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SemiSupervised Learning Literature Survey
, 2006
"... We review the literature on semisupervised learning, which is an area in machine learning and more generally, artificial intelligence. There has been a whole
spectrum of interesting ideas on how to learn from both labeled and unlabeled data, i.e. semisupervised learning. This document is a chapter ..."
Abstract

Cited by 447 (8 self)
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We review the literature on semisupervised learning, which is an area in machine learning and more generally, artificial intelligence. There has been a whole
spectrum of interesting ideas on how to learn from both labeled and unlabeled data, i.e. semisupervised learning. This document is a chapter excerpt from the author’s
doctoral thesis (Zhu, 2005). However the author plans to update the online version frequently to incorporate the latest development in the field. Please obtain the latest
version at http://www.cs.wisc.edu/~jerryzhu/pub/ssl_survey.pdf
Manifold regularization: A geometric framework for learning from labeled and unlabeled examples
 JOURNAL OF MACHINE LEARNING RESEARCH
, 2006
"... We propose a family of learning algorithms based on a new form of regularization that allows us to exploit the geometry of the marginal distribution. We focus on a semisupervised framework that incorporates labeled and unlabeled data in a generalpurpose learner. Some transductive graph learning al ..."
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Cited by 332 (13 self)
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We propose a family of learning algorithms based on a new form of regularization that allows us to exploit the geometry of the marginal distribution. We focus on a semisupervised framework that incorporates labeled and unlabeled data in a generalpurpose learner. Some transductive graph learning algorithms and standard methods including Support Vector Machines and Regularized Least Squares can be obtained as special cases. We utilize properties of Reproducing Kernel Hilbert spaces to prove new Representer theorems that provide theoretical basis for the algorithms. As a result (in contrast to purely graphbased approaches) we obtain a natural outofsample extension to novel examples and so are able to handle both transductive and truly semisupervised settings. We present experimental evidence suggesting that our semisupervised algorithms are able to use unlabeled data effectively. Finally we have a brief discussion of unsupervised and fully supervised learning within our general framework.
Consistency of spectral clustering
, 2004
"... Consistency is a key property of statistical algorithms, when the data is drawn from some underlying probability distribution. Surprisingly, despite decades of work, little is known about consistency of most clustering algorithms. In this paper we investigate consistency of a popular family of spe ..."
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Cited by 286 (15 self)
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Consistency is a key property of statistical algorithms, when the data is drawn from some underlying probability distribution. Surprisingly, despite decades of work, little is known about consistency of most clustering algorithms. In this paper we investigate consistency of a popular family of spectral clustering algorithms, which cluster the data with the help of eigenvectors of graph Laplacian matrices. We show that one of the two of major classes of spectral clustering (normalized clustering) converges under some very general conditions, while the other (unnormalized), is only consistent under strong additional assumptions, which, as we demonstrate, are not always satisfied in real data. We conclude that our analysis provides strong evidence for the superiority of normalized spectral clustering in practical applications. We believe that methods used in our analysis will provide a basis for future exploration of Laplacianbased methods in a statistical setting.
Diffusion kernels on graphs and other discrete input spaces
 in: Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Machine Learning
, 2002
"... The application of kernelbased learning algorithms has, so far, largely been confined to realvalued data and a few special data types, such as strings. In this paper we propose a general method of constructing natural families of kernels over discrete structures, based on the matrix exponentiation ..."
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Cited by 187 (7 self)
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The application of kernelbased learning algorithms has, so far, largely been confined to realvalued data and a few special data types, such as strings. In this paper we propose a general method of constructing natural families of kernels over discrete structures, based on the matrix exponentiation idea. In particular, we focus on generating kernels on graphs, for which we propose a special class of exponential kernels called diffusion kernels, which are based on the heat equation and can be regarded as the discretization of the familiar Gaussian kernel of Euclidean space.
Kernels and Regularization on Graphs
, 2003
"... We introduce a family of kernels on graphs based on the notion of regularization operators. This generalizes in a natural way the notion of regularization and Greens functions, as commonly used for real valued functions, to graphs. It turns out that di#usion kernels can be found as a special cas ..."
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Cited by 168 (9 self)
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We introduce a family of kernels on graphs based on the notion of regularization operators. This generalizes in a natural way the notion of regularization and Greens functions, as commonly used for real valued functions, to graphs. It turns out that di#usion kernels can be found as a special case of our reasoning. We show that the class of positive, monotonically decreasing functions on the unit interval leads to kernels and corresponding regularization operators.
Unsupervised Learning of Image Manifolds by Semidefinite Programming
, 2004
"... Can we detect low dimensional structure in high dimensional data sets of images and video? The problem of dimensionality reduction arises often in computer vision and pattern recognition. In this paper, we propose a new solution to this problem based on semidefinite programming. Our algorithm can be ..."
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Cited by 162 (9 self)
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Can we detect low dimensional structure in high dimensional data sets of images and video? The problem of dimensionality reduction arises often in computer vision and pattern recognition. In this paper, we propose a new solution to this problem based on semidefinite programming. Our algorithm can be used to analyze high dimensional data that lies on or near a low dimensional manifold. It overcomes certain limitations of previous work in manifold learning, such as Isomap and locally linear embedding. We illustrate the algorithm on easily visualized examples of curves and surfaces, as well as on actual images of faces, handwritten digits, and solid objects.
Semisupervised learning on Riemannian manifolds
 Machine Learning
, 2004
"... We consider the general problem of utilizing both labeled and unlabeled data to improve classification accuracy. Under the assumption that the data lie on a submanifold in a high dimensional space, we develop an algorithmic framework to classify a partially labeled data set in a principled manner. T ..."
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Cited by 157 (8 self)
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We consider the general problem of utilizing both labeled and unlabeled data to improve classification accuracy. Under the assumption that the data lie on a submanifold in a high dimensional space, we develop an algorithmic framework to classify a partially labeled data set in a principled manner. The central idea of our approach is that classification functions are naturally defined only on the submanifold in question rather than the total ambient space. Using the LaplaceBeltrami operator one produces a basis (the Laplacian Eigenmaps) for a Hilbert space of square integrable functions on the submanifold. To recover such a basis, only unlabeled examples are required. Once such a basis is obtained, training can be performed using the labeled data set. Our algorithm models the manifold using the adjacency graph for the data and approximates the LaplaceBeltrami operator by the graph Laplacian. We provide details of the algorithm, its theoretical justification, and several practical applications for image, speech, and text classification. 1.
Geometric diffusions as a tool for harmonic analysis and structure definition of data: Diffusion maps
 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
, 2005
"... of contexts of data analysis, such as spectral graph theory, manifold learning, nonlinear principal components and kernel methods. We augment these approaches by showing that the diffusion distance is a key intrinsic geometric quantity linking spectral theory of the Markov process, Laplace operators ..."
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Cited by 151 (35 self)
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of contexts of data analysis, such as spectral graph theory, manifold learning, nonlinear principal components and kernel methods. We augment these approaches by showing that the diffusion distance is a key intrinsic geometric quantity linking spectral theory of the Markov process, Laplace operators, or kernels, to the corresponding geometry and density of the data. This opens the door to the application of methods from numerical analysis and signal processing to the analysis of functions and transformations of the data. Abstract. We provide a framework for structural multiscale geometric organization of graphs and subsets of Rn. We use diffusion semigroups to generate multiscale geometries in order to organize and represent complex structures. We show that appropriately selected eigenfunctions or scaling functions of Markov matrices, which describe local transitions, lead to macroscopic descriptions at different scales. The process of iterating or diffusing the Markov matrix is seen as a generalization of some aspects of the Newtonian paradigm, in which local infinitesimal transitions of a system lead to global macroscopic descriptions by integration. In Part I below, we provide a unified view of ideas from data analysis, machine learning and numerical analysis. In Part II [1], we augment this approach by introducing fast orderN algorithms for homogenization of heterogeneous structures as well as for data representation. 1.
Regularized multitask learning
, 2004
"... This paper provides a foundation for multi–task learning using reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces of vector–valued functions. In this setting, the kernel is a matrix–valued function. Some explicit examples will be described which go beyond our earlier results in [7]. In particular, we characterize cl ..."
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Cited by 151 (1 self)
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This paper provides a foundation for multi–task learning using reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces of vector–valued functions. In this setting, the kernel is a matrix–valued function. Some explicit examples will be described which go beyond our earlier results in [7]. In particular, we characterize classes of matrix– valued kernels which are linear and are of the dot product or the translation invariant type. We discuss how these kernels can be used to model relations between the tasks and present linear multi–task learning algorithms. Finally, we present a novel proof of the representer theorem for a minimizer of a regularization functional which is based on the notion of minimal norm interpolation. 1
Robust Principal Component Analysis?
, 2009
"... This paper is about a curious phenomenon. Suppose we have a data matrix, which is the superposition of a lowrank component and a sparse component. Can we recover each component individually? We prove that under some suitable assumptions, it is possible to recover both the lowrank and the sparse co ..."
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Cited by 138 (6 self)
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This paper is about a curious phenomenon. Suppose we have a data matrix, which is the superposition of a lowrank component and a sparse component. Can we recover each component individually? We prove that under some suitable assumptions, it is possible to recover both the lowrank and the sparse components exactly by solving a very convenient convex program called Principal Component Pursuit; among all feasible decompositions, simply minimize a weighted combination of the nuclear norm and of the ℓ1 norm. This suggests the possibility of a principled approach to robust principal component analysis since our methodology and results assert that one can recover the principal components of a data matrix even though a positive fraction of its entries are arbitrarily corrupted. This extends to the situation where a fraction of the entries are missing as well. We discuss an algorithm for solving this optimization problem, and present applications in the area of video surveillance, where our methodology allows for the detection of objects in a cluttered background, and in the area of face recognition, where it offers a principled way of removing shadows and specularities in images of faces.