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318
Probabilistic discovery of time series motifs
, 2003
"... Several important time series data mining problems reduce to the core task of finding approximately repeated subsequences in a longer time series. In an earlier work, we formalized the idea of approximately repeated subsequences by introducing the notion of time series motifs. Two limitations of thi ..."
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Cited by 184 (26 self)
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Several important time series data mining problems reduce to the core task of finding approximately repeated subsequences in a longer time series. In an earlier work, we formalized the idea of approximately repeated subsequences by introducing the notion of time series motifs. Two limitations of this work were the poor scalability of the motif discovery algorithm, and the inability to discover motifs in the presence of noise. Here we address these limitations by introducing a novel algorithm inspired by recent advances in the problem of pattern discovery in biosequences. Our algorithm is probabilistic in nature, but as we show empirically and theoretically, it can find time series motifs with very high probability even in the presence of noise or “don’t care ” symbols. Not only is the algorithm fast, but it is an anytime algorithm, producing likely candidate motifs almost immediately, and gradually improving the quality of results over time.
Robust and fast similarity search for moving object trajectories
 In Proc. ACM SIGMOD Int. Conf. on Management of Data
, 2005
"... An important consideration in similaritybased retrieval of moving object trajectories is the definition of a distance function. The existing distance functions are usually sensitive to noise, shifts and scaling of data that commonly occur due to sensor failures, errors in detection techniques, dis ..."
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Cited by 154 (14 self)
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An important consideration in similaritybased retrieval of moving object trajectories is the definition of a distance function. The existing distance functions are usually sensitive to noise, shifts and scaling of data that commonly occur due to sensor failures, errors in detection techniques, disturbance signals, and different sampling rates. Cleaning data to eliminate these is not always possible. In this paper, we introduce a novel distance function, Edit Distance on Real sequence (EDR) which is robust against these data imperfections. Analysis and comparison of EDR with other popular distance functions, such as Euclidean distance, Dynamic Time Warping (DTW), Edit distance with Real Penalty (ERP), and Longest Common Subsequences (LCSS), indicate that EDR is more robust than Euclidean distance, DTW and ERP, and it is on average 50% more accurate than LCSS. We also develop three pruning techniques to improve the retrieval efficiency of EDR and show that these techniques can be combined effectively in a search, increasing the pruning power significantly. The experimental results confirm the superior efficiency of the combined methods. 1.
Towards parameterfree data mining
 In: Proc. 10th ACM SIGKDD Intn’l Conf. Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining
, 2004
"... Most data mining algorithms require the setting of many input parameters. Two main dangers of working with parameterladen algorithms are the following. First, incorrect settings may cause an algorithm to fail in finding the true patterns. Second, a perhaps more insidious problem is that the algorit ..."
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Cited by 145 (19 self)
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Most data mining algorithms require the setting of many input parameters. Two main dangers of working with parameterladen algorithms are the following. First, incorrect settings may cause an algorithm to fail in finding the true patterns. Second, a perhaps more insidious problem is that the algorithm may report spurious patterns that do not really exist, or greatly overestimate the significance of the reported patterns. This is especially likely when the user fails to understand the role of parameters in the data mining process. Data mining algorithms should have as few parameters as possible, ideally none. A parameterfree algorithm would limit our ability to impose our prejudices, expectations, and presumptions on the problem at hand, and would let the data itself speak to us. In this work, we show that recent results in bioinformatics and computational theory hold great promise for a parameterfree datamining paradigm. The results are motivated by observations in Kolmogorov complexity theory. However, as a practical matter, they can be implemented using any offtheshelf compression algorithm with the addition of just a dozen or so lines of code. We will show that this approach is competitive or superior to the stateoftheart approaches in anomaly/interestingness detection, classification, and clustering with empirical tests on time series/DNA/text/video datasets.
Querying and Mining of Time Series Data: Experimental Comparison of Representations and Distance Measures
"... The last decade has witnessed a tremendous growths of interests in applications that deal with querying and mining of time series data. Numerous representation methods for dimensionality reduction and similarity measures geared towards time series have been introduced. Each individual work introduci ..."
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Cited by 140 (24 self)
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The last decade has witnessed a tremendous growths of interests in applications that deal with querying and mining of time series data. Numerous representation methods for dimensionality reduction and similarity measures geared towards time series have been introduced. Each individual work introducing a particular method has made specific claims and, aside from the occasional theoretical justifications, provided quantitative experimental observations. However, for the most part, the comparative aspects of these experiments were too narrowly focused on demonstrating the benefits of the proposed methods over some of the previously introduced ones. In order to provide a comprehensive validation, we conducted an extensive set of time series experiments reimplementing 8 different representation methods and 9 similarity measures and their variants, and testing their effectiveness on 38 time series data sets from a wide variety of application domains. In this paper, we give an overview of these different techniques and present our comparative experimental findings regarding their effectiveness. Our experiments have provided both a unified validation of some of the existing achievements, and in some cases, suggested that certain claims in the literature may be unduly optimistic. 1.
Clustering of Time Series Subsequences is Meaningless: Implications for Past and Future Research
 In Proc. of the 3rd IEEE International Conference on Data Mining
, 2003
"... Time series data is perhaps the most frequently encountered type of data examined by the data mining community. Clustering is perhaps the most frequently used data mining algorithm, being useful in it’s own right as an exploratory technique, and also as a subroutine in more complex data mining algor ..."
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Cited by 116 (18 self)
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Time series data is perhaps the most frequently encountered type of data examined by the data mining community. Clustering is perhaps the most frequently used data mining algorithm, being useful in it’s own right as an exploratory technique, and also as a subroutine in more complex data mining algorithms such as rule discovery, indexing, summarization, anomaly detection, and classification. Given these two facts, it is hardly surprising that time series clustering has attracted much attention. The data to be clustered can be in one of two formats: many individual time series, or a single time series, from which individual time series are extracted with a sliding window. Given the recent explosion of interest in streaming data and online algorithms, the latter case has received much attention. In this work we make a surprising claim. Clustering of streaming time series is completely meaningless. More concretely, clusters extracted from streaming time series are forced to obey a certain constraint that is pathologically unlikely to be satisfied by any dataset, and because of this, the clusters extracted by any clustering algorithm are essentially random. While this constraint can be intuitively demonstrated with a simple illustration and is simple to prove, it has never appeared in the literature. We can justify calling our claim surprising, since it invalidates the contribution of dozens of previously published papers. We will justify our claim with a theorem, illustrative examples, and a comprehensive set of experiments on reimplementations of previous work. Although the primary contribution of our work is to draw attention to the fact that an apparent solution to an important problem is incorrect and should no longer be used, we also introduce a novel method which, based on the concept of time series motifs, is able to meaningfully cluster some streaming time series datasets.
Hot sax: Efficiently finding the most unusual time series subsequence
, 2005
"... In this work, we introduce the new problem of finding time series discords. Time series discords are subsequences of a longer time series that are maximally different to all the rest of the time series subsequences. They thus capture the sense of the most unusual subsequence within a time series. Ti ..."
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Cited by 107 (5 self)
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In this work, we introduce the new problem of finding time series discords. Time series discords are subsequences of a longer time series that are maximally different to all the rest of the time series subsequences. They thus capture the sense of the most unusual subsequence within a time series. Time series discords have many uses for data mining, including improving the quality of clustering, data cleaning, summarization, and anomaly detection. As we will show, discords are particularly attractive as anomaly detectors because they only require one intuitive parameter (the length of the subsequence) unlike most anomaly detection algorithms that typically require many parameters. We evaluate our work with a comprehensive set of experiments. In particular, we demonstrate the utility of discords with objective experiments on domains as diverse as Space Shuttle telemetry monitoring, medicine, surveillance, and industry, and we demonstrate the effectiveness of our discord discovery algorithm with more than one million experiments, on 82 different datasets from diverse domains.
On the Marriage of L_pnorms and Edit Distance
 IN VLDB
, 2004
"... Existing studies on time series are based on two categories of distance functions. The first category consists of the Lpnorms. They are metric distance functions but cannot support local time shifting. The second category consists of distance functions which are capable of handling local time shift ..."
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Cited by 99 (3 self)
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Existing studies on time series are based on two categories of distance functions. The first category consists of the Lpnorms. They are metric distance functions but cannot support local time shifting. The second category consists of distance functions which are capable of handling local time shifting but are nonmetric. The first
Making Timeseries Classification More Accurate Using Learned Constraints
, 2004
"... It has long been known that Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) is superior to Euclidean distance for classification and clustering of time series. However, until lately, most research has utilized Euclidean distance because it is more efficiently calculated. A recently introduced technique that greatly miti ..."
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Cited by 81 (18 self)
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It has long been known that Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) is superior to Euclidean distance for classification and clustering of time series. However, until lately, most research has utilized Euclidean distance because it is more efficiently calculated. A recently introduced technique that greatly mitigates DTWs demanding CPU time has sparked a flurry of research activity. However, the technique and its many extensions still only allow DTW to be applied to moderately large datasets. In addition, almost all of the research on DTW has focused exclusively on speeding up its calculation; there has been little work done on improving its accuracy. In this work, we target the accuracy aspect of DTW performance and introduce a new framework that learns arbitrary constraints on the warping path of the DTW calculation. Apart from improving the accuracy of classification, our technique as a side effect speeds up DTW by a wide margin as well. We show the utility of our approach on datasets from diverse domains and demonstrate significant gains in accuracy and efficiency.
Indexing large humanmotion databases
 In Proc. 30th VLDB Conf
, 2004
"... Datadriven animation has become the industry standard for computer games and many animated movies and special effects. In particular, motion capture data recorded from live actors, is the most promising approach offered thus far for animating realistic human characters. However, the manipulation of ..."
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Cited by 65 (6 self)
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Datadriven animation has become the industry standard for computer games and many animated movies and special effects. In particular, motion capture data recorded from live actors, is the most promising approach offered thus far for animating realistic human characters. However, the manipulation of such data for general use and reuse is not yet a solved problem. Many of the existing techniques dealing with editing motion rely on indexing for annotation, segmentation, and reordering of the data. Euclidean distance is inappropriate for solving these indexing problems because of the inherent variability found in human motion. The limitations of Euclidean distance stems from the fact that it is very sensitive to distortions in the time axis. A partial solution to this problem, Dynamic Time Warping (DTW), aligns the time axis
Aligned cluster analysis for temporal segmentation of human motion. Automatic Face & Gesture Recognition
, 2008
"... Temporal segmentation of human motion into actions is a crucial step for understanding and building computational models of human motion. Several issues contribute to the challenge of this task. These include the large variability in the temporal scale and periodicity of human actions, as well as th ..."
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Cited by 55 (7 self)
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Temporal segmentation of human motion into actions is a crucial step for understanding and building computational models of human motion. Several issues contribute to the challenge of this task. These include the large variability in the temporal scale and periodicity of human actions, as well as the exponential nature of all possible movement combinations. We formulate the temporal segmentation problem as an extension of standard clustering algorithms. In particular, this paper proposes Aligned Cluster Analysis (ACA), a robust method to temporally segment streams of motion capture data into actions. ACA extends standard kernel kmeans clustering in two ways: (1) the cluster means contain a variable number of features, and (2) a dynamic time warping (DTW) kernel is used to achieve temporal invariance. Experimental results, reported on synthetic data and the Carnegie Mellon Motion Capture database, demonstrate its effectiveness.