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An introduction to variable and feature selection
 Journal of Machine Learning Research
, 2003
"... Variable and feature selection have become the focus of much research in areas of application for which datasets with tens or hundreds of thousands of variables are available. ..."
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Cited by 804 (15 self)
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Variable and feature selection have become the focus of much research in areas of application for which datasets with tens or hundreds of thousands of variables are available.
Learning the Kernel Matrix with SemiDefinite Programming
, 2002
"... Kernelbased learning algorithms work by embedding the data into a Euclidean space, and then searching for linear relations among the embedded data points. The embedding is performed implicitly, by specifying the inner products between each pair of points in the embedding space. This information ..."
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Cited by 583 (22 self)
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Kernelbased learning algorithms work by embedding the data into a Euclidean space, and then searching for linear relations among the embedded data points. The embedding is performed implicitly, by specifying the inner products between each pair of points in the embedding space. This information is contained in the socalled kernel matrix, a symmetric and positive definite matrix that encodes the relative positions of all points. Specifying this matrix amounts to specifying the geometry of the embedding space and inducing a notion of similarity in the input spaceclassical model selection problems in machine learning. In this paper we show how the kernel matrix can be learned from data via semidefinite programming (SDP) techniques. When applied
Distance Metric Learning, With Application To Clustering With SideInformation
 ADVANCES IN NEURAL INFORMATION PROCESSING SYSTEMS 15
, 2003
"... Many algorithms rely critically on being given a good metric over their inputs. For instance, data can often be clustered in many "plausible" ways, and if a clustering algorithm such as Kmeans initially fails to find one that is meaningful to a user, the only recourse may be for the us ..."
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Cited by 549 (12 self)
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Many algorithms rely critically on being given a good metric over their inputs. For instance, data can often be clustered in many "plausible" ways, and if a clustering algorithm such as Kmeans initially fails to find one that is meaningful to a user, the only recourse may be for the user to manually tweak the metric until sufficiently good clusters are found. For these and other applications requiring good metrics, it is desirable that we provide a more systematic way for users to indicate what they consider "similar." For instance, we may ask them to provide examples. In this paper, we present an algorithm that, given examples of similar (and, if desired, dissimilar) pairs of points in R , learns a distance metric over R that respects these relationships. Our method is based on posing metric learning as a convex optimization problem, which allows us to give efficient, localoptimafree algorithms. We also demonstrate empirically that the learned metrics can be used to significantly improve clustering performance.
A tutorial on support vector regression
, 2004
"... In this tutorial we give an overview of the basic ideas underlying Support Vector (SV) machines for function estimation. Furthermore, we include a summary of currently used algorithms for training SV machines, covering both the quadratic (or convex) programming part and advanced methods for dealing ..."
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Cited by 540 (2 self)
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In this tutorial we give an overview of the basic ideas underlying Support Vector (SV) machines for function estimation. Furthermore, we include a summary of currently used algorithms for training SV machines, covering both the quadratic (or convex) programming part and advanced methods for dealing with large datasets. Finally, we mention some modifications and extensions that have been applied to the standard SV algorithm, and discuss the aspect of regularization from a SV perspective.
An introduction to kernelbased learning algorithms
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NEURAL NETWORKS
, 2001
"... This paper provides an introduction to support vector machines (SVMs), kernel Fisher discriminant analysis, and ..."
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Cited by 422 (49 self)
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This paper provides an introduction to support vector machines (SVMs), kernel Fisher discriminant analysis, and
Kernel independent component analysis
 Journal of Machine Learning Research
, 2002
"... We present a class of algorithms for independent component analysis (ICA) which use contrast functions based on canonical correlations in a reproducing kernel Hilbert space. On the one hand, we show that our contrast functions are related to mutual information and have desirable mathematical propert ..."
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Cited by 337 (25 self)
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We present a class of algorithms for independent component analysis (ICA) which use contrast functions based on canonical correlations in a reproducing kernel Hilbert space. On the one hand, we show that our contrast functions are related to mutual information and have desirable mathematical properties as measures of statistical dependence. On the other hand, building on recent developments in kernel methods, we show that these criteria can be computed efficiently. Minimizing these criteria leads to flexible and robust algorithms for ICA. We illustrate with simulations involving a wide variety of source distributions, showing that our algorithms outperform many of the presently known algorithms. 1.
An extensive empirical study of feature selection metrics for text classification
 J. of Machine Learning Research
, 2003
"... Machine learning for text classification is the cornerstone of document categorization, news filtering, document routing, and personalization. In text domains, effective feature selection is essential to make the learning task efficient and more accurate. This paper presents an empirical comparison ..."
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Cited by 319 (15 self)
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Machine learning for text classification is the cornerstone of document categorization, news filtering, document routing, and personalization. In text domains, effective feature selection is essential to make the learning task efficient and more accurate. This paper presents an empirical comparison of twelve feature selection methods (e.g. Information Gain) evaluated on a benchmark of 229 text classification problem instances that were gathered from Reuters, TREC, OHSUMED, etc. The results are analyzed from multiple goal perspectives—accuracy, Fmeasure, precision, and recall—since each is appropriate in different situations. The results reveal that a new feature selection metric we call ‘BiNormal Separation ’ (BNS), outperformed the others by a substantial margin in most situations. This margin widened in tasks with high class skew, which is rampant in text classification problems and is particularly challenging for induction algorithms. A new evaluation methodology is offered that focuses on the needs of the data mining practitioner faced with a single dataset who seeks to choose one (or a pair of) metrics that are most likely to yield the best performance. From this perspective, BNS was the top single choice for all goals except precision, for which Information Gain yielded the best result most often. This analysis also revealed, for example, that Information Gain and ChiSquared have correlated failures, and so they work poorly together. When choosing optimal pairs of metrics for each of the four performance goals, BNS is consistently a member of the pair—e.g., for greatest recall, the pair BNS + F1measure yielded the best performance on the greatest number of tasks by a considerable margin.
Online passiveaggressive algorithms
 JMLR
, 2006
"... We present a unified view for online classification, regression, and uniclass problems. This view leads to a single algorithmic framework for the three problems. We prove worst case loss bounds for various algorithms for both the realizable case and the nonrealizable case. The end result is new alg ..."
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Cited by 311 (23 self)
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We present a unified view for online classification, regression, and uniclass problems. This view leads to a single algorithmic framework for the three problems. We prove worst case loss bounds for various algorithms for both the realizable case and the nonrealizable case. The end result is new algorithms and accompanying loss bounds for hingeloss regression and uniclass. We also get refined loss bounds for previously studied classification algorithms.
Pegasos: Primal Estimated subgradient solver for SVM
"... We describe and analyze a simple and effective stochastic subgradient descent algorithm for solving the optimization problem cast by Support Vector Machines (SVM). We prove that the number of iterations required to obtain a solution of accuracy ɛ is Õ(1/ɛ), where each iteration operates on a singl ..."
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Cited by 307 (15 self)
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We describe and analyze a simple and effective stochastic subgradient descent algorithm for solving the optimization problem cast by Support Vector Machines (SVM). We prove that the number of iterations required to obtain a solution of accuracy ɛ is Õ(1/ɛ), where each iteration operates on a single training example. In contrast, previous analyses of stochastic gradient descent methods for SVMs require Ω(1/ɛ2) iterations. As in previously devised SVM solvers, the number of iterations also scales linearly with 1/λ, where λ is the regularization parameter of SVM. For a linear kernel, the total runtime of our method is Õ(d/(λɛ)), where d is a bound on the number of nonzero features in each example. Since the runtime does not depend directly on the size of the training set, the resulting algorithm is especially suited for learning from large datasets. Our approach also extends to nonlinear kernels while working solely on the primal objective function, though in this case the runtime does depend linearly on the training set size. Our algorithm is particularly well suited for large text classification problems, where we demonstrate an orderofmagnitude speedup over previous SVM learning methods.
Large scale multiple kernel learning
 JOURNAL OF MACHINE LEARNING RESEARCH
, 2006
"... While classical kernelbased learning algorithms are based on a single kernel, in practice it is often desirable to use multiple kernels. Lanckriet et al. (2004) considered conic combinations of kernel matrices for classification, leading to a convex quadratically constrained quadratic program. We s ..."
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Cited by 243 (18 self)
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While classical kernelbased learning algorithms are based on a single kernel, in practice it is often desirable to use multiple kernels. Lanckriet et al. (2004) considered conic combinations of kernel matrices for classification, leading to a convex quadratically constrained quadratic program. We show that it can be rewritten as a semiinfinite linear program that can be efficiently solved by recycling the standard SVM implementations. Moreover, we generalize the formulation and our method to a larger class of problems, including regression and oneclass classification. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm works for hundred thousands of examples or hundreds of kernels to be combined, and helps for automatic model selection, improving the interpretability of the learning result. In a second part we discuss general speed up mechanism for SVMs, especially when used with sparse feature maps as appear for string kernels, allowing us to train a string kernel SVM on a 10 million realworld splice data set from computational biology. We integrated multiple kernel learning in our machine learning toolbox SHOGUN for which the source code is publicly available at