Verification Using Models Generated from Simulation Traces ⋆
"... Abstract. Formal and semiformal verification of analog/mixedsignal circuits is complicated by the difficulty of obtaining circuit models suitable for analysis. We propose a method to generate a formal model from simulation traces. The resulting model is conservative in that it includes all of the ..."
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Cited by 9 (4 self)
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Abstract. Formal and semiformal verification of analog/mixedsignal circuits is complicated by the difficulty of obtaining circuit models suitable for analysis. We propose a method to generate a formal model from simulation traces. The resulting model is conservative in that it includes all of the original simulation traces used to generate it plus additional behavior. Information obtained during the model generation process can also be used to refine the simulation and verification process. 1
Robustness of temporal logic specifications
 IN: PROCEEDINGS OF FATES/RV. VOLUME 4262 OF LNCS
, 2006
"... In this paper, we consider the robust interpretation of metric temporal logic (MTL) formulas over timed sequences of states. For systems whose states are equipped with nontrivial metrics, such as continuous, hybrid, or general metric transition systems, robustness is not only natural, but also a cr ..."
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Cited by 8 (5 self)
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In this paper, we consider the robust interpretation of metric temporal logic (MTL) formulas over timed sequences of states. For systems whose states are equipped with nontrivial metrics, such as continuous, hybrid, or general metric transition systems, robustness is not only natural, but also a critical measure of system performance. In this paper, we define robust, multivalued semantics for MTL formulas, which capture not only the usual Boolean satisfiability of the formula, but also topological information regarding the distance, ε, from unsatisfiability. We prove that any other timed trace which remains εclose to the initial one also satisfies the same MTL specification with the usual Boolean semantics. We derive a computational procedure for determining an underapproximation to the robustness degree ε of the specification with respect to a given finite timed state sequence. Our approach can be used for robust system simulation and testing, as well as form the basis for simulationbased verification.
Safety Verification of Autonomous Vehicles for Coordinated Evasive Maneuvers
"... Abstract — The verification of evasive maneuvers for autonomous vehicles driving with constant velocity is considered. Modeling uncertainties, uncertain measurements, and disturbances can cause substantial deviations from an initially planned evasive maneuver. From this follows that the maneuver, wh ..."
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Cited by 7 (1 self)
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Abstract — The verification of evasive maneuvers for autonomous vehicles driving with constant velocity is considered. Modeling uncertainties, uncertain measurements, and disturbances can cause substantial deviations from an initially planned evasive maneuver. From this follows that the maneuver, which is safe under perfect conditions, might become unsafe. In this work, the possible set of deviations is computed with methods from reachability analysis, which allows to verify evasive maneuvers under consideration of the mentioned uncertainties. Since the presented approach has a short response time, it can be applied for real time safety decisions. The methods are presented for a numerical example where two autonomous cars plan a coordinated evasive maneuver in order to prevent a collision with a wrongway driver. I.
Parameter Synthesis for Hybrid Systems with an Application to Simulink Models
"... Abstract. This paper addresses a parameter synthesis problem for nonlinear hybrid systems. Considering a set of uncertain parameters and a safety property, we give an algorithm that returns a partition of the set of parameters into subsets classified as safe, unsafe, or uncertain, depending on wheth ..."
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Cited by 7 (1 self)
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Abstract. This paper addresses a parameter synthesis problem for nonlinear hybrid systems. Considering a set of uncertain parameters and a safety property, we give an algorithm that returns a partition of the set of parameters into subsets classified as safe, unsafe, or uncertain, depending on whether respectively all, none, or some of their behaviors satisfy the safety property. We make use of sensitivity analysis to compute approximations of reachable sets and an error control mechanism to determine the size of the partition elements in order to obtain the desired precision. We apply the technique to Simulink models by combining generated code with a numerical solver that can compute sensitivities to parameter variations. We present experimental results on a nontrivial Simulink model of a quadrotor helicopter. 1