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20
A proof of the Kepler conjecture
 Math. Intelligencer
, 1994
"... This section describes the structure of the proof of ..."
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Cited by 118 (11 self)
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This section describes the structure of the proof of
Real World Verification
"... Abstract. Scalable handling of real arithmetic is a crucial part of the verification of hybrid systems, mathematical algorithms, and mixed analog/digital circuits. Despite substantial advances in verification technology, complexity issues with classical decision procedures are still a major obstacle ..."
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Cited by 13 (4 self)
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Abstract. Scalable handling of real arithmetic is a crucial part of the verification of hybrid systems, mathematical algorithms, and mixed analog/digital circuits. Despite substantial advances in verification technology, complexity issues with classical decision procedures are still a major obstacle for formal verification of realworld applications, e.g., in automotive and avionic industries. To identify strengths and weaknesses, we examine state of the art symbolic techniques and implementations for the universal fragment of realclosed fields: approaches based on quantifier elimination, Gröbner Bases, and semidefinite programming for the Positivstellensatz. Within a uniform context of the verification tool KeYmaera, we compare these approaches qualitatively and quantitatively on verification benchmarks from hybrid systems, textbook algorithms, and on geometric problems. Finally, we introduce a new decision procedure combining Gröbner Bases and semidefinite programming for the real Nullstellensatz that outperforms the individual approaches on an interesting set of problems.
Proving bounds on realvalued functions with computations
 4th International Joint Conference on Automated Reasoning. Volume 5195 of Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence
, 2008
"... Abstract. Intervalbased methods are commonly used for computing numerical bounds on expressions and proving inequalities on real numbers. Yet they are hardly used in proof assistants, as the large amount of numerical computations they require keeps them out of reach from deductive proof processes. ..."
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Cited by 12 (2 self)
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Abstract. Intervalbased methods are commonly used for computing numerical bounds on expressions and proving inequalities on real numbers. Yet they are hardly used in proof assistants, as the large amount of numerical computations they require keeps them out of reach from deductive proof processes. However, evaluating programs inside proofs is an efficient way for reducing the size of proof terms while performing numerous computations. This work shows how programs combining automatic differentiation with floatingpoint and interval arithmetic can be used as efficient yet certified solvers. They have been implemented in a library for the Coq proof system. This library provides tactics for proving inequalities on realvalued expressions. 1
Combined Decision Techniques for the Existential Theory of the Reals
 CALCULEMUS
, 2009
"... Methods for deciding quantifierfree nonlinear arithmetical conjectures over *** are crucial in the formal verification of many realworld systems and in formalised mathematics. While nonlinear (rational function) arithmetic over *** is decidable, it is fundamentally infeasible: any general decisi ..."
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Cited by 11 (6 self)
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Methods for deciding quantifierfree nonlinear arithmetical conjectures over *** are crucial in the formal verification of many realworld systems and in formalised mathematics. While nonlinear (rational function) arithmetic over *** is decidable, it is fundamentally infeasible: any general decision method for this problem is worstcase exponential in the dimension (number of variables) of the formula being analysed. This is unfortunate, as many practical applications of real algebraic decision methods require reasoning about highdimensional conjectures. Despite their inherent infeasibility, a number of different decision methods have been developed, most of which have "sweet spots"  e.g., types of problems for which they perform much better than they do in general. Such "sweet spots" can in many cases be heuristically combined to solve problems that are out of reach of the individual decision methods when used in isolation. RAHD ("Real Algebra in High Dimensions") is a theorem prover that works to combine a collection of real algebraic decision methods in ways that exploit their respective "sweetspots." We discuss highlevel mathematical and design aspects of RAHD and illustrate its use on a number of examples.
Logics of Dynamical Systems
"... We study the logic of dynamical systems, that is, logics and proof principles for properties of dynamical systems. Dynamical systems are mathematical models describing how the state of a system evolves over time. They are important in modeling and understanding many applications, including embedded ..."
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Cited by 7 (7 self)
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We study the logic of dynamical systems, that is, logics and proof principles for properties of dynamical systems. Dynamical systems are mathematical models describing how the state of a system evolves over time. They are important in modeling and understanding many applications, including embedded systems and cyberphysical systems. In discrete dynamical systems, the state evolves in discrete steps, one step at a time, as described by a difference equation or discrete state transition relation. In continuous dynamical systems, the state evolves continuously along a function, typically described by a differential equation. Hybrid dynamical systems or hybrid systems combine both discrete and continuous dynamics. Distributed hybrid systems combine distributed systems with hybrid systems, i.e., they are multiagent hybrid systems that interact through remote communication or physical interaction. Stochastic hybrid systems combine stochastic
Connecting Gröbner bases programs with Coq to do proofs in algebra, geometry and arithmetics
"... We describe how we connected three programs that compute Gröbner bases [1] to Coq [11], to do automated proofs on algebraic, geometrical and arithmetical expressions. The result is a set of Coq tactics and a certificate mechanism 1. The programs are: F4 [5], GB [4], and gbcoq [10]. F4 and GB are the ..."
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Cited by 3 (0 self)
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We describe how we connected three programs that compute Gröbner bases [1] to Coq [11], to do automated proofs on algebraic, geometrical and arithmetical expressions. The result is a set of Coq tactics and a certificate mechanism 1. The programs are: F4 [5], GB [4], and gbcoq [10]. F4 and GB are the fastest (up to our knowledge) available programs that compute Gröbner bases. Gbcoq is slow in general but is proved to be correct (in Coq), and we adapted it to our specific problem to be efficient. The automated proofs concern equalities and nonequalities on polynomials with coefficients and indeterminates in R or Z, and are done by reducing to Gröbner computation, via Hilbert’s Nullstellensatz. We adapted also the results of [7], to allow to prove some theorems about modular arithmetics. The connection between Coq and the programs that compute Gröbner bases is done using the ”external” tactic of Coq that allows to call arbitrary programs accepting xml inputs and outputs. We also produce certificates in order to make the proof scripts independent from the external programs.
Abstract Partial Cylindrical Algebraic Decomposition I: The Lifting Phase
, 2011
"... Though decidable, the theory of real closed fields (RCF) is fundamentally infeasible. This is unfortunate, as automatic proof methods for nonlinear real arithmetic are crucially needed in both formalised mathematics and the verification of realworld cyberphysical systems. Consequently, many resear ..."
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Cited by 1 (1 self)
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Though decidable, the theory of real closed fields (RCF) is fundamentally infeasible. This is unfortunate, as automatic proof methods for nonlinear real arithmetic are crucially needed in both formalised mathematics and the verification of realworld cyberphysical systems. Consequently, many researchers have proposed fast, sound but incomplete RCF proof procedures which are useful in various practical applications. We show how such practically useful, sound but incomplete RCF proof methods may be systematically utilised in the context of a complete RCF proof method without sacrificing its completeness. In particular, we present an extension of the RCF quantifier elimination method Partial CAD (PCAD) which uses incomplete ∃ RCF proof procedures to “shortcircuit ” expensive computations during the lifting phase of PCAD. We present the theoretical framework and preliminary experiments arising from an implementation in our RCF proof tool RAHD.
A Dynamic Logics of Dynamical Systems
"... We study the logic of dynamical systems, that is, logics and proof principles for properties of dynamical systems. Dynamical systems are mathematical models describing how the state of a system evolves over time. They are important for modeling and understanding many applications, including embedded ..."
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Cited by 1 (1 self)
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We study the logic of dynamical systems, that is, logics and proof principles for properties of dynamical systems. Dynamical systems are mathematical models describing how the state of a system evolves over time. They are important for modeling and understanding many applications, including embedded systems and cyberphysical systems. In discrete dynamical systems, the state evolves in discrete steps, one step at a time, as described by a difference equation or discrete state transition relation. In continuous dynamical systems, the state evolves continuously along a function, typically described by a differential equation. Hybrid dynamical systems or hybrid systems combine both discrete and continuous dynamics. Distributed hybrid systems combine distributed systems with hybrid systems, i.e., they are multiagent hybrid systems that interact through remote communication or physical interaction. Stochastic hybrid systems combine stochastic dynamics with hybrid systems. We survey dynamic logics for specifying and verifying properties for each of those classes of dynamical systems. A dynamic logic is a firstorder modal logic with a pair of parametrized modal operators for each dynamical system to express necessary or possible properties of their transition behavior. Due to their full basis of firstorder modal logic operators, dynamic logics can express a rich variety of system properties, including safety, controllability, reactivity, liveness, and quantified parametrized properties, even about
Parametric linear arithmetic over ordered fields in Isabelle/HOL
"... We use higherorder logic to verify a quantifier elimination procedure for linear arithmetic over ordered fields, where the coefficients of variables are multivariate polynomials over another set of variables, we call parameters. The procedure generalizes Ferrante and Rackoff’s algorithm for the non ..."
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We use higherorder logic to verify a quantifier elimination procedure for linear arithmetic over ordered fields, where the coefficients of variables are multivariate polynomials over another set of variables, we call parameters. The procedure generalizes Ferrante and Rackoff’s algorithm for the nonparametric case. The formalization is based on axiomatic type classes and automatically carries over to e.g. the rational, real and nonstandard real numbers. It is executable, can be applied to HOL formulae by reflection and performs well on practical examples.
Reflecting Quantifier Elimination for Linear Arithmetic
"... Abstract. This paper formalizes and verifies quantifier elimination procedures for dense linear orders and for real and integer linear arithmetic in the theorem prover ..."
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Abstract. This paper formalizes and verifies quantifier elimination procedures for dense linear orders and for real and integer linear arithmetic in the theorem prover