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11
Hierarchical Traffic Grooming in LargeScale WDM Networks
, 2005
"... The advances in fiber optics and wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) technology are viewed as the key to satisfying the datadriven bandwidth demand of today’s Internet. The mismatch of bandwidths between user needs and wavelength capacity makes it clear that some multiplexing should be done to u ..."
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Cited by 3 (2 self)
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The advances in fiber optics and wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) technology are viewed as the key to satisfying the datadriven bandwidth demand of today’s Internet. The mismatch of bandwidths between user needs and wavelength capacity makes it clear that some multiplexing should be done to use the wavelength capacity efficiently, which will result in reduction on the cost of line terminating equipment (LTE). The technique is referred to as traffic grooming. Previous studies have concentrated on different objectives, or on some special network topologies such as rings. In our study, we aim at minimizing the LTE cost to directly target on minimizing the network cost. We look into the grooming problem in elemental topologies as a starting point. First, we conduct proofs to show that traffic grooming in path, ring and star topology networks with the cost function we consider is NPComplete. We also show the same complexity results for a MinMax objective that has not been considered before, on the two elementary topologies. We then design polynomialtime heuristic algorithms for the grooming problem in rings (thus implicitly paths) and stars for networks of larger size. Experiments on various network sizes and traffic patterns
The role of switching in reducing the number of electronic ports in WDM networks
 IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun
, 2004
"... Abstract—We consider the role of switching in minimizing the number of electronic ports [e.g., synchronous optical network (SONET) add/drop multiplexers] in an optical network that carries subwavelength traffic. Providing nodes with the ability to switch traffic between wavelengths, such as through ..."
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Abstract—We consider the role of switching in minimizing the number of electronic ports [e.g., synchronous optical network (SONET) add/drop multiplexers] in an optical network that carries subwavelength traffic. Providing nodes with the ability to switch traffic between wavelengths, such as through the use of SONET crossconnects, can reduce the required number of electronic ports. We show that only limited switching ability is needed for significant reductions in the number of ports. First, we consider architectures where certain “hub ” nodes can switch traffic between wavelengths and other nodes have no switching capability. For such architectures, we provide a lower bound on the number of electronic ports that is a function of the number of hub nodes. We show that our lower bound is relatively tight by providing routing and grooming algorithms that nearly achieve the bound. For uniform traffic, we show that the number of electronic ports is nearly minimized when the number of hub nodes used is equal to the number of wavelengths of traffic generated by each node. Next, we consider architectures where the switching ability is distributed throughout the network. Such architectures are shown to require a similar number of ports as the hub architectures, but with a significantly smaller “switching cost. ” We give an algorithm for designing such architectures and characterize a class of topologies, where the minimum number of ports is used. Finally, we provide a general upper bound on the amount of switching required in the network. For uniform traffic, our bound shows that as the size of the network increases, each traffic stream must be switched at most once in order to achieve the minimum port count. Index Terms—Optical networks, synchronous optical network (SONET), traffic grooming. I.
Optimal Transceiver Scheduling in WDM/TDM Networks
 IEEE JOURNAL ON SELECTED AREAS IN COMMUNICATIONS
"... Abstract—In this paper, we study the benefits of using tunable transceivers for reducing the required number of electronic ports in wavelengthdivisionmultiplexing/timedivision multiplexing optical networks. We show that such transceivers can be used to efficiently “groom ” subwavelength traffic i ..."
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Abstract—In this paper, we study the benefits of using tunable transceivers for reducing the required number of electronic ports in wavelengthdivisionmultiplexing/timedivision multiplexing optical networks. We show that such transceivers can be used to efficiently “groom ” subwavelength traffic in the optical domain and so can significantly reduce the amount of terminal equipment needed compared with the fixedtuned case. Formulations for this “tunable grooming ” problem are provided, where the objective is to schedule transceivers so as to minimize the required number of ports needed for a given traffic demand. We establish a relationship between this problem and edge colorings of graphs which are determined by the offered traffic. Using this relationship, we show that, in general, this problem is NPcomplete, but we are able to efficiently solve it for many cases of interest. When the number of wavelengths in the network is not limited, each node is shown to only require the minimum number of transceivers (i.e., no more transceivers than the amount of traffic that it generates). This holds regardless of the network topology or traffic pattern. When the number of wavelengths is limited, an analogous result is shown for both uniform and hub traffic in a ring. We then develop a heuristic algorithm for general traffic that uses nearly the minimum number of transceivers. In most cases, tunable transceivers are shown to reduce the number of ports per node by as much as 60%. We also consider the case where traffic can dynamically change among an allowable set of traffic demands. Tunability is again shown to significantly reduce the port requirement for a nonblocking ring, both with and without rearrangements. Index Terms—Graph coloring, integer linear programming (ILP), optical networks, traffic grooming, wavelengthdivision multiplexing (WDM). I.
On the Benefit of Tunability in Reducing Electronic Port Counts in WDM/TDM Networks
 IEEE INFOCOM
, 2004
"... Abstract — In this paper, we study the benefits of using tunable transceivers for reducing the required number of electronic ports in WDM/TDM networks. We show that such transceivers can be used to efficiently “groom ” subwavelength traffic in the optical domain and so can significantly reduce the ..."
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Abstract — In this paper, we study the benefits of using tunable transceivers for reducing the required number of electronic ports in WDM/TDM networks. We show that such transceivers can be used to efficiently “groom ” subwavelength traffic in the optical domain and so can significantly reduce the number of electronic ports compared to the fixed tuned case. We provide a new formulation for this “tunable grooming ” problem. We show that in general this problem is NPcomplete, but we are able to efficiently solve it for many cases of interest. When the number of wavelengths in the network is not limited, we show that each node only needs the minimum number of transceivers (i.e., no more transceivers than the amount of traffic that it generates). This holds regardless of the network topology or traffic pattern. When the number of wavelengths is limited, we show an analogous result for both uniform and hub traffic in a ring. We also develop a heuristic algorithm for general traffic that uses nearly the minimum number of transceivers. In most cases, tunable transceivers are shown to reduce the number of ports per node by as much as 60%. I.
A Genetic Algorithm based Methodology for Optimizing MultiService Convergence in a Metro WDM Network
 IEEE/OSA Journal of Lightwave Technology
, 2003
"... We consider the multiobjective optimization of a multiservice AWGbased singlehop metro WDM network with the two conflicting objectives of maximizing throughput while minimizing delay. We develop and evaluate a genetic algorithm based methodology for finding the optimal throughputdelay trad ..."
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We consider the multiobjective optimization of a multiservice AWGbased singlehop metro WDM network with the two conflicting objectives of maximizing throughput while minimizing delay. We develop and evaluate a genetic algorithm based methodology for finding the optimal throughputdelay tradeo# curve, the so called Paretooptimal frontier. Our methodology provides the network architecture (hardware) and the Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol parameters that achieve the Paretooptima in a computationally e#cient manner. The numerical results obtained with our methodology provide the Paretooptimal network planning and operation solutions for a wide range of tra#c scenarios. The presented methodology is applicable to other networks with a similar throughputdelay tradeo#.
Towards using the network as a switch: On the use of TDM in linear optical networks
, 2004
"... A common problem in optical networking is that the large quantity of raw bandwidth available in such networks is often difficult to access. We show that timedivision multiplexing (TDM) can be used to operate bus and ring architectures in a manner akin to a switch. We consider a timevarying approac ..."
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A common problem in optical networking is that the large quantity of raw bandwidth available in such networks is often difficult to access. We show that timedivision multiplexing (TDM) can be used to operate bus and ring architectures in a manner akin to a switch. We consider a timevarying approach, akin to that used in switching theory, instead of the static approach, related to the knapsack problem, often associated with fixed allocation of traffic onto circuits, often termed the grooming problem. Our approach is probabilistic in nature, and requires significant generalization beyond the Birkhoffvon Neumann statistical multiplexing approaches have that have been successful in switching theory. Our techniques rely on decompositions of 1 fractional matchings (for architectures without erasures) and fractional interval graph colorings (for architectures with erasures) into integral matchings and colorings. We show, moreover, that such TDM using statistical multiplexing substantially reduces the amount of hardware (particularly ADMs) needed to utilize fully the available bandwidth in a range of optical networks. We show that a significant fraction (and in some cases all) of the bandwidth available to the system can be utilized, even if each node in the system has only a single ADM.
Survivable Traffic Grooming in WDM Optical Networks
"... Abstract — Traffic grooming, in which lowrate circuits are multiplexed onto wavelengths, with the goal of minimizing the number of adddrop multiplexers (ADMs) and wavelengths has received much research attention from the optical networking community in recent years. While previous work has conside ..."
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Abstract — Traffic grooming, in which lowrate circuits are multiplexed onto wavelengths, with the goal of minimizing the number of adddrop multiplexers (ADMs) and wavelengths has received much research attention from the optical networking community in recent years. While previous work has considered various traffic models and network architectures, protection requirements of the circuits have not been considered. In this paper, we consider survivable traffic grooming, or grooming traffic which contains a mix of circuits that need protection and that do not need protection. We assume a unidirectional ring network with alltoall symmetric traffic withØ�circuits between each node pair, of which×require protection. As it turns out, survivable traffic grooming presents a significant tradeoff between the number of wavelengths and the number of ADMs, which is almost nonexistent in nonsurvivable traffic grooming for this type of traffic. We explore this tradeoff for some specific cases in this paper. We also present some new results and solution methods for solving certain nonsurvivable traffic grooming problems. Index Terms — Wavelengthdivisionmultiplexing (WDM), traffic grooming, survivability, optical networks, ring networks, lightpaths, circuits, adddrop multiplexers, alltoall traffic. I.
technical report 05emis03 Grooming Telecommunications Networks: Optimization Models and Methods
, 2005
"... Grooming has emerged as an active area of research within the operations research and telecommunications fields and concerns the optimization of network transmissions that span multiple distinct transmission channels, protocols, or technologies. This study explores the meaning of grooming, the techn ..."
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Grooming has emerged as an active area of research within the operations research and telecommunications fields and concerns the optimization of network transmissions that span multiple distinct transmission channels, protocols, or technologies. This study explores the meaning of grooming, the technical context in which it can be applied, and example situations. A new taxonomy captures key aspects of grooming problems and is used to summarize over 50 key publications on this important trafficengineering and optimization problem class.
ABSTRACT SRINIVASARAO, KOUNDINYA B. Traffic Grooming in Translucent Optical Ring Net
"... works. (Under the direction of Dr. Rudra Dutta). The exponential growth of the Internet has resulted in an ever increasing demand for bandwidth. Carrier networks which form the backbone of the Internet, have been designed to carry only voice signals with predictable traffic patterns and anticipatin ..."
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works. (Under the direction of Dr. Rudra Dutta). The exponential growth of the Internet has resulted in an ever increasing demand for bandwidth. Carrier networks which form the backbone of the Internet, have been designed to carry only voice signals with predictable traffic patterns and anticipating slow growth of the network. With the advances in fiber optics and wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) optical networking is the key to satisfy the datadriven bandwidth demand. These technologies enable simultaneous transmission of signals on separate highspeed channels at different wavelengths. While the bandwidth provided by these channels is very high, individual traffic demands are at the subwavelength level. This mismatch can be overcome by multiplexing several lower rate connections onto the highspeed channels in a costeffective manner. This technique is referred to as traffic grooming. Traffic grooming in WDM networks has been a widely addressed problem in recent years. Traffic grooming and its constituent subproblems have been proven to be NPcomplete for even the most elemental of network topologies. The ring topology has been the target of a large number of the studies because of its practical relevance. However, most existing studies concentrate