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Reach for A∗: Efficient pointtopoint shortest path algorithms
 IN WORKSHOP ON ALGORITHM ENGINEERING & EXPERIMENTS
, 2006
"... We study the pointtopoint shortest path problem in a setting where preprocessing is allowed. We improve the reachbased approach of Gutman [16] in several ways. In particular, we introduce a bidirectional version of the algorithm that uses implicit lower bounds and we add shortcut arcs which reduc ..."
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Cited by 60 (5 self)
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We study the pointtopoint shortest path problem in a setting where preprocessing is allowed. We improve the reachbased approach of Gutman [16] in several ways. In particular, we introduce a bidirectional version of the algorithm that uses implicit lower bounds and we add shortcut arcs which reduce vertex reaches. Our modifications greatly reduce both preprocessing and query times. The resulting algorithm is as fast as the best previous method, due to Sanders and Schultes [27]. However, our algorithm is simpler and combines in a natural way with A∗ search, which yields significantly better query times.
Scalable Network Distance Browsing in Spatial Databases
, 2008
"... An algorithm is presented for finding the k nearest neighbors in a spatial network in a bestfirst manner using network distance. The algorithm is based on precomputing the shortest paths between all possible vertices in the network and then making use of an encoding that takes advantage of the fact ..."
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Cited by 46 (8 self)
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An algorithm is presented for finding the k nearest neighbors in a spatial network in a bestfirst manner using network distance. The algorithm is based on precomputing the shortest paths between all possible vertices in the network and then making use of an encoding that takes advantage of the fact that the shortest paths from vertex u to all of the remaining vertices can be decomposed into subsets based on the first edges on the shortest paths to them from u. Thus, in the worst case, the amount of work depends on the number of objects that are examined and the number of links on the shortest paths to them from q, rather than depending on the number of vertices in the network. The amount of storage required to keep track of the subsets is reduced by taking advantage of their spatial coherence which is captured by the aid of a shortest path quadtree. In particular, experiments on a number of large road networks as
Engineering multilevel overlay graphs for shortestpath queries
 IN: PROCEEDINGS OF THE EIGHT WORKSHOP ON ALGORITHM ENGINEERING AND EXPERIMENTS (ALENEX06), SIAM
, 2006
"... An overlay graph of a given graph G =(V,E) on a subset S ⊆ V is a graph with vertex set S that preserves some property of G. In particular, we consider variations of the multilevel overlay graph used in [21] to speed up shortestpath computations. In this work, we follow up and present general verte ..."
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Cited by 24 (8 self)
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An overlay graph of a given graph G =(V,E) on a subset S ⊆ V is a graph with vertex set S that preserves some property of G. In particular, we consider variations of the multilevel overlay graph used in [21] to speed up shortestpath computations. In this work, we follow up and present general vertex selection criteria and strategies of applying these criteria to determine a subset S inducing an overlay graph. The main contribution is a systematic experimental study where we investigate the impact of selection criteria and strategies on multilevel overlay graphs and the resulting speedup achieved for shortestpath queries. Depending on selection strategy and graph type, a centrality index criterion, a criterion based on planar separators, and vertex degree turned out to be good selection criteria.
Efficient query processing on spatial networks
 In Proceedings of the 13th ACM International Symposium on Advances in Geographic Information Systems
, 2005
"... A framework for determining the shortest path and the distance between every pair of vertices on a spatial network is presented. The framework, termed SILC, uses path coherence between the shortest path and the spatial positions of vertices on the spatial network, thereby, resulting in an encoding t ..."
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Cited by 23 (12 self)
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A framework for determining the shortest path and the distance between every pair of vertices on a spatial network is presented. The framework, termed SILC, uses path coherence between the shortest path and the spatial positions of vertices on the spatial network, thereby, resulting in an encoding that is compact in representation and fast in path and distance retrievals. Using this framework, a wide variety of spatial queries such as incremental nearest neighbor searches and spatial distance joins can be shown to work on datasets of locations residing on a spatial network of sufficiently large size. The suggested framework is suitable for both main memory and diskresident datasets. Categories and Subject Descriptors
Engineering Route Planning Algorithms
 ALGORITHMICS OF LARGE AND COMPLEX NETWORKS. LECTURE NOTES IN COMPUTER SCIENCE
, 2009
"... Algorithms for route planning in transportation networks have recently undergone a rapid development, leading to methods that are up to three million times faster than Dijkstra’s algorithm. We give an overview of the techniques enabling this development and point out frontiers of ongoing research on ..."
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Cited by 23 (14 self)
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Algorithms for route planning in transportation networks have recently undergone a rapid development, leading to methods that are up to three million times faster than Dijkstra’s algorithm. We give an overview of the techniques enabling this development and point out frontiers of ongoing research on more challenging variants of the problem that include dynamically changing networks, timedependent routing, and flexible objective functions.
Highway hierarchies star
 9TH DIMACS IMPLEMENTATION CHALLENGE
, 2006
"... We study two speedup techniques for route planning in road networks: highway hierarchies (HH) and goal directed search using landmarks (ALT). It turns out that there are several interesting synergies. Highway hierarchies yield a way to implement landmark selection more efficiently and to store landm ..."
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Cited by 23 (10 self)
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We study two speedup techniques for route planning in road networks: highway hierarchies (HH) and goal directed search using landmarks (ALT). It turns out that there are several interesting synergies. Highway hierarchies yield a way to implement landmark selection more efficiently and to store landmark information more space efficiently than before. ALT gives queries in highway hierarchies an excellent sense of direction and allows some pruning of the search space. For computing shortest distances and approximately shortest travel times, this combination yields a significant speedup over HH alone. We also explain how to compute actual shortest paths very efficiently.
Combining SpeedUp Techniques for ShortestPath Computations
 In Proc. 3rd Workshop on Experimental and Efficient Algorithms. LNCS
, 2004
"... Computing a shortest path from one node to another in a directed graph is a very common task in practice. This problem is classically solved by Dijkstra's algorithm. Many techniques are known to speed up this algorithm heuristically, while optimality of the solution can still be guaranteed. In m ..."
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Cited by 20 (6 self)
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Computing a shortest path from one node to another in a directed graph is a very common task in practice. This problem is classically solved by Dijkstra's algorithm. Many techniques are known to speed up this algorithm heuristically, while optimality of the solution can still be guaranteed. In most studies, such techniques are considered individually.
Computing ManytoMany Shortest Paths Using Highway Hierarchies
, 2007
"... We present a fast algorithm for computing all shortest paths between source nodes s ∈ S and target nodes t ∈ T. This problem is important as an initial step for many operations research problems (e.g., the vehicle routing problem), which require the distances between S and T as input. Our approach i ..."
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Cited by 16 (5 self)
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We present a fast algorithm for computing all shortest paths between source nodes s ∈ S and target nodes t ∈ T. This problem is important as an initial step for many operations research problems (e.g., the vehicle routing problem), which require the distances between S and T as input. Our approach is based on highway hierarchies, which are also used for the currently fastest speedup techniques for shortest path queries in road networks. We show how to use highway hierarchies so that for example, a 10 000 × 10 000 distance table in the European road network can be computed in about one minute. These results are based on a simple basic idea, several refinements, and careful engineering of the approach. We also explain how the approach can be parallelized and how the computation can be restricted to computing only the k closest connections.
Highperformance multilevel graphs
 IN: 9TH DIMACS IMPLEMENTATION CHALLENGE
, 2006
"... Shortestpath computation is a frequent task in practice. Owing to evergrowing realworld graphs, there is a constant need for faster algorithms. In the course of time, a large number of techniques to heuristically speed up Dijkstra’s shortestpath algorithm have been devised. This work reviews the ..."
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Cited by 15 (4 self)
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Shortestpath computation is a frequent task in practice. Owing to evergrowing realworld graphs, there is a constant need for faster algorithms. In the course of time, a large number of techniques to heuristically speed up Dijkstra’s shortestpath algorithm have been devised. This work reviews the multilevel technique to answer shortestpath queries exactly [SWZ02, HSW06], which makes use of a hierarchical decomposition of the input graph and precomputation of supplementary information. We develop this preprocessing to the maximum and introduce several ideas to enhance this approach considerably, by reorganizing the precomputed data in partial graphs and optimizing them individually. To answer a given query, certain partial graphs are combined to a search graph, which can be explored by a simple and fast procedure. Experiments confirm query times of less than 200 µs for a road graph with over 15 million vertices.
Geometric Containers for Efficient ShortestPath Computation
 ACM Journal of Experimental Algorithmics
, 2005
"... A fundamental approach in finding efficiently best routes or optimal itineraries in traffic information systems is to reduce the search space (part of graph visited) of the most commonly used shortest path routine (Dijkstra’s algorithm) on a suitably defined graph. We investigate reduction of the se ..."
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Cited by 15 (7 self)
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A fundamental approach in finding efficiently best routes or optimal itineraries in traffic information systems is to reduce the search space (part of graph visited) of the most commonly used shortest path routine (Dijkstra’s algorithm) on a suitably defined graph. We investigate reduction of the search space while simultaneously retaining data structures, created during a preprocessing phase, of size linear (i.e., optimal) to the size of the graph. We show that the search space of Dijkstra’s algorithm can be significantly reduced by extracting geometric information from a given layout of the graph and by encapsulating precomputed shortestpath information in resulted geometric objects (containers). We present an extensive experimental study comparing the impact of different types of geometric containers using test data from realworld traffic networks. We also present new algorithms as well as an empirical study for the dynamic case of this problem, where edge weights are subject to change and the geometric containers have to be updated and show that our new methods are two to three times faster than recomputing everything from scratch. Finally, in an appendix, we discuss the software framework that we developed to realize the implementations of all of our variants of Dijkstra’s algorithm. Such a framework is not trivial to achieve as our goal was to maintain a common code base that is, at the same time, small, efficient, and flexible,