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Compressed suffix arrays and suffix trees with applications to text indexing and string matching (extended abstract
 in Proceedings of the 32nd Annual ACM Symposium on the Theory of Computing
, 2000
"... Abstract. The proliferation of online text, such as found on the World Wide Web and in online databases, motivates the need for spaceefficient text indexing methods that support fast string searching. We model this scenario as follows: Consider a text T consisting of n symbols drawn from a fixed al ..."
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Cited by 189 (17 self)
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Abstract. The proliferation of online text, such as found on the World Wide Web and in online databases, motivates the need for spaceefficient text indexing methods that support fast string searching. We model this scenario as follows: Consider a text T consisting of n symbols drawn from a fixed alphabet Σ. The text T can be represented in n lg Σ  bits by encoding each symbol with lg Σ  bits. The goal is to support fast online queries for searching any string pattern P of m symbols, with T being fully scanned only once, namely, when the index is created at preprocessing time. The text indexing schemes published in the literature are greedy in terms of space usage: they require Ω(n lg n) additional bits of space in the worst case. For example, in the standard unit cost RAM, suffix trees and suffix arrays need Ω(n) memory words, each of Ω(lg n) bits. These indexes are larger than the text itself by a multiplicative factor of Ω(lg Σ  n), which is significant when Σ is of constant size, such as in ascii or unicode. On the other hand, these indexes support fast searching, either in O(m lg Σ) timeorinO(m +lgn) time, plus an outputsensitive cost O(occ) for listing the occ pattern occurrences. We present a new text index that is based upon compressed representations of suffix arrays and suffix trees. It achieves a fast O(m / lg Σ  n +lgɛ Σ  n) search time in the worst case, for any constant
Compressed fulltext indexes
 ACM COMPUTING SURVEYS
, 2007
"... Fulltext indexes provide fast substring search over large text collections. A serious problem of these indexes has traditionally been their space consumption. A recent trend is to develop indexes that exploit the compressibility of the text, so that their size is a function of the compressed text l ..."
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Cited by 173 (78 self)
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Fulltext indexes provide fast substring search over large text collections. A serious problem of these indexes has traditionally been their space consumption. A recent trend is to develop indexes that exploit the compressibility of the text, so that their size is a function of the compressed text length. This concept has evolved into selfindexes, which in addition contain enough information to reproduce any text portion, so they replace the text. The exciting possibility of an index that takes space close to that of the compressed text, replaces it, and in addition provides fast search over it, has triggered a wealth of activity and produced surprising results in a very short time, and radically changed the status of this area in less than five years. The most successful indexes nowadays are able to obtain almost optimal space and search time simultaneously. In this paper we present the main concepts underlying selfindexes. We explain the relationship between text entropy and regularities that show up in index structures and permit compressing them. Then we cover the most relevant selfindexes up to date, focusing on the essential aspects on how they exploit the text compressibility and how they solve efficiently various search problems. We aim at giving the theoretical background to understand and follow the developments in this area.
Simple linear work suffix array construction
, 2003
"... Abstract. Suffix trees and suffix arrays are widely used and largely interchangeable index structures on strings and sequences. Practitioners prefer suffix arrays due to their simplicity and space efficiency while theoreticians use suffix trees due to lineartime construction algorithms and more exp ..."
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Cited by 149 (6 self)
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Abstract. Suffix trees and suffix arrays are widely used and largely interchangeable index structures on strings and sequences. Practitioners prefer suffix arrays due to their simplicity and space efficiency while theoreticians use suffix trees due to lineartime construction algorithms and more explicit structure. We narrow this gap between theory and practice with a simple lineartime construction algorithm for suffix arrays. The simplicity is demonstrated with a C++ implementation of 50 effective lines of code. The algorithm is called DC3, which stems from the central underlying concept of difference cover. This view leads to a generalized algorithm, DC, that allows a spaceefficient implementation and, moreover, supports the choice of a space–time tradeoff. For any v ∈ [1, √ n], it runs in O(vn) time using O(n / √ v) space in addition to the input string and the suffix array. We also present variants of the algorithm for several parallel and hierarchical memory models of computation. The algorithms for BSP and EREWPRAM models are asymptotically faster than all previous suffix tree or array construction algorithms.
Compressed suffix trees with full functionality
 Theory of Computing Systems
"... We introduce new data structures for compressed suffix trees whose size are linear in the text size. The size is measured in bits; thus they occupy only O(n log A) bits for a text of length n on an alphabet A. This is a remarkable improvement on current suffix trees which require O(n log n) bits. ..."
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Cited by 52 (5 self)
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We introduce new data structures for compressed suffix trees whose size are linear in the text size. The size is measured in bits; thus they occupy only O(n log A) bits for a text of length n on an alphabet A. This is a remarkable improvement on current suffix trees which require O(n log n) bits. Though some components of suffix trees have been compressed, there is no linearsize data structure for suffix trees with full functionality such as computing suffix links, stringdepths and lowest common ancestors. The data structure proposed in this paper is the first one that has linear size and supports all operations efficiently. Any algorithm running on a suffix tree can also be executed on our compressed suffix trees with a slight slowdown of a factor of polylog(n). 1
Boosting textual compression in optimal linear time
 Journal of the ACM
, 2005
"... Abstract. We provide a general boosting technique for Textual Data Compression. Qualitatively, it takes a good compression algorithm and turns it into an algorithm with a better compression Extended abstracts related to this article appeared in Proceedings of CPM 2001 and Proceedings of ACMSIAM SOD ..."
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Cited by 39 (19 self)
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Abstract. We provide a general boosting technique for Textual Data Compression. Qualitatively, it takes a good compression algorithm and turns it into an algorithm with a better compression Extended abstracts related to this article appeared in Proceedings of CPM 2001 and Proceedings of ACMSIAM SODA 2004, and were combined due to their strong relatedness and complementarity. The work of P. Ferragina was partially supported by the Italian MIUR projects “Algorithms for the Next
A taxonomy of suffix array construction algorithms
 ACM Computing Surveys
, 2007
"... In 1990, Manber and Myers proposed suffix arrays as a spacesaving alternative to suffix trees and described the first algorithms for suffix array construction and use. Since that time, and especially in the last few years, suffix array construction algorithms have proliferated in bewildering abunda ..."
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Cited by 39 (10 self)
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In 1990, Manber and Myers proposed suffix arrays as a spacesaving alternative to suffix trees and described the first algorithms for suffix array construction and use. Since that time, and especially in the last few years, suffix array construction algorithms have proliferated in bewildering abundance. This survey paper attempts to provide simple highlevel descriptions of these numerous algorithms that highlight both their distinctive features and their commonalities, while avoiding as much as possible the complexities of implementation details. New hybrid algorithms are also described. We provide comparisons of the algorithms ’ worstcase time complexity and use of additional space, together with results of recent experimental test runs on many of their implementations.
Two space saving tricks for linear time LCP computation
, 2004
"... Abstract. In this paper we consider the linear time algorithm of Kasai et al. [6] for the computation of the Longest Common Prefix (LCP) array given the text and the suffix array. We show that this algorithm can be implemented without any auxiliary array in addition to the ones required for the inpu ..."
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Cited by 31 (3 self)
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Abstract. In this paper we consider the linear time algorithm of Kasai et al. [6] for the computation of the Longest Common Prefix (LCP) array given the text and the suffix array. We show that this algorithm can be implemented without any auxiliary array in addition to the ones required for the input (the text and the suffix array) and the output (the LCP array). Thus, for a text of length n, we reduce the space occupancy of this algorithm from 13n bytes to 9n bytes. We also consider the problem of computing the LCP array by “overwriting” the suffix array. For this problem we propose an algorithm whose space occupancy can be bounded in terms of the empirical entropy of the input text. Experiments show that for linguistic texts our algorithm uses roughly 7n bytes. Our algorithm makes use of the BurrowsWheeler Transform even if it does not represent any data in compressed form. To our knowledge this is the first application of the BurrowsWheeler Transform outside the domain of data compression. The source code for the algorithms described in this paper has been included in the lightweight suffix sorting package [13] which is freely available under the GNU GPL. 1
Better external memory suffix array construction
 In: Workshop on Algorithm Engineering & Experiments
, 2005
"... Suffix arrays are a simple and powerful data structure for text processing that can be used for full text indexes, data compression, and many other applications in particular in bioinformatics. However, so far it has looked prohibitive to build suffix arrays for huge inputs that do not fit into main ..."
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Cited by 29 (5 self)
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Suffix arrays are a simple and powerful data structure for text processing that can be used for full text indexes, data compression, and many other applications in particular in bioinformatics. However, so far it has looked prohibitive to build suffix arrays for huge inputs that do not fit into main memory. This paper presents design, analysis, implementation, and experimental evaluation of several new and improved algorithms for suffix array construction. The algorithms are asymptotically optimal in the worst case or on the average. Our implementation can construct suffix arrays for inputs of up to 4GBytes in hours on a low cost machine. As a tool of possible independent interest we present a systematic way to design, analyze, and implement pipelined algorithms.
Implicit compression boosting with applications to selfindexing
 In Proc. SPIRE'07, LNCS 4726
, 2007
"... Abstract. Compression boosting (Ferragina & Manzini, SODA 2004) is a new technique to enhance zeroth order entropy compressors ’ performance to kth order entropy. It works by constructing the BurrowsWheeler transform of the input text, finding optimal partitioning of the transform, and then compre ..."
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Cited by 29 (16 self)
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Abstract. Compression boosting (Ferragina & Manzini, SODA 2004) is a new technique to enhance zeroth order entropy compressors ’ performance to kth order entropy. It works by constructing the BurrowsWheeler transform of the input text, finding optimal partitioning of the transform, and then compressing each piece using an arbitrary zeroth order compressor. The optimal partitioning has the property that the achieved compression is boosted to kth order entropy, for any k. The technique has an application to text indexing: Essentially, building a wavelet tree (Grossi et al., SODA 2003) for each piece in the partitioning yields a kth order compressed fulltext selfindex providing efficient substring searches on the indexed text (Ferragina et al., SPIRE 2004). In this paper, we show that using explicit compression boosting with wavelet trees is not necessary; our new analysis reveals that the size of the wavelet tree built for the complete BurrowsWheeler transformed text is, in essence, the sum of those built for the pieces in the optimal partitioning. Hence, the technique provides a way to do compression boosting implicitly, with a trivial linear time algorithm, but fixed to a specific zeroth order compressor (Raman et al., SODA 2002). In addition to having these consequences on compression and static fulltext selfindexes, the analysis shows that a recent dynamic zeroth order compressed selfindex (Mäkinen & Navarro, CPM 2006) occupies in fact space proportional to kth order entropy. 1