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The Nature of Statistical Learning Theory
, 1995
"... Abstract—Statistical learning theory was introduced in the late 1960’s. Until the 1990’s it was a purely theoretical analysis of the problem of function estimation from a given collection of data. In the middle of the 1990’s new types of learning algorithms (called support vector machines) based on ..."
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Cited by 8950 (28 self)
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Abstract—Statistical learning theory was introduced in the late 1960’s. Until the 1990’s it was a purely theoretical analysis of the problem of function estimation from a given collection of data. In the middle of the 1990’s new types of learning algorithms (called support vector machines) based on the developed theory were proposed. This made statistical learning theory not only a tool for the theoretical analysis but also a tool for creating practical algorithms for estimating multidimensional functions. This article presents a very general overview of statistical learning theory including both theoretical and algorithmic aspects of the theory. The goal of this overview is to demonstrate how the abstract learning theory established conditions for generalization which are more general than those discussed in classical statistical paradigms and how the understanding of these conditions inspired new algorithmic approaches to function estimation problems.
LIBSVM: a Library for Support Vector Machines
, 2001
"... LIBSVM is a library for support vector machines (SVM). Its goal is to help users can easily use SVM as a tool. In this document, we present all its implementation details. 1 ..."
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Cited by 3412 (62 self)
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LIBSVM is a library for support vector machines (SVM). Its goal is to help users can easily use SVM as a tool. In this document, we present all its implementation details. 1
A tutorial on support vector machines for pattern recognition
 Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery
, 1998
"... The tutorial starts with an overview of the concepts of VC dimension and structural risk minimization. We then describe linear Support Vector Machines (SVMs) for separable and nonseparable data, working through a nontrivial example in detail. We describe a mechanical analogy, and discuss when SV ..."
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Cited by 2272 (11 self)
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The tutorial starts with an overview of the concepts of VC dimension and structural risk minimization. We then describe linear Support Vector Machines (SVMs) for separable and nonseparable data, working through a nontrivial example in detail. We describe a mechanical analogy, and discuss when SVM solutions are unique and when they are global. We describe how support vector training can be practically implemented, and discuss in detail the kernel mapping technique which is used to construct SVM solutions which are nonlinear in the data. We show how Support Vector machines can have very large (even infinite) VC dimension by computing the VC dimension for homogeneous polynomial and Gaussian radial basis function kernels. While very high VC dimension would normally bode ill for generalization performance, and while at present there exists no theory which shows that good generalization performance is guaranteed for SVMs, there are several arguments which support the observed high accuracy of SVMs, which we review. Results of some experiments which were inspired by these arguments are also presented. We give numerous examples and proofs of most of the key theorems. There is new material, and I hope that the reader will find that even old material is cast in a fresh light.
SupportVector Networks
 Machine Learning
, 1995
"... The supportvector network is a new learning machine for twogroup classification problems. The machine conceptually implements the following idea: input vectors are nonlinearly mapped to a very highdimension feature space. In this feature space a linear decision surface is constructed. Special pr ..."
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Cited by 2155 (32 self)
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The supportvector network is a new learning machine for twogroup classification problems. The machine conceptually implements the following idea: input vectors are nonlinearly mapped to a very highdimension feature space. In this feature space a linear decision surface is constructed. Special properties of the decision surface ensures high generalization ability of the learning machine. The idea behind the supportvector network was previously implemented for the restricted case where the training data can be separated without errors. We here extend this result to nonseparable training data.
Online Learning with Kernels
, 2003
"... Kernel based algorithms such as support vector machines have achieved considerable success in various problems in the batch setting where all of the training data is available in advance. Support vector machines combine the socalled kernel trick with the large margin idea. There has been little u ..."
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Cited by 2029 (128 self)
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Kernel based algorithms such as support vector machines have achieved considerable success in various problems in the batch setting where all of the training data is available in advance. Support vector machines combine the socalled kernel trick with the large margin idea. There has been little use of these methods in an online setting suitable for realtime applications. In this paper we consider online learning in a Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Space. By considering classical stochastic gradient descent within a feature space, and the use of some straightforward tricks, we develop simple and computationally efficient algorithms for a wide range of problems such as classification, regression, and novelty detection. In addition to allowing the exploitation of the kernel trick in an online setting, we examine the value of large margins for classification in the online setting with a drifting target. We derive worst case loss bounds and moreover we show the convergence of the hypothesis to the minimiser of the regularised risk functional. We present some experimental results that support the theory as well as illustrating the power of the new algorithms for online novelty detection. In addition
Nonlinear component analysis as a kernel eigenvalue problem

, 1996
"... We describe a new method for performing a nonlinear form of Principal Component Analysis. By the use of integral operator kernel functions, we can efficiently compute principal components in highdimensional feature spaces, related to input space by some nonlinear map; for instance the space of all ..."
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Cited by 1048 (72 self)
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We describe a new method for performing a nonlinear form of Principal Component Analysis. By the use of integral operator kernel functions, we can efficiently compute principal components in highdimensional feature spaces, related to input space by some nonlinear map; for instance the space of all possible 5pixel products in 16x16 images. We give the derivation of the method, along with a discussion of other techniques which can be made nonlinear with the kernel approach; and present first experimental results on nonlinear feature extraction for pattern recognition.
Gradientbased learning applied to document recognition
 Proceedings of the IEEE
, 1998
"... Multilayer neural networks trained with the backpropagation algorithm constitute the best example of a successful gradientbased learning technique. Given an appropriate network architecture, gradientbased learning algorithms can be used to synthesize a complex decision surface that can classify hi ..."
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Cited by 731 (58 self)
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Multilayer neural networks trained with the backpropagation algorithm constitute the best example of a successful gradientbased learning technique. Given an appropriate network architecture, gradientbased learning algorithms can be used to synthesize a complex decision surface that can classify highdimensional patterns, such as handwritten characters, with minimal preprocessing. This paper reviews various methods applied to handwritten character recognition and compares them on a standard handwritten digit recognition task. Convolutional neural networks, which are specifically designed to deal with the variability of two dimensional (2D) shapes, are shown to outperform all other techniques. Reallife document recognition systems are composed of multiple modules including field extraction, segmentation, recognition, and language modeling. A new learning paradigm, called graph transformer networks (GTN’s), allows such multimodule systems to be trained globally using gradientbased methods so as to minimize an overall performance measure. Two systems for online handwriting recognition are described. Experiments demonstrate the advantage of global training, and the flexibility of graph transformer networks. A graph transformer network for reading a bank check is also described. It uses convolutional neural network character recognizers combined with global training techniques to provide record accuracy on business and personal checks. It is deployed commercially and reads several million checks per day.
Boosting the margin: A new explanation for the effectiveness of voting methods
 In Proceedings International Conference on Machine Learning
, 1997
"... Abstract. One of the surprising recurring phenomena observed in experiments with boosting is that the test error of the generated classifier usually does not increase as its size becomes very large, and often is observed to decrease even after the training error reaches zero. In this paper, we show ..."
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Cited by 721 (52 self)
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Abstract. One of the surprising recurring phenomena observed in experiments with boosting is that the test error of the generated classifier usually does not increase as its size becomes very large, and often is observed to decrease even after the training error reaches zero. In this paper, we show that this phenomenon is related to the distribution of margins of the training examples with respect to the generated voting classification rule, where the margin of an example is simply the difference between the number of correct votes and the maximum number of votes received by any incorrect label. We show that techniques used in the analysis of Vapnik’s support vector classifiers and of neural networks with small weights can be applied to voting methods to relate the margin distribution to the test error. We also show theoretically and experimentally that boosting is especially effective at increasing the margins of the training examples. Finally, we compare our explanation to those based on the biasvariance decomposition. 1
An introduction to variable and feature selection
 Journal of Machine Learning Research
, 2003
"... Variable and feature selection have become the focus of much research in areas of application for which datasets with tens or hundreds of thousands of variables are available. ..."
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Cited by 688 (14 self)
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Variable and feature selection have become the focus of much research in areas of application for which datasets with tens or hundreds of thousands of variables are available.
Gene selection for cancer classification using support vector machines
 Machine Learning
"... Abstract. DNA microarrays now permit scientists to screen thousands of genes simultaneously and determine whether those genes are active, hyperactive or silent in normal or cancerous tissue. Because these new microarray devices generate bewildering amounts of raw data, new analytical methods must ..."
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Cited by 680 (23 self)
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Abstract. DNA microarrays now permit scientists to screen thousands of genes simultaneously and determine whether those genes are active, hyperactive or silent in normal or cancerous tissue. Because these new microarray devices generate bewildering amounts of raw data, new analytical methods must be developed to sort out whether cancer tissues have distinctive signatures of gene expression over normal tissues or other types of cancer tissues. In this paper, we address the problem of selection of a small subset of genes from broad patterns of gene expression data, recorded on DNA microarrays. Using available training examples from cancer and normal patients, we build a classifier suitable for genetic diagnosis, as well as drug discovery. Previous attempts to address this problem select genes with correlation techniques. We propose a new method of gene selection utilizing Support Vector Machine methods based on Recursive Feature Elimination (RFE). We demonstrate experimentally that the genes selected by our techniques yield better classification performance and are biologically relevant to cancer. In contrast with the baseline method, our method eliminates gene redundancy automatically and yields better and more compact gene subsets. In patients with leukemia our method discovered 2 genes that yield zero leaveoneout error, while 64 genes are necessary for the baseline method to get the best result (one leaveoneout error). In the colon cancer database, using only 4 genes our method is 98 % accurate, while the baseline method is only 86 % accurate.