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162
MetaML and MultiStage Programming with Explicit Annotations
 Theoretical Computer Science
, 1999
"... . We introduce MetaML, a practicallymotivated, staticallytyped multistage programming language. MetaML is a "real" language. We have built an implementation and used it to solve multistage problems. MetaML allows the programmer to construct, combine, and execute code fragments in a typesafe ..."
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Cited by 238 (30 self)
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. We introduce MetaML, a practicallymotivated, staticallytyped multistage programming language. MetaML is a "real" language. We have built an implementation and used it to solve multistage problems. MetaML allows the programmer to construct, combine, and execute code fragments in a typesafe manner. Code fragments can contain free variables, but they obey the staticscoping principle. MetaML performs typechecking for all stages once and for all before the execution of the first stage. Certain anomalies with our first MetaML implementation led us to formalize an illustrative subset of the MetaML implementation. We present both a bigstep semantics and type system for this subset, and prove the type system's soundness with respect to a bigstep semantics. From a software engineering point of view, this means that generators written in the MetaML subset never generate unsafe programs. A type system and semantics for full MetaML is still ongoing work. We argue that multi...
MultiStage Programming: Its Theory and Applications
, 1999
"... MetaML is a statically typed functional programming language with special support for program generation. In addition to providing the standard features of contemporary programming languages such as Standard ML, MetaML provides three staging annotations. These staging annotations allow the construct ..."
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Cited by 85 (18 self)
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MetaML is a statically typed functional programming language with special support for program generation. In addition to providing the standard features of contemporary programming languages such as Standard ML, MetaML provides three staging annotations. These staging annotations allow the construction, combination, and execution of objectprograms. Our thesis is that MetaML's three staging annotations provide a useful, theoretically sound basis for building program generators. This dissertation reports on our study of MetaML's staging constructs, their use, their implementation, and their formal semantics. Our results include an extended example of where MetaML allows us to produce efficient programs, an explanation of why implementing these constructs in traditional ways can be challenging, two formulations of MetaML's semantics, a type system for MetaML, and a proposal for extending ...
A temporallogic approach to bindingtime analysis
 In Proceedings, 11 th Annual IEEE Symposium on Logic in Computer Science
, 1996
"... is permitted for educational or research use on condition that this copyright notice is included in any copy. See back inner page for a list of recent publications in the BRICS Report Series. Copies may be obtained by contacting: BRICS ..."
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Cited by 81 (5 self)
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is permitted for educational or research use on condition that this copyright notice is included in any copy. See back inner page for a list of recent publications in the BRICS Report Series. Copies may be obtained by contacting: BRICS
A Compiled Implementation of Strong Reduction
"... Motivated by applications to proof assistants based on dependent types, we develop and prove correct a strong reducer and b equivalence checker for the lcalculus with products, sums, and guarded fixpoints. Our approach is based on compilation to the bytecode of an abstract machine performing weak ..."
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Cited by 69 (5 self)
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Motivated by applications to proof assistants based on dependent types, we develop and prove correct a strong reducer and b equivalence checker for the lcalculus with products, sums, and guarded fixpoints. Our approach is based on compilation to the bytecode of an abstract machine performing weak reductions on nonclosed terms, derived with minimal modifications from the ZAM machine used in the Objective Caml bytecode interpreter, and complemented by a recursive "read back" procedure. An implementation in the Coq proof assistant demonstrates important speedups compared with the original interpreterbased implementation of strong reduction in Coq.
Implementing Typed Intermediate Languages
, 1998
"... Recent advances in compiler technology have demonstrated the benefits of using strongly typed intermediate languages to compile richly typed source languages (e.g., ML). A typepreserving compiler can use types to guide advanced optimizations and to help generate provably secure mobile code. Types, u ..."
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Cited by 60 (16 self)
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Recent advances in compiler technology have demonstrated the benefits of using strongly typed intermediate languages to compile richly typed source languages (e.g., ML). A typepreserving compiler can use types to guide advanced optimizations and to help generate provably secure mobile code. Types, unfortunately, are very hard to represent and manipulate efficiently; a naive implementation can easily add exponential overhead to the compilation and execution of a program. This paper describes our experience with implementing the FLINT typed intermediate language in the SML/NJ production compiler. We observe that a typepreserving compiler will not scale to handle large types unless all of its typepreserving stages preserve the asymptotic time and space usage in representing and manipulating types. We present a series of novel techniques for achieving this property and give empirical evidence of their effectiveness.
Stochastic Lambda Calculus and Monads of Probability Distributions
 In 29th ACM POPL
, 2002
"... Probability distributions are useful for expressing the meanings of probabilistic languages, which support formal modeling of and reasoning about uncertainty. Probability distributions form a monad, and the monadic definition leads to a simple, natural semantics for a stochastic lambda calculus, as ..."
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Cited by 56 (0 self)
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Probability distributions are useful for expressing the meanings of probabilistic languages, which support formal modeling of and reasoning about uncertainty. Probability distributions form a monad, and the monadic definition leads to a simple, natural semantics for a stochastic lambda calculus, as well as simple, clean implementations of common queries. But the monadic implementation of the expectation query can be much less e#cient than current best practices in probabilistic modeling. We therefore present a language of measure terms, which can not only denote discrete probability distributions but can also support the best known modeling techniques. We give a translation of stochastic lambda calculus into measure terms. Whether one translates into the probability monad or into measure terms, the results of the translations denote the same probability distribution. 1.
A gentle introduction to multistage programming
 Domainspecific Program Generation, LNCS
, 2004
"... ..."
Encoding types in MLlike languages
, 1998
"... A HindleyMilner type system such as ML's seems to prohibit typeindexed values, i.e., functions that map a family of types to a family of values. Such functions generally perform case analysis on the input types and return values of possibly different types. The goal of our work is to demonstrate h ..."
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Cited by 42 (0 self)
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A HindleyMilner type system such as ML's seems to prohibit typeindexed values, i.e., functions that map a family of types to a family of values. Such functions generally perform case analysis on the input types and return values of possibly different types. The goal of our work is to demonstrate how to program with typeindexed values within a HindleyMilner type system. Our first approach is to interpret an input type as its corresponding value, recursively. This solution is typesafe, in the sense that the ML type system statically prevents any mismatch between the input type and function arguments that depend on this type. Such specific type interpretations, however, prevent us from combining different typeindexed values that share the same type. To meet this objection, we focus on finding a valueindependent type encoding that can be shared by different functions. We propose and compare two solutions. One requires firstclass and higherorder polymorphism, and, thus, is not implementable in the core language of ML, but it can be programmed using higherorder functors in Standard ML of New Jersey. Its usage, however, is clumsy. The other approach uses embedding/projection functions. It appears to be more practical. We demonstrate the usefulness of typeindexed values through examples including typedirected partial evaluation, C printflike formatting, and subtype coercions. Finally, we discuss the tradeoffs between our approach and some other solutions based on more expressive typing disciplines.
LambdaDropping: Transforming Recursive Equations into Programs with Block Structure
, 2001
"... Lambdalifting a blockstructured program transforms it into a set of recursive equations. We present the symmetric transformation: lambdadropping. Lambdadropping a set of recursive equations restores block structure and lexical scope. For lack ..."
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Cited by 39 (10 self)
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Lambdalifting a blockstructured program transforms it into a set of recursive equations. We present the symmetric transformation: lambdadropping. Lambdadropping a set of recursive equations restores block structure and lexical scope. For lack
The essence of etaexpansion in partial evaluation
 LISP AND SYMBOLIC COMPUTATION
, 1995
"... Selective etaexpansion is a powerful "bindingtime improvement", i.e., a sourceprogram modification that makes a partial evaluator yield better results. But like most bindingtime improvements, the exact problem it solves and the reason why have not been formalized and are only understood by few. ..."
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Cited by 32 (11 self)
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Selective etaexpansion is a powerful "bindingtime improvement", i.e., a sourceprogram modification that makes a partial evaluator yield better results. But like most bindingtime improvements, the exact problem it solves and the reason why have not been formalized and are only understood by few. In this paper, we describe the problem and the effect of etaredexes in terms of monovariant bindingtime propagation: etaredexes preserve the static data ow of a source program by interfacing static higherorder values in dynamic contexts and dynamic higherorder values in static contexts. They contribute to two distinct bindingtime improvements. We present two extensions of Gomard's monovariant bindingtime analysis for the purecalculus. Our extensions annotate and etaexpandterms. The rst one etaexpands static higherorder values in dynamic contexts. The second also etaexpands dynamic higherorder values in static contexts. As a significant application, we show that our first bindingtime analysis suffices to reformulate the traditional formulation of a CPS transformation into a modern onepass CPS transformer. This bindingtime improvement is known, but it is still left unexplained in contemporary literature, e.g., about "cpsbased" partial evaluation. We also outline the counterpart of etaexpansion for partially static data structures.