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30
Meridian: A Lightweight Network Location Service without Virtual Coordinates
 In SIGCOMM
, 2005
"... This paper introduces a lightweight, scalable and accurate framework, called Meridian, for performing node selection based on network location. The framework consists of an overlay network structured around multiresolution rings, query routing with direct measurements, and gossip protocols for diss ..."
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Cited by 148 (8 self)
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This paper introduces a lightweight, scalable and accurate framework, called Meridian, for performing node selection based on network location. The framework consists of an overlay network structured around multiresolution rings, query routing with direct measurements, and gossip protocols for dissemination. We show how this framework can be used to address three commonly encountered problems, namely, closest node discovery, central leader election, and locating nodes that satisfy target latency constraints in largescale distributed systems without having to compute absolute coordinates. We show analytically that the framework is scalable with logarithmic convergence when Internet latencies are modeled as a growthconstrained metric, a lowdimensional Euclidean metric, or a metric of low doubling dimension. Large scale simulations, based on latency measurements from 6.25 million nodepairs as well as an implementation deployed on PlanetLab show that the framework is accurate and effective.
Fast construction of nets in lowdimensional metrics and their applications
 SIAM Journal on Computing
, 2006
"... We present a near linear time algorithm for constructing hierarchical nets in finite metric spaces with constant doubling dimension. This datastructure is then applied to obtain improved algorithms for the following problems: approximate nearest neighbor search, wellseparated pair decomposition, s ..."
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Cited by 101 (12 self)
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We present a near linear time algorithm for constructing hierarchical nets in finite metric spaces with constant doubling dimension. This datastructure is then applied to obtain improved algorithms for the following problems: approximate nearest neighbor search, wellseparated pair decomposition, spanner construction, compact representation scheme, doubling measure, and computation of the (approximate) Lipschitz constant of a function. In all cases, the running (preprocessing) time is near linear and the space being used is linear. 1
Distance Estimation and Object Location via Rings of Neighbors
 In 24 th Annual ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing (PODC
, 2005
"... We consider four problems on distance estimation and object location which share the common flavor of capturing global information via informative node labels: lowstretch routing schemes [47], distance labeling [24], searchable small worlds [30], and triangulationbased distance estimation [33]. Fo ..."
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Cited by 66 (5 self)
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We consider four problems on distance estimation and object location which share the common flavor of capturing global information via informative node labels: lowstretch routing schemes [47], distance labeling [24], searchable small worlds [30], and triangulationbased distance estimation [33]. Focusing on metrics of low doubling dimension, we approach these problems with a common technique called rings of neighbors, which refers to a sparse distributed data structure that underlies all our constructions. Apart from improving the previously known bounds for these problems, our contributions include extending Kleinberg’s small world model to doubling metrics, and a short proof of the main result in Chan et al. [14]. Doubling dimension is a notion of dimensionality for general metrics that has recently become a useful algorithmic concept in the theoretical computer science literature. 1
Routing in networks with low doubling dimension
 In 26 th International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS). IEEE Computer
, 2006
"... This paper studies compact routing schemes for networks with low doubling dimension. Two variants are explored, nameindependent routing and labeled routing. The key results obtained for this model are the following. First, we provide the first nameindependent solution. Specifically, we achieve con ..."
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Cited by 64 (8 self)
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This paper studies compact routing schemes for networks with low doubling dimension. Two variants are explored, nameindependent routing and labeled routing. The key results obtained for this model are the following. First, we provide the first nameindependent solution. Specifically, we achieve constant stretch and polylogarithmic storage. Second, we obtain the first truly scalefree solutions, namely, the network’s aspect ratio is not a factor in the stretch. Scalefree schemes are given for three problem models: nameindependent routing on graphs, labeled routing on metric spaces, and labeled routing on graphs. Third, we prove a lower bound requiring linear storage for stretch < 3 schemes. This has the important ramification of separating for the first time the nameindependent problem model from the labeled model for these networks, since compact stretch1+ε labeled schemes are known to be possible.
Towards Network Triangle Inequality Violation Aware Distributed Systems
, 2007
"... Many distributed systems rely on neighbor selection mechanisms to create overlay structures that have good network performance. These neighbor selection mechanisms often assume the triangle inequality holds for Internet delays. However, the reality is that the triangle inequality is violated by Inte ..."
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Cited by 40 (2 self)
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Many distributed systems rely on neighbor selection mechanisms to create overlay structures that have good network performance. These neighbor selection mechanisms often assume the triangle inequality holds for Internet delays. However, the reality is that the triangle inequality is violated by Internet delays. This phenomenon creates a strange environment that confuses neighbor selection mechanisms. This paper investigates the properties of triangle inequality violation (TIV) in Internet delays, the impacts of TIV on representative neighbor selection mechanisms, specifically Vivaldi and Meridian, and avenues to reduce these impacts. We propose a TIV alert mechanism that can inform neighbor selection mechanisms to avoid the pitfalls caused by TIVs and improve their effectiveness.
Metric embeddings with relaxed guarantees
 IN PROCEEDINGS OF THE 46TH IEEE SYMPOSIUM ON FOUNDATIONS OF COMPUTER SCIENCE
, 2005
"... We consider the problem of embedding finite metrics with slack: we seek to produce embeddings with small dimension and distortion while allowing a (small) constant fraction of all distances to be arbitrarily distorted. This definition is motivated by recent research in the networking community, whic ..."
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Cited by 22 (4 self)
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We consider the problem of embedding finite metrics with slack: we seek to produce embeddings with small dimension and distortion while allowing a (small) constant fraction of all distances to be arbitrarily distorted. This definition is motivated by recent research in the networking community, which achieved striking empirical success at embedding Internet latencies with low distortion into lowdimensional Euclidean space, provided that some small slack is allowed. Answering an open question of Kleinberg, Slivkins, and Wexler [29], we show that provable guarantees of this type can in fact be achieved in general: any finite metric can be embedded, with constant slack and constant distortion, into constantdimensional Euclidean space. We then show that there exist stronger embeddings into ℓ1 which exhibit
Optimalstretch nameindependent compact routing in doubling metrics
 In PODC
, 2006
"... We consider the problem of nameindependent routing in doubling metrics. A doubling metric is a metric space whose doubling dimension is a constant, where the doubling dimension of a metric space is the least value α such that any ball of radius r can be covered by at most 2 α balls of radius r/2. G ..."
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Cited by 20 (2 self)
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We consider the problem of nameindependent routing in doubling metrics. A doubling metric is a metric space whose doubling dimension is a constant, where the doubling dimension of a metric space is the least value α such that any ball of radius r can be covered by at most 2 α balls of radius r/2. Given any δ> 0 and a weighted undirected network G whose shortest path metric d is a doubling metric with doubling dimension α, we present a nameindependent routing scheme for G with (9+δ)stretch, (2+ 1 δ)O(α) (log ∆) 2 (log n)bit routing information at each node, and packet headers of size O(log n), where ∆ is the ratio of the largest to the smallest shortest path distance in G. In addition, we prove that for any ǫ ∈ (0, 8), there is a doubling metric network G with n nodes, doubling dimension α ≤ 6 − log ǫ, and ∆ = O(2 1/ǫ n) such that any nameindependent routing scheme on G with routing information at each node of size o(n (ǫ/60)2)bits has stretch larger than 9 − ǫ. Therefore assuming that ∆ is bounded by a polynomial on n, our algorithm basically achieves optimal stretch for nameindependent routing in doubling metrics with packet header size and routing information at each node both bounded by a polylogarithmic function of n.
A Distributed Hash Table
, 2005
"... DHash is a new system that harnesses the storage and network resources of computers distributed across the Internet by providing a widearea storage service, DHash. DHash frees applications from reimplementing mechanisms common to any system that stores data on a collection of machines: it maintain ..."
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Cited by 20 (2 self)
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DHash is a new system that harnesses the storage and network resources of computers distributed across the Internet by providing a widearea storage service, DHash. DHash frees applications from reimplementing mechanisms common to any system that stores data on a collection of machines: it maintains a mapping of objects to servers, replicates data for durability, and balances load across participating servers. Applications access data stored in DHash through a familiar hashtable interface: put stores data in the system under a key; get retrieves the data. DHash has proven useful to a number of application builders and has been used to build a contentdistribution system [34], a Usenet replacement [118], and new Internet naming architectures [133, 132]. These applications demand lowlatency, highthroughput access
Measurementbased analysis, modeling, and synthesis of the Internet delay space
, 2006
"... Understanding the characteristics of the Internet delay space (i.e., the allpairs set of static roundtrip propagation delays among edge networks in the Internet) is important for the design of globalscale distributed systems. For instance, algorithms used in overlay networks are often sensitive t ..."
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Cited by 16 (1 self)
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Understanding the characteristics of the Internet delay space (i.e., the allpairs set of static roundtrip propagation delays among edge networks in the Internet) is important for the design of globalscale distributed systems. For instance, algorithms used in overlay networks are often sensitive to violations of the triangle inequality and to the growth properties within the Internet delay space. Since designers of distributed systems often rely on simulation and emulation to study design alternatives, they need a realistic model of the Internet delay space. Our analysis shows that existing models do not adequately capture important properties of the Internet delay space. In this paper, we analyze measured delays among thousands of Internet edge networks and identify key properties that are important for distributed system design. Furthermore, we derive a simple model of the Internet delay space based on our analytical findings. This model preserves the relevant metrics far better than existing models, allows for a compact representation, and can be used to synthesize delay data for simulations and emulations at a scale where direct measurement and storage are impractical.