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28
The NPcompleteness column: an ongoing guide
 Journal of Algorithms
, 1985
"... This is the nineteenth edition of a (usually) quarterly column that covers new developments in the theory of NPcompleteness. The presentation is modeled on that used by M. R. Garey and myself in our book ‘‘Computers and Intractability: A Guide to the Theory of NPCompleteness,’ ’ W. H. Freeman & Co ..."
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This is the nineteenth edition of a (usually) quarterly column that covers new developments in the theory of NPcompleteness. The presentation is modeled on that used by M. R. Garey and myself in our book ‘‘Computers and Intractability: A Guide to the Theory of NPCompleteness,’ ’ W. H. Freeman & Co., New York, 1979 (hereinafter referred to as ‘‘[G&J]’’; previous columns will be referred to by their dates). A background equivalent to that provided by [G&J] is assumed, and, when appropriate, crossreferences will be given to that book and the list of problems (NPcomplete and harder) presented there. Readers who have results they would like mentioned (NPhardness, PSPACEhardness, polynomialtimesolvability, etc.) or open problems they would like publicized, should
The monotone circuit complexity of Boolean functions
 COMBINATORICA
, 1987
"... Recently, Razborov obtained superpolynomial lower bounds for monotone circuits that lect cliques in graphs. In particular, Razborov showed that detecting cliques of size s in a graph dh m vertices requires monotone circuits of size.Q(m'/(log m) ~') for fixed s, and size rn ao°~') for,.:[log ml4J. I ..."
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Cited by 127 (4 self)
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Recently, Razborov obtained superpolynomial lower bounds for monotone circuits that lect cliques in graphs. In particular, Razborov showed that detecting cliques of size s in a graph dh m vertices requires monotone circuits of size.Q(m'/(log m) ~') for fixed s, and size rn ao°~') for,.:[log ml4J. In this paper we modify the arguments of Razborov to obtain exponential lower bounds for monotone circuits. In particular, detecting cliques of size (1/4) (m/log m) ~'/a requires monotone circuits f size exp (£2((m/log m)~/:~)). For fixed s, any monotone circuit that detects cliques of size s requires 'm'/(log m)') AND gates. We show that even a very rough approximation of the maximum clique e of a graph requires superpolynomial size monotone circuits, and give lower bounds for some net Boolean functions. Our best lower bound fi~r an NP function of n variables is exp (f2(n w4. (log n)~/~)), improving a recent result of exp (f2(nws')) due to Andreev.
Lower Bounds for the Size of Circuits of Bounded Depth in Basis
, 1986
"... this paper, we consider circuits of bounded depth in the basis f; \Phig. ..."
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this paper, we consider circuits of bounded depth in the basis f; \Phig.
Models of Computation  Exploring the Power of Computing
"... Theoretical computer science treats any computational subject for which a good model can be created. Research on formal models of computation was initiated in the 1930s and 1940s by Turing, Post, Kleene, Church, and others. In the 1950s and 1960s programming languages, language translators, and oper ..."
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Cited by 58 (6 self)
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Theoretical computer science treats any computational subject for which a good model can be created. Research on formal models of computation was initiated in the 1930s and 1940s by Turing, Post, Kleene, Church, and others. In the 1950s and 1960s programming languages, language translators, and operating systems were under development and therefore became both the subject and basis for a great deal of theoretical work. The power of computers of this period was limited by slow processors and small amounts of memory, and thus theories (models, algorithms, and analysis) were developed to explore the efficient use of computers as well as the inherent complexity of problems. The former subject is known today as algorithms and data structures, the latter computational complexity. The focus of theoretical computer scientists in the 1960s on languages is reflected in the first textbook on the subject, Formal Languages and Their Relation to Automata by John Hopcroft and Jeffrey Ullman. This influential book led to the creation of many languagecentered theoretical computer science courses; many introductory theory courses today continue to reflect the content of this book and the interests of theoreticians of the 1960s and early 1970s. Although
The History and Status of the P versus NP Question
, 1992
"... this article, I have attempted to organize and describe this literature, including an occasional opinion about the most fruitful directions, but no technical details. In the first half of this century, work on the power of formal systems led to the formalization of the notion of algorithm and the re ..."
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Cited by 51 (0 self)
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this article, I have attempted to organize and describe this literature, including an occasional opinion about the most fruitful directions, but no technical details. In the first half of this century, work on the power of formal systems led to the formalization of the notion of algorithm and the realization that certain problems are algorithmically unsolvable. At around this time, forerunners of the programmable computing machine were beginning to appear. As mathematicians contemplated the practical capabilities and limitations of such devices, computational complexity theory emerged from the theory of algorithmic unsolvability. Early on, a particular type of computational task became evident, where one is seeking an object which lies
SizeDepth Tradeoffs for Threshold Circuits (Extended Abstract)
 SIAM J. Comput
, 1997
"... Russell Impagliazzo , Ramamohan Paturi , Michael E. Saks y Abstract The following sizedepth tradeoff for threshold circuits is obtained: any threshold circuit of depth d that computes the parity function on n variables must have at least n 1+c` \Gammad edges, where constants c ? 0 and ..."
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Russell Impagliazzo , Ramamohan Paturi , Michael E. Saks y Abstract The following sizedepth tradeoff for threshold circuits is obtained: any threshold circuit of depth d that computes the parity function on n variables must have at least n 1+c` \Gammad edges, where constants c ? 0 and ` 3 are constants independent of n and d. Previously known constructions show that up to the choice of c and ` this bound is best possible. In particular, the lower bound implies an affirmative answer to the conjecture of Paturi and Saks that a bounded depth threshold circuit that computes parity requires a superlinear number of edges. This is the first super linear lower bound for an explicit function that holds for any fixed depth, and the first that applies to threshold circuits with unrestricted weights. The tradeoff is obtained as a consequence of a general restriction theorem for threshold circuits with a small number of edges: For any threshold circuit with n inputs, de...
On Winning Ehrenfeucht Games and Monadic NP
 Annals of Pure and Applied Logic
, 1996
"... Inexpressibility results in Finite Model Theory are often proved by showing that Duplicator, one of the two players of an Ehrenfeucht game, has a winning strategy on certain structures. In this article a new method is introduced that allows, under certain conditions, the extension of a winning strat ..."
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Cited by 21 (3 self)
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Inexpressibility results in Finite Model Theory are often proved by showing that Duplicator, one of the two players of an Ehrenfeucht game, has a winning strategy on certain structures. In this article a new method is introduced that allows, under certain conditions, the extension of a winning strategy of Duplicator on some small parts of two finite structures to a global winning strategy. As applications of this technique it is shown that (*) Graph Connectivity is not expressible in existential monadic secondorder logic (MonNP), even in the presence of a builtin linear order, (*) Graph Connectivity is not expressible in MonNP even in the presence of arbitrary builtin relations of degree n^o(1), and (*) the presence of a builtin linear order gives MonNP more expressive power than the presence of a builtin successor relation.
Characterizing Linear Size Circuits in Terms of Privacy
, 1996
"... In this paper we prove a perhaps unexpected relationship between the complexity class of the boolean functions that have linear size circuits, and nparty private protocols. ..."
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Cited by 14 (6 self)
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In this paper we prove a perhaps unexpected relationship between the complexity class of the boolean functions that have linear size circuits, and nparty private protocols.
A feebly secure trapdoor function
"... In 1992, A. Hiltgen [1] provided the first constructions of provably (slightly) secure cryptographic primitives, namely feebly oneway functions. These functions are provably harder to invert than to compute, but the complexity (viewed as circuit complexity over circuits with arbitrary binary gates) ..."
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In 1992, A. Hiltgen [1] provided the first constructions of provably (slightly) secure cryptographic primitives, namely feebly oneway functions. These functions are provably harder to invert than to compute, but the complexity (viewed as circuit complexity over circuits with arbitrary binary gates) is amplified by a constant factor only (with the factor approaching 2). In traditional cryptography, oneway functions are the basic primitive of privatekey and digital signature schemes, while publickey cryptosystems are constructed with trapdoor functions. We continue Hiltgen’s work by providing an example of a feebly trapdoor function where the adversary is guaranteed to spend more time than every honest participant by a constant factor of 25/22.